The judgment of the Shariâ€˜ah regarding someone who curses or disparages the Prophet. QADI â€˜IYAD IBN MUSA AL-YAHSUBI, one of the greatest of the Fuqaha of the School of the â€˜Amal of the Ahl al-Madinah, which has been called the â€˜Umm al-Madhahib (and which was given precedence in its judgments over all the Madhhabs by Ibn Taymiyya in a renowned book), DECLARED:
â€œKnow that all who curse Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or blame him or attribute imperfection to him in his person, his lineage, his deen or any of his qualities, or alludes to that or its like by any means whatsoever, whether in the form of a curse or contempt or belittling him or detracting from him or finding fault with him or maligning him, the judgement regarding such a person is the same as the judgement against anyone who curses him. He is killed as we shall make clear. This judgement extends to anything which amounts to a curse or disparagement. We have no hesitation concerning this matter, be it a clear statement or allusion.
The same applies to anyone who curses him, invokes against him, desires to harm him, ascribes to him what does not befit his position or jokes about his mighty affair with foolish talk, satire, disliked words or lies, or reviles him because of any affliction or trial which happened to him or disparages him, because of any of the permissible and well-known human events which happened to him. All of this is the consensus of the â€˜ulama' and the imams of fatwa from the time of the Companions until today.
Abu Bakr ibn al-Mundhir said that the bulk of the people of knowledge agree that whoever curses the Prophet is killed. These include Malik ibn Anas, al-Layth, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Ishaq ibn Rahawayh, and it is the position of the Shafiâ€˜i school. Qadi Abu'l-Fadl said that it is based on the statement of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. His repentance is not accepted. Something similar was stated by Abu Hanifa and his people, ath-Thawri and the people of Kufa and al-Awzaâ€˜i about the Muslims.â€ [...]
â€œIbn al-Qasim said in the â€˜Utbiyya, â€˜Anyone who curses him, reviles him, finds fault with him or disparages him is killed.â€™â€
â€œThe fuqaha' of Andalusia gave a Fatwa that Ibn Hatim, the scholar of Toledo, be killed and crucified because there was testimony that he made light of what is due to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and claimed that his zuhd was not intentional, and similar thingsâ€
â€œThe fuqahaâ€™ of the Qayrawan (the great Masjid and early Islamic university near Tunis) and the companions of Sahnun gave a Fatwa for the killing of Ibrahim al-Ghazari, a poet and master of many sciences. He was one of those who attended the assembly of Qadi Abu'l-â€˜Abbas ibn Talib for debate. He was accused of objectionable things like mocking Allah, His Prophets and our Prophet. Qadi Yahya ibn â€˜Umar and other fuqahaâ€™ summoned him and commanded that he be killed and crucified upside down. One of the historians related that when the post to which he was tied was lifted up, the body turned around away from qibla. It was a sign to all and the people made Takbir. Then a dog came and licked his blood.â€
â€œHabib ibn Rabiâ€˜ al-Qarawi said that the school of Malik and his companions (that is, the School of Madinah) is that anyone who says anything insulting about the Prophet is killed without being asked to repent.â€
â€œWe have already mentioned the consensus. As for the traditions, al-Husayn ibn â€˜Ali related from his father that the Messenger of Allah said in respect of this matter, â€˜Whoever curses a Prophet, kill him. Whoever curses my Companions, beat him.â€™ This is found in at-Tabarani and ad-Daraqutni.â€
â€œIn a sound hadith the Prophet commanded that Kaâ€˜b ibn al-Ashraf be killed. He asked, â€˜Who will deal with Kaâ€˜b ibn al-Ashraf? He has harmed Allah and His Messenger.â€™ He sent someone to assassinate him without calling him to Islam, as distinct from other mushriks. The cause of that lay in his causing harm to the Prophet. That indicates that the Prophet had him killed for something other than Shirk. It was for causing harm.â€
â€œIn another hadith about a man who used to insult the Prophet, the Prophet said, â€˜Who will save me from my enemy?â€™ Khalid said, â€˜I will,â€™ so the Prophet sent him out and he killed him.â€