There is evidence of Arab Muslim traders entering Indonesia as early as the 8th century. Indonesia's historical inhabitants were animists, Hindus and Buddhists. However, it was not until the end of the 13th century that the spread of Islam began.
The spread, although at first introduced through Arab Muslim traders, continued to saturate through the Indonesian people as local rulers and royalty began to adopt it, subsequently their subjects would mirror their conversion. The spread of Islam continued as Muslim traders married the local women, with some of the wealthier traders marrying into the families of the ruling elite.
In general, traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were the first to adopt the new religion. By the end of the thirteenth century, Islam had been established in Northern Sumatra; by the fourteenth in northeast Malaya, Brunei, the southwestern Philippines and among some courts of coastal East and Central Java; and the fifteenth in Malacca and other areas of the Malay Peninsula. Dominant kingdoms included samudra pasai in northern Sumatra, demak sultanate and mataram in central java, and the sultanates of ternate and tidore in the maluku islands to the east.
Through assimilation related to trade, royal conversion, and conquest, Islam had supplanted Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of java and sumatara by the end of the 16th century. The eastern islands remained largely animist until adopting Islam and christianity in the 17th and 18th centuries, whereas bali still retains a Hindu majority. During this process "cultural influences from the Hindu-Buddhist era were mostly tolerated or incorporated into Islamic rituals".
Despite being one of the most significant developments in Indonesian history, historical evidence is fragmentary and generally uninformative such that understandings of the coming of Islam to Indonesia are limited; there is considerable debate amongst scholars about what conclusions can be drawn about the conversion of Indonesian peoples.The primary evidence, at least of the earlier stages of the process, are gravestones and a few travellers' accounts, but these can only show that indigenous Muslims were in a certain place at a certain time. This evidence cannot explain more complicated matters such as how lifestyles were affected by the new religion or how deeply it affected societies. It cannot be assumed, for example, that because a ruler was known to be a Muslim, that the process of Islamisation of that area was complete; rather the process was, and remains to this day, a continuous process in Indonesia. Although it is known that the spread of Islam began in the west of the archipelago, the fragmentary evidence does not suggest a rolling wave of conversion through adjacent areas; rather, it suggests the process was complex and slow.
By the late fifteenth century, the majapahit empire in Java had begun its decline. This last hindu kingdom in Java fell under the rising power of the Islamized sultanate of demak n the 1520s; in 1527, the Muslim ruler renamed newly conquered sudan kelapa as Jayakarta meaning "precious victory" which was eventually contracted to jakarta. Islam in Java then began to spread formally, building on the spiritual influences of the wali songo (or Nine Saints).
Muslims constitute a majority in most regions of Java, Sumatra, West Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, coastal areas of Kalimantan and North Maluku. Muslims form distinct minorities in Papua, Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, parts of North Sumatra, most inland areas of Kalimantan, and North Sulawesi. Together, these non-Muslim areas originally constituted more than one third of Indonesia prior to the massive Transmigration Efforts sponsored by the Suharto government and recent spontaneous internal migration.
Internal migration has altered the demographic makeup of the country over the past three decades. It has increased the percentage of Muslims in formerly predominantly Christian eastern parts of the country. By the early 1990s, Christians became a minority for the first time in some areas of the Maliku Islands While government-sponsored transmigration from heavily populated Java and Madura to less populated areas contributed to the increase in the Muslim population in the resettlement areas, no evidence suggests that the Government intended to create a Muslim majority in Christian areas, and most Muslim migration seemed spontaneous. Regardless of its intent, the economic and political consequences of the transmigration policy contributed to religious conflicts in Maluku , Central Sulawesi and to a lesser extent in Papua
Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), the largest "traditionalist" organisation, focuses on many of the activities such as social, religious and education and indirectly operates a majority of the country's Islamic boarding schools. Claiming approximately 40 million followers, NU is the country's largest organisation and perhaps the world's largest Islamic group.Founded in 1926, NU has a nationwide presence but remains strongest in rural Java. It follow ideology of Ahle Sunnah wal Jamaah with Sufism of Imam Ghazali and Junaid Bagdadi. Many NU followers give great deference to the views, interpretations, and instructions of senior NU religious figures, alternately called "Kyais" or "Ulama." The organisation has long advocated religious moderation and communal harmony.
The leading national "modernist" social organisation,Muhammadiyah, has branches throughout the country and approximately 29 million followers. Founded in 1912, Muhammadiyah runs Masjids, prayer houses, clinics, orphanages, poorhouses, schools, public libraries, and universities. On 9 February, Muhammadiyah's central board and provincial chiefs agreed to endorse the presidential campaign of a former Muhammadiyah chairman. This marked the organisation's first formal foray into partisan politics and generated controversy among members.
A number of smaller Islamic organisations cover a broad range of Islamic doctrinal orientations. At one end of the ideological spectrum lies the controversial Islam Liberal Nertwork (JIL) , which aims to promote a pluralistic and more liberal interpretation of Islamic thinking.
Equally controversial are groups at the other end of this spectrum such as Hizbu Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), which advocates a pan-Islamic caliphate, the Indoesia Mujahedeen Council (MMI), which advocates implementation of Shari'a as a precursor to an Islamic state, and the sometimes violent Front Pembela Islam (FPI). Countless other small organisations fall between these poles. Another small organisation, the Indonesia Islamic Propagation Institute (IIPI) continues to grow.
Separate from the country's traditional Muslim population, a small minority of persons subscribe to the controversial Ahmadiyaa sect. However, this sect maintains 242 branches throughout the country. In 1980 the Indonesia Council Of Ulamas (MUI) issued a "fatwa" (a legal opinion or decree issued by an Islamic religious leader) declaring that the Ahmadis are not a legitimate form of Islam.
Around 62% of the world's Muslims live in the Asia-Pacific region (from Turkey to Indonesia), with over 1 billion adherents.
The largest Muslim population in a country is in Indonesia, a nation home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims.
Country/Region Muslims Muslim percentage (%) of total population Percentage (%) of World Muslim population https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World 1,703,146,000 23.4 100.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Asia 507,000,000 31.0 32.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_the_Middle_East-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Africa 321,869,000 91.2 19.9 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Southeast_Asia 257,000,000 13.0 15.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Africa 242,544,000 29.6 15.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Indonesia 204,847,000 87.2 12.7
Indonesia 204,847,000 Muslims 87,2% of Total Population amd 12,7% Of World Muslim Population
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