Islamic Refutation Of The Crucifixion Of Christ Jesus Part 2
Posted 28 July 2012 - 11:51 PM
1-Historians, Only two historians in first& early second century referred to the crucifixion of Jesus(PBUH)& both were not eye witnesses!, they were writing many decades after the event& from a hearsay!
The first is the Jew (Flavius Josephus, AD 37-c.AD 100) in his work the Antiquities of the Jews in 93 C.E in one passage which is considered by many scholars a Christian forgery:
Historicity of Jesus, Earliest known sources/ Josephus (Testimonium Flavianum), New World Encyclopedia "Louis H. Feldman counts 87 articles published during the period of 1937–1980,"the overwhelming majority of which question its authenticity in whole or in part."
The second is the Roman (Cornelius Tacitus, c.AD 55-c.AD 117) in his Annals written in 116 C.E, the value of his report as an independent source to confirm the gospel account of the crucifixion is greatly disputed by many scholars because Tacitus is not an eye witness, he is thought to simply repeat what those gentile Christians already believed in the year 116 C.E with whom he had contact!, so even if it is authentic it can't be used to prove the historicity of the crucifixion:
Historicity of Jesus, New World Encyclopedia "the authenticity of the passage is rarely doubted, but there is disagreement about what it proves"
2-The Babylonian Talmud indeed mention the death of Jesus but clearly contradict the crucifixion because it says Jesus (PBUH) was put to death by stoning!
EarlyChristanWritings.com, Babylonian Talmud/ Baraitha Bab. Sanhedrin 43a "On the eve of Passover Yeshu was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald went forth and cried, "He is going forth to be stoned because he has practiced sorcery and enticed israel to apostasy. Anyone who can say anything in his favour, let him come forward and plead on his behalf." But since nothing was brought forward in his favour he was hanged on the eve of the Passover!"
3- The cross was not a central believe to the original followers of Jesus (PBUH) which support the Islamic believe that Jesus (PBUH) was not crucified:
a) The original followers of Jesus (PBUH) the Jewish Christians were at odd with Pauline Christianity& its central believe the cross, they emphasized the Mosaic Law as the proper way to salvation! These Jewish Christians also claim that they are the true followers of the disciples of Jesus (PBUH) and a lot of historians think that their claim is true!
• The first three centuries of Christianity, as seen by religious liberals and historians, religioustolerance.org "Some theologians note that members of the Jewish Christian movement had a close and lengthy association with Jesus, whereas Paul never met Jesus. In cases of conflict between the teachings of Paul and the beliefs of James' group, the latter might more accurately reflect Jesus' original teachings"
• Jewish Christians, New World Encyclopedia "Paul's innovations in his mission field—notably the doctrine of salvation by faith and the sufficiency of Christ's redemption by his death on the cross—led to tensions with some of the more conservative Jewish-Christians, so-called "Judaizers," who persuaded Gentile converts to also take up the full practice of Judaism."
• Ebionites, New Catholic Encyclopedia "A Jewish Christian sect that flourished between the first and the fourth century."
• Ebionites, New World Encyclopedia "the Ebionites saw Jesus as a mortal human being, who by being a holy man, was chosen by God to be the prophet of the "Kingdom of Heaven. The Ebionites insisted on following Jewish dietary and religious laws, and rejected the writings of Paul of Tarsus. Thus, Ebionites were in theological conflict with the emerging dominant streams of Christianity that opened up to the Gentiles"
• Ebionites, Catholic Encyclopedia "they regarded St. Paul as an apostate"
b) The Gospel Q which is not in the canonical gospels& widely believed to be an early source for the canonical gospels Matthew& Luke made many biblical scholars to believe that the cross& resurrection is not the real mission of Jesus (PBUH):
Saying Gospel Q Preface, Editorial Board of the International Q Project "The Sayings Gospel Q is an archaic collection of sayings ascribed to Jesus, even older than the Gospels in the New Testament. In fact, it is the oldest Gospel of Christianity. Yet it is not in the New Testament itself. Rather, it was known to, and used by, the Evangelists of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, and then lost from sight. After all, Q is the Gospel of Jewish Christianity, which continued in Galilee to proclaim Jesus sayings, but the New Testament is the book preserving the ancient sources of Gentile Christianity, the oldest being the letters of Paul, for whom Jesus cross and resurrection, not his sayings, were central to the Christian message."
Contemporary Historical documents and sources to the alleged crucifixion of Jesus (PBUH) outside the New Testament are either not giving enough support because they are few reports not from eye witnesses and doubtful or they are actually contradictory or against the event of crucifixion!
By Sereihan Alshammari