Wahdat al-Wajood or Wahdat ul-Wujood is a concept based upon the idea that nothing exists other than Allah, and creation is merely the manifestation of Allah. This implies that the creation is Allah, and Allah does not exist outside the creation.
Hadhrat Imadadullah Mahajir Makki, the spiritual guide of the most prominent Deobandis, explains Wahdat al-Wajood in a booklet by the same name, with an example of a seed and a tree.
He states that the seed is Allah and the creation is the tree with its stem, roots, branches and leaves. Initially, only the seed was present, and the entire huge tree was hidden in the small seed. When the plant grew into a massive tree, the seed disappeared. The seed is now manifest in this huge tree and does not have an existence outside of it.
The Sufis consider the realization of Wahdat al-Wajood to be a matter of great wisdom. According to them, Tawheed (lit. making one) is a complete denial of existence for everything other than Allah, as explained by the Deobandis in â€˜Irshaadul Mulookâ€™ and â€˜Ikhmaalush Shiyaamâ€™,
â€œThe root of Tawheed is the negation of the non-existent and transitory things and the confirmation of the everlasting thing.â€
â€œA concept which posits true existence for any being other than Allah is Shirk in Divine Attribute of Existence (Wajood).â€
The Sufis consider this type of Tawheed to be suitable only for the â€˜Spiritually Eliteâ€™, and claim that only those who have reached the â€˜stageâ€™ due to excessive penance and Dhikr are able to comprehend Wahdat al-Wajood.
2). The Stages of Wahdat al-Wujood
The Sufis in their circles exaggerated greatly upon the concept of fearing Allah, and subjected themselves to constant and excessive mental anxiety. They express their fear in ways that are far from the Sunnah like in the story mentioned in Fazaail-e-Aamaal of a man who never lifted his face towards the sky and when asked the reason, he said, â€œI am ashamed! How can I lift up this sinful face to such a Great Benefactor.â€
The effect of this anxiety was that they would enter a state of ecstasy or fall down unconscious or dead when hearing the Qurâ€™aan, or music or even the singing of birds.
1. â€˜One saint relates:
â€˜I saw Hazrat Shaikh Samnoon once swinging side from side in ecstasy while performing Tawaaf. I took his hand and asked him: â€œBy the truth that you shall stand before Allah one day, I ask you, how did you reach Allah?â€ As soon as he heard the words, â€˜stand before Allahâ€™, he fell down unconsciousâ€¦â€
2. Another incident mentioned in Irshaadul-Mulook states,
â€œHazrat Hafiz (Dhaamin) Sahib was fond of doves. One day when he approached the cage to feed the birds, one of the doves sang such a rapturous rhapsody that Hazrat Hafiz Sahib fell unconscious into an ecstatic swoonâ€
The effects of Qurâ€™aan on those who listen with understanding have been mentioned in the Qurâ€™aan. Listening to the Qurâ€™aan causes the hearts to fear Allah, the faith to increase, the heart to soften and the eyes to shed tears. But falling unconscious or dead, as a result of imposed anxiety is not the true fear that stems from the understanding of the Qurâ€™aan and the Sunnah and such was never reported from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) or his Companions.
Another good example of misunderstanding the proper way to love and fear Allah, and subjecting oneself to extreme anxiety can be seen in the following incident mentioned in Fazaail-e-Aamaal.
It is said that Malik Ibn Deenar met a young man on his way to Hajj, walking on foot, with no provision or water. Malik Ibn Deenar offered him his shirt, but he refused saying: â€œâ€¦It is better to remain naked, than to acquire worldly shirts.â€ Later, when the Hajis (the pilgrims) put on the Ihram, read the Talbiyah, this young man kept silent and said, â€˜I fear that on reciting â€˜Labbaikâ€™, a reply may be heard, â€œLa Labbaik, La Sadaikâ€ (Your cry is not heard and we do not return to you in Pleasure.) The young man justified his acts that were apparently opposed to the Shareeâ€™ah by saying, â€œAnd blame me not for this love for Him, for if thou knowest the thing I see then surely will you never speak.â€ Later, when the pilgrims sacrificed the sheep, this young man asked Allah to accept his life as a sacrifice and then died shortly afterwards. This story also claims that a voice from the Unseen said: â€œThis is Allahâ€™s friend, and Allahâ€™s martyr.â€ Later that night, Malik Ibn Deenar asked the young man in his dream, â€˜What did Allah do to you?â€™ He said: â€˜I have gained a reward like that of the martyrs of the battle of Badr â€“ Nay, even moreâ€¦ They died at the swing of the swords of the infidels, while I died by the sword of Allahâ€™s love.â€
3). Degrading oneself to the status of Dogs and Pigs
After having exaggerated and innovated in the concept of Allahâ€™s love and fear, the Sufis began to compare their existence and stature to that of Allah, and found themselves to be completely insignificant in front of Him. Exaggerating further in the concept of humility and modesty, they felt that they should degrade themselves in order to be truly free from Riya (showing off). Following are some examples of thisâ€¦
1. Moulana Zakariyah says
that among the Akhlaq of the Sufiya is â€˜to regard oneself as the most inferiorâ€¦â€™ This has also been quoted as a saying of Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi by Moulana Zakariyah in Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.255.
2. Moulana Zakariyah says:
â€œHazrat Shah Ishaq Muhajiree Makki advised to Imdadullah Muhajir Makki: â€œRegard yourself to be most inferior in the entire creation.â€
3.Story is mentioned,
â€œA man, who used to fast throughout the year and offer Salaat throughout the night for thirty years. He was one of the regular attendants of the circle of Abu Yazeed al-Bastami (one of three mystic â€˜mastersâ€™). Nevertheless, he was unable to find the kind of knowledge, which Abu Yazeed possessed! So, Abu Yazeed taught him that even if he fasts for three hundred years and offers Salaat throughout the nights of such period he would not be able to find even an ant-weight of such knowledge! When asked about the â€˜cure,â€™ Abu Yazeed told him that he should shave his head and beard, hang a nosebag filled with nuts around his neck, gather some kids in the market around him and tell them, â€˜Everyone who slaps me once, I will give him a nut!â€™
4. Shah Abu Saeed Naumani traveled to Balkh to his Shaikh in order to learn Sufism.
His Shaikh started his training by assigning him to look after the toilets. He was given little food but was not allowed to meet his Shaikh not was any Dhikr prescribed for him. After a considerable period passed, the Shaikh ordered a cleaner to dump a basket of dirt onto Abu Saeed. The cleaner did as he was told. This angered Abu Saeed and he threatened the cleaner, which meant that he was not ready to enter Sufism. After a period of time, the Shaikh again instructed the cleaner to do as before, but this time Abu Saeed got angry but did not say anything. Now too, Abu Saeed was not ready. After a period of time, the Shaikh instructed the cleaner to throw dirt on Abu Saeed again. On this occasion his Nafs was completely docile and submissiveness. He gathered the dirt, which had fallen to ground and strew it onto himself. When the Hazrat Shaikh was informed, he commented: â€œAlhamdulillah! The first stage has been traversed.â€
Taking a step further, the Sufis began to address themselves as dogs, given that dog is generally looked down upon. The Qurâ€™aan says, â€œSo his description is the description of a dog: if you drive him away, he lolls his tongue out, or if you leave him alone, he (still) lolls his tongue out. Such is the description of the people who reject Our Ayah (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.).â€
1. Moulana Muhammad Qasim, the founder of Darul-Uloom Deoband says in a poem, which has been recorded in Fazaail-e-Aamaal,
â€œBecause of the huge amount of sins even the dogs treat my name as an abuse, but I am proud of your name and your relationship (Allahâ€™s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam))... and I desire that my name may be included as a dog of (the streets of) Medinaâ€¦ May I live with the dogs of your Haram and when I die may my corpse be eaten by the vultures of Medina.â€ 
2. Moulana Zakariyah advises a person in a letter that when he goes to the Prophetâ€™s grave he should also say:
â€˜One black Indian dog (Moulana Zakariyah Kandhalvi) also sends his salaams.â€™
3. Moulana Ilyas signs his letters addressing himself as
THE DOG OF PROPHETâ€™s CITY 
4). Denying the Existence of all the creation
The Sufis eventually denied their own existence and the existence of all the creation. They claimed that only Allah exists and nothing else. Having reached the pinnacle of misguidance, the Sufis took an extremely dangerous and opposite turn, whereby they explained that the existence of the creation does not negate Tawheed al-Wujoodi, because Allah is manifest in his creation. The creation is part of Allah Himself, and Allah does not exist outside his creation, as explained by Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki with the example of the seed and tree.
Now the people, who did not consider themselves worthy of being called humans and referred to themselves as dogs, now consider themselves to be Allah and Allah to be in the detestable creatures like dogs and pigs! And Sufis like Mansoor al-Hallaj proclaimed â€˜Anal-Haqqâ€™ (I am the Truth, i.e. Allah) and Abu Yazeed al-Bastami said: â€˜Subhani ma-Aadham-shaaaniâ€™ (far removed am I from all imperfections, how great is my state) (And these descriptions are only for Allah).
From the above, we see the various stages of Wahdat al-Wajood in light of examples and quotes from the books of the Deobandis. What started with self-imposed anxiety led to degrading oneâ€™s existence to the level of dogs and pigs. Further exaggeration led to the complete denial of the existence of the creation, until finally it was claimed that all that exists is nothing but the Creator.
This evil concept is a result of the Sufiâ€™s gross misunderstanding and distance from the clear teachings of the Qurâ€™aan and the Sunnah and arrogance in following oneâ€™s own whims and desires.
The most overt and clear refutation of Wahdat al-Wajood is the unmistakable distinction between the Creator and the created in the Qurâ€™aan and the Sunnah. â€œAllah created all things and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian) of all things.â€ We are the creation and Allah is our Creator. He is the One in Whose Hands our affairs lie, and He is the One, Who truly deserves to be worshiped. His Attributes cannot be compared to ours and His Self is beyond our comprehension and imagination.
5). Wahdat ash-Shuhood
Backing down from the extreme concept of Wahdat al-Wajood was the later innovated concept of Wahdat as-Shuhood. The Majlis ul-Ulema, the Deobandi lobby of South Africa, describes the believer in Wahdat ash-Shuhood as, a high ranking Wali whose soul dwells in a lofty state of Divine Presence and Perception.
â€œTo the Sufiya, the true Tawheed means the abandonment of every Tawheed during the state of Tawheed because any focus of the attention of any being other than Allah is within the scope of Tashbeeh (comparison).â€
This concept implies that the creation exists, but due to the Sufiâ€™s complete concentration upon Allah, the creation becomes oblivious to him. This concept just serves one purpose and that is to make excuses for the previous Sufis and their open statements of Kufr. Otherwise, this concept is too as baseless as Wahdat al-Wajood. The best and the most perfect worshiper of Allah â€“ Allahâ€™s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) - did not experience Wahdat al-Wajood or Wahdat ash-Shuhood.
What the Sufis experience in the form of hallucinations or imaginations is due to the excessive physical abuse of their bodies and Shaytaanâ€™s taking advantage of their venerable state of mind weakened due to starvation, anxiety and wandering in the wilderness.
6). The Concept of Allah being everywhere
A closely related concept that has been spread among the masses is that Allah is everywhere. The people are expected to believe in this concept without questioning or pondering upon its implications. The saying, â€œAllah is everywhere by His Self (Dhaat)â€ opposes the guidance given in the Qurâ€™aan and the Sunnah. It is mentioned at seven places in the Qurâ€™aan that Allah (who calls Himself al-Alaa (the Most High), is above His Arsh (Throne). He is not within or among His creation in His Essence. However, He is all-Seer (as-Sameeh) and all-Hearer (al-Baseer), and Knows everything that the hearts conceal.
The concept of â€˜Allah being everywhereâ€™ was neither the belief of the pious predecessors (as-Salaf as-Salih) nor the pious Imams (scholars) of Islam who came after them. For instance is the belief of Imam Abu Haneefah recorded by Ibn Abil-Ezz al-Hanafee in the explanation of â€œAl-Aqeedah at-Tahawiyah (p. 288)â€
Muteeâ€™ al-Balakhee reported that he asked Abu Haneefahâ€™s opinion about a person who says that he does not know whether his Lord is in the Heavens or on earth? Imam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullah) replied: â€œHe has disbelieved, for Allah says: â€˜The Most Merciful is above the Throneâ€™ and His Throne is above His Seven Heavens.â€ Al-Balakhee then asked: â€œWhat if he said that Allah is above the Throne, but he does not know whether the Throne is in the Heavens or on earth? Imam Abu Haneefah replied: â€œHe has disbelieved because he has denied that Allah is above the Heavens and whoever denies that He is above the Heavens, has disbelieved.â€
This is an example of how a large number of Hanafee scholars adopted an important matter of Aqeedah from deviant Sufi beliefs. Imam Abu Haneefah used the word â€œKufrâ€ or â€˜disbeliefâ€™ for him, who denies that Allah is above His Arsh or above the Heavens, which show the great importance, which he gave to the matters of Aqeedah. This is an example of how those who affiliate themselves with the Hanafee Madhhab, only follow the Hanafee Fiqh, but not the Aqeedah (beliefs) of Imam Abu Haneefah.
Likewise, various beliefs of Imam Abu Haneefah mentioned by Ibn Abil-Ezz al-Hanafee (in the explanation of â€œAl-Aqeedah at-Tahawiyahâ€) are contradictory with the ideas of the present day Deobandi scholars.
7). Deobandi Scholars unanimously support the theory of Wahdat al-Wajood
Following are some quotes from the books of Deobandisâ€¦
1. Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi says about his Pir (spiritual guide),
â€œHaji Sahib (Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) was greatly over-powered by Tawheedâ€¦ As for Wahdat al-Wajood, it seemed as if he was an eyewitness to it. Once, he was listening to Soorah Ta-Ha, a condition overcame him when he heard the verse: â€œAllah! There is no God but He, to Him belong the Best Names (al-Asma al-Husna).â€ He said in the explanation (Tafseer) of this verse: â€œA question may be raised from the first part of this verse that since there is none other than Allah, (then) what are these Hawatith? The answer is thus, (as in the next part of the verse), â€˜Lahul Asma al-Husnaâ€™ meaning that all are the Madhahar (manifestations) of Him (Allah). Someone has said (in a poem): â€œIn the garden, I saw every flower. Neither does it have Your color nor Your fragrance.â€ Haji Sahib (Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) said: â€œThis poet is a Dhahiri (only aware of the outward matters). If he were an Aarif, he would have said: â€œIn the garden I saw every flower. They all have Your color, they all have Your fragrance.â€ However, expressing such sayings or relating them is not for everyone.â€
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Imdadullah Muhajir Makki has also written a book on Wahdat al-Wajood.
2. Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi said,
â€œHe (Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) used to say that the human being is outwardly a slave and inwardly (Batini) the Haqq (Allah).â€ Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi further elaborates, â€œThe batin is the reality which is manifest in the human, and the batin should not be considered a part of the humanâ€¦â€
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3. Once, Moulvi Muhammad Ahsan, a resident of Mecca, expressed his skepticism on the issue of Wahdat al-Wajood to Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi. He (Moulvi Ahsan) remarked that this issue seems to oppose Eemaan. Ashraf Ali Thanvi replied:
â€œSomeday listen to my lecture on this issue, then you will yourself say that Eemaan cannot be complete without the belief in this (i.e. Wahdat al-Wajood).â€ Then, Ashraf Ali Thanvi gave a speech of two hours on a Friday morning. After the lecture, Moulvi Ahsan could not help saying: â€œBelief in this (Wahdat al-Wajood) is so crucial that without it Eemaan cannot be understood.â€ The biographer of Ashraf Ali Thanvi comments, â€œAshraf Ali Thanvi declared the belief of Wahdat al-Wajood as the completion of Eemaan. But Muhammad Ahsan went much further by saying that Eemaan rests on the belief in Wahdat al-Wajood.â€
4. Ashraf Ali Thanvi says:
â€œYou are amazed at people who claim Prophet-hoodâ€¦ People have claimed Lordship. However, nobody must think that Hussain bin Mansoor (al-Hallaj) in his saying, â€˜Aanal-Haqqâ€™ [I am the Haqq (Truth meaning Allah)] claimed Lordship (i.e. claimed to be God). Because upon him was a condition, otherwise he also believed in Abdiyaah (the state of being a worshiper) and therefore he offered Salaah. Someone asked him (al-Hallaj): â€œSince you are Allah, to whom do you prostrate?â€ He (al-Hallaj) answered: â€œI have two states, one outward and the other inward. My outward self prostrates to my inward self.â€
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5. Moulana Zakariyah says:
â€œHazrat Shaikhul Islam, Moulana Madani said that the same kaifiyat (spiritual state) which constrained Mansoor al-Hallaj to proclaim: â€œAnal Haqq (I am the Truth i.e. Allah) prevailed for six months on Hazrat Mainji (Nur Muhammad) [who was the Pir (Shaikh) of Imdadullah Muhajir Makki].â€
6. In Shamaaim-e-Imdadiyah, a story of a Fakir (hermit) who believed in Wahdat al-Wajood is mentioned. After approving the Aqeedah of the Faqir, the author says:
â€œIt is Shirk to differentiate between the worshiper (Aabid) and the Worshiped (Ma'bud)â€¦ To summarize, based upon the explanations of our predecessors, we understand that this position is Haqq (true) and there is no doubt about it. However, its reality is experienced only when a disciple becomes distant from his own self by striving hard and ignoring every danger. Because when a person becomes unaware of his self, he is unaware of everything. Nothing remains in his thoughts or his sight except Allah. Therefore, all concentration of the disciple is upon Allah. When nothing distracts his attention and he meditates his mind on Allah; then when he opens his eyes, he sees nothing but Allah. (At this stage) the Dhikr of Hu Hu (He He) turns to Ana Ana (Me Me). This stage is called Fanah der Fanah â€¦ (Similarly) from the special Ummah, Ba Yazid Bastami said: â€˜Subhaani maa Aadhaam-Shaani (Glory be to me, Far removed am I from all imperfections, how great is my state) and Mansoor Hallaj said: â€˜Anal-Haqqâ€™ (I am the Truth).
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7. From Shamaaim-e-Imdadiyah,
â€œIn the stage of Uboodiyyah (The state of being Abd or worshiper), there are three meanings of the Kalimah â€“ â€œLaa ilaha illa Allahâ€ Laa Maâ€™bood (Nobody is worthy of worship) Laa Matloob (Nobody is desired) and Laa Mowjood (None exists), the last being the loftiest stage.â€
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8. In the book Irshaadul-Mulook, a letter written by Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi to his Pir, Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, has been mentioned in which Rasheed Ahmad Gungohi writes at the end,
â€œIn reality I am nothing. It is only Your Shadow â€“ only Your existence (i.e. Allahâ€™s existence). What am I? I am nothing. Only He is. You and me are Shirk upon Shirk.â€
Comment: In this letter, Rasheed Ahmad Gungohi informs his Pir, Imdadullah Muhajir Makki of his well being, and then says that in reality neither he, nor his Pir exists. And to differentiate between the Creator and the created is Shirk. Creation is only the Shadow of Allah. So, then who is writing the letter to whom? Sufism is full of self-contradictions!!
Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) mentions a story in relation to the theory of Wahdat al-Wajood in his book, â€˜Al-Furqaan bayna Awliya ar-Rahmaa wa-Awliya ash-Shaytaanâ€™ on page. 101, â€œThe book, â€˜Essence of Wisdomâ€™ of Ibn Arabee was read to at-Talmasani and said: â€œThis book of yours goes against the Qurâ€™aan.â€ To which he replied: â€˜The whole Qurâ€™aan is associationism (Shirk), Tawheed is only found in our writings.â€ Then it was said to him: â€œIf all existence is only one, why is a wife Halaal to a man while his sister is Haraam?â€ He said: â€œBoth of them to us are Halaal, but he who is veiled says, Haraam! And so we say Haraam for you.â€™ The Shaikh further mentions, â€˜This person, aside from his blatant belief (Kufr), has also contradicted himself! If all existence is one, who is the veiled one and who is the one who veils? Thus, one of their Shaikhs said to one of his followers: â€˜Whoever tells you that there is anything other than Allah in the Universe has lied.â€™ The student then asked him: â€˜Who then is the one who lied?â€™ They said to another student: â€˜These are nothing but appearances.â€™ He said to them: â€˜Are these appearances other than that, you have introduced relativity (no unity of existence!) and if they are the same, then it is as I said.â€™
8). Wahdat al-Wajood and Moksha
If one analyzes the Hindu concept of the relationship between God and mankind, he would be startled at the similarity between the Pagan concept of Moksha and the Aqeedah of Wahdat al-Wajood of the Deobandis and Sufis. Following are some excerpts from the book, â€œThe Religion of the Hindus.â€
â€œThe Hindu scriptures teach that the ultimate end of human life is liberation (Moksha) from that finite human consciousness, which makes humans see everything as separate from one another and not as part of a whole. When a higher consciousness dawns upon us, we see the individual parts of the Universe as deriving their true significance from the central unity of spirit. This is the beginning of the experience, which the Hindu scriptures call, â€˜the second birthâ€™, or â€˜the opening of the third eyeâ€™ or â€˜the eye of wisdomâ€™. The end of this experience is more or less permanent establishment of the inspiring consciousness, which is the ultimate goal of man.
Our political and social institutions, our arts and sciences, our creeds, and rituals are not ends in themselves, but only means to this goal of â€˜liberationâ€™. When this goal is reached, man is lifted above his mortal plane and becomes one with that ocean of pure Being, Consciousness and Bliss called â€˜Brahmanâ€™ in Hindu scriptures.
The ultimate aim of man is liberation. Liberation is not only from the bondage of the flesh but also from the limitations of a finite being. In other words, â€˜Mokshaâ€™ means becoming a perfect spirit like the Supreme Spirit.â€
 Irshaadul-Mulook (Eng. Trans.) p.152.
 Ikhmaalush-Shiyaam (Eng. Trans.) p.219.
 Fazaail-e-Aamaal (Hindi Trans.) Virtues of Hajj, p.256. story no.3 (First Edition 1984 - Published by Idara Ishaat-e-Diniyaat).
Fazaail-e-Aamaal (Eng. Trans.), Virtues of Hajj, Conclusion, p.233, story no. 3, (New Edition 1982, Published by Dini Book Depot - Delhi).
 Virtues of Charity and Hajj story no: 40, p.270 (New Edition 1982, Published by Dini Book Depot).
 Irshaadul-Mulook (Eng. Trans.), p.22.
 See Soorah al-Anfaal (8): 2, Soorah az-Zumar (39): 23, and Soorah Maryam (19): 58.
 For more information refer to, â€œThe Dispraise of al-Hawaaâ€ by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh, p.74-75.
 See Fazaail-e-Aamaal (Eng. Trans.) Virtues of Charity and Hajj story no: 4, p.234 (New Edition 1982, Published by Dini Book Depot - Delhi).
 Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.220.
 Qut al-Quloob vol.2, p.70.
 Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.192.
 Soorah a-Aâ€™raf (7): 176.
 Fazaail-e-Aamaal (Eng. Trans.) The Virtues of Darood, p.164, no. 46. (Edn. 1985 â€“ Published by Dini Book Depot, Delhi).
 Savaneh Muhammad Yousuf, p.132. (India â€“ Maktabaa Taalifaat Ashrafeeyah) 1304 H.
 Makatib Hazrat Moulana Shah Mohammad Ilyas) compiled by Moulana Sayed Abul-Hassan Ali Nadvi â€“ Idara Ishaat al-Diniyat, Nizamuddin, New Delhi) p.54.
 See Al-Kashf anil-Haqeeqat as-Soofiyyah p.162.
 Soorah az-Zumar (39): 62.
 Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.192.
 Irshaadul-Mulook (Eng. Trans.) pp. 155.
 This has been mentioned at seven places in the Qurâ€™aan. Soorah al-Arâ€™af (7): 54, Soorah Yunus (10): 3, Soorah ar-Rad (13): 2, Soorah Ta-Ha (20): 5, Soorah al-Furqan (25): 59, Soorah as-Sajdah (32): 4 and Soorah al-Hadid (57): 4.
 Soorah Taahaa (20): 5.
 Hawatith : Things that do not exist originally, but come into existence later.
 Madhahar : The point of manifestation. Here it means (according to the explanation of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) that the creatures are nothing but the visible manifestations of Allaah. Just like Allaahâ€™s Asmaa al-Husnaa (Beautiful Names) are not other than Him, similarly these Hawadith are not other than Him.
 Aarif: a Soofi who has reached the stage of Maâ€™rifah, i.e. has gained knowledge through mystical means.
 Malfoodhat Hakeem al-Ummat (a biography of Ashraf Ali Thanvi by Muhammed Iqbal Quraishi) vol.1, p.244
 Imdadul-Mushtaq ila Ashraful-akhlaq (Urdu) saying no.74, p.62.
 Maqtoobat wa-Malfoozaat Ashrafeeyah (Writings and Sayings of Ashraf Ali Thanvi), a biography by one of Thanviâ€™s Khaleefahs, Moulana Muhammed Shareef p.185-186.
 Malfoozat Hakim al-Ummat (a biography of Ashraf Ali Thanvi by Muhammad Iqbal Qurayshi), vol.1, p.251. The same belief is found in the poem of Ibn al-Faridh, which he entitled, Nudhum As-Suluuk.
 Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.213.
 Abu Yazld bin Tayfur bin â€˜Isa al-Bistami, one of the founders of Soofism hailed from Bistam, a town in the Iranian province of Khamis.
 Shamaaim-e-Imdaadiyah, p.35 and 36. Sai Baba used to make similar statements such as, â€œI am Parwardigar (Persian for God)â€ [The Life and Teachings of Sai Baba, p.4.]
 Soorah al-Hajj (22): 6.
 Shamaaim-e-Imdaadiyah, p.43.
 Irshaadul-Mulook, (Eng. Trans.) p.11.