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Absolute truth

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Posts posted by Absolute truth


  1. Ayah 21:
     

    Ayah 21:
    فَتَنَادَوْا مُصْبِحِينَ
    Fa taNaadaw muSbiheen..
    And they called one another out loud in the morning,
    Then we see the next scene of the brothers waking up in the morning and not yet aware of what has happened to their garden:
    Fa taNaadaw muSbiheen..

    TaNaadaw – Naada – Nidaa – to call out Loud.
    TaNaadaw = when people call out loud to each other.
    So you can imagine the brothers waking up in the morning, saying to each other out loud; ‘Lets go to harvest!’
    Ayah 22:
     

    Ayah 22:
    أَنِ اغْدُوا عَلَى? حَرْثِكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَارِمِينَ

    Ani-ghdoo ‘alaa harthikum in kuntum Saarimeen
    [Saying], “Go early to cut your crop if you want to cut the fruit.”
    Ghadaa – al ghadwa – to go somewhere in the Morning.
    Harth - when you literally cut the harvest.

    In kuntum saarimeen – if you actually want to cut your harvest down.

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    Ayah 23:
     
    Ayah 23:
    فَانطَلَقُوا وَهُمْ يَتَخَافَتُونَ

    fanTalaqoo wa hum yata-khaafatoon
    So they set out, while lowering their voices,
    So they depart,

    Yatakhaafatoon – khafata – to keep your voice really light.
    Takhaafut – when people talk to each other quietly in a light voice in a Public place.
    Similar word:
    Najwa / muNaajaat: when people talk secretly and quietly in a Private place.
    So they are going to the garden and talking amongst themselves in their intent on what they’re doing.
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    Ayah 24:
     
    Ayah 24:
    أَن لَّا يَدْخُلَنَّهَا الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكُم مِّسْكِينٌ

    an-Laa yad-khulannaha-l yawma alaykum-miskeen
    “So absolutely no poor person (miskeen – beggar) enters upon you.”
    Why are they talking like this (i.e. In quiet whisper)?
    “So absolutely no poor person (miskeen – beggar) enters upon you.”
    They absolutely don’t want to go through such an experience.
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    Ayah 25:
     
    Ayah 25:
    وَغَدَوْا عَلَى? حَرْدٍ قَادِرِينَ

    wa ghadaww ‘alaa hardin Qaadireen
    So they went in the morning – upon [a state of] aggression/energy fueled by hatred - thinking they have everything in control.
    Wa ghadaw – so they did (in morning)
    ‘ala Hardin (upon Hardin )
    Hardin = when you spring into action and aggressively pursue something, and this energy is fuelled by hatred.

    So these people were angry because they believed it was their garden, and that because they work on the garden – then no-one but we should benefit from it.
    They are sneaking aggressively at night to go to their own garden to slice off its fruits for harvest.
    Their anger and pride makes them look insane, simply because they do not have to do this – since it is their garden. So why do they require such an attitude? They don’t.
    We see their feelings and motives and energy through this main word – “Hardin”.
    Qaadireen (ism faa’il) – they thought they had everything in Control [Qudrah].
    Normal sentence structure would be;
    Wa ghadaw qaadireena ‘alaa hardin = they set off in the morning thinking they are in full control, while in a state of Hard (aggression/energy/hatred etc.)
    However, by placing Hardin earlier in the sentence structure – it emphasises that it was the only reason they did this – their greedy motives and their intense anger against the poor who benefit from the wealth of the garden.
    When your motivated and angry, you’re hyped up in your intent to fulfill your mission…
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    Ayah 26:
     

    Ayah 26:
    فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهَا قَالُوا إِنَّا لَضَالُّونَ
    fa lam-maa Ra’awhaa Qaaloo in-naa laDaal-loon

    “But when they suddenly saw it; they said – We are surely lost!”
    We’re definitely Lost (Daaloon)..

    This could imply:
    1- they think
    they’ve gone to the wrong place.
    2 – they soon realise that they have come to the right place, but they were lost/misguided in their ideas (their ideas of being greedy and unjust to the poor).
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    Ayah 27:
     

    Ayah 27:
    بَلْ نَحْنُ مَحْرُومُونَ

    Bal nahnu maHroomoon -
    No, rather we are Deprived (the garden has been made Haraam/forbidden to us) by Allah.
    1 – So they planned the night before to slice and cut off the harvest.
    2- Something
    travelled around their garden at night and sliced all their harvest off and destroyed it.
    3 – They rushed in the morning in anger / adrenaline (upon
    Hardin) and realised their garden had been destroyed by Allah as a consequence of their greed against the poor.
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    Ayah 28:
     
    Ayah 28:
    قَالَ أَوْسَطُهُمْ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ لَوْلَا تُسَبِّحُونَ

    Qaala awsaTuhum alam aQul-lakum law-laa tusab-bihoon
    The most middle/best of them said, “Did I not say to you, ‘Why do you not exalt [ Allah ]?’ “
    Qaala (Said) aWsatuhum

    aWsat – Wasat – middle, best (middle/centre part is the best part).
    Since there were 3 brothers in the narration quoted, it is also possible that the in between one (i.e. The middle 2nd one) is being referred to as the Sensible/best one.
    He said; “Didn’t I tell you this would happen if you didn’t glorify/sab-bihoon – Allah.
    Subh – glorify / elevate something and keep it constant in elevation.
    Why did he say this specifically? Because glorifying Allah implies; You should have worshipped Allah, been thankful to Him, believed properly – then this wouldn’t happen to you.
    If he advised them earlier, he also did join them in the act. So he was still a partner in crime and therefore faced its loss.
    This shows that knowledge isn’t enough, but it needs to be supported by action.
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    Ayah 29:
     
    Ayah 29:
    قَالُوا سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ
    Qaaloo subhaana Rabbinaa in-naa kun-naa Dhaalimeen –
    they said how glorious is our Master, we were surely of the Oppressors/Wrongdoers.

    Innaa kunnaa dhaalimeen – we were surelly wrongdoers/oppressors.
    It was too late now, so their sin caused harm to them and their repentance didn’t remove the harm their sin had caused. They could only hope good from Allah in the future if they stayed good and constant in obedience to Allah.
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    Ayah 30:
     
    Ayah 30:
    فَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى? بَعْضٍ يَتَلَاوَمُونَ
    Fa aQbala ba’Duhum ‘alaa ba’Din yata Laawamoon -
    So they turned on each other after the other, blaming.


    Evils of Disobedience to Allah:
    Becoming Arrogant causes:
    Gradual Losses of:
    - Wealth.
    - Loyalty [amongst Brothers & Friends].
     
    So you have nothing left. You lose your wealth, and you lose your loyal allies. Showing the evils of arrogance and disobedience to Allah.
    Similar happened to the disbelievers in the Battle of Khandaq/Ahzab.

    Lawm – to assign blame on someone.
    TaLaawum – to assign blame on each other.
    When the brothers fight and blame each other, they start to regret.. Realising they have nothing left.
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    Ayah 31:
     

    Ayah 31:
    قَالُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا طَاغِينَ
    qaaloo yaa Waylanaa – they said;O Curse/destruction on ourselves!
    Innaa kunnaa Taagheensurely we were breaking all limits (in wrong.)
    They now become humble now that they have nothing left.
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    Ayah 32:
     
    Ayah 32:
    عَسَى? رَبُّنَا أَن يُبْدِلَنَا خَيْرًا مِّنْهَا إِنَّا إِلَى? رَبِّنَا رَاغِبُونَ
    asaaRabbunaa – perhaps/maybe, our Master may
    YuBdilanaa khayran minhaa – Replace for us better than that.
    Innaa ilaa Rabbinaa Raaghiboon – surely we are to our Master

    Raaghiboon – Raghib (singular) – Raghba - literally and internally become Infatuated / in pursuit of (i.e. our Master)..
    We see that these people had the best garden known to all the people, which caused them to become like the evil leaders of Quraysh mentioned in earlier aayaat of this surah.
    But by Allah destroying their wealth; their wealth was lost, so was their honor, and brotherhood – they had lost everything.
    By repenting – they could hope for good from Allah in the future.
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    Ayah 33:
     

    Ayah 33:
    كَذَ?لِكَ الْعَذَابُ ? وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ ? لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ
    Kadhaalik al adhaab – just like that (what is mentioned earlier) is the punishment
    Wa la adhaab-ul aakhirati akbar – and surely the punishment of the next life is much greater.
    Law kaanoo ya’lamoon – if only they knew (in Knowledge and actual Realisation.)
    This is a warning to the people who think they are in control and who think their wealth and unity can cause harm upon the weak and poor believers. Since Allah can use your own strengths against you within just one night.

    Hadith: Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said Allah’s Messenger said;
    Iyyaakum wa-al ma’aasi, inna- al abda la yadhnibu dhanba fa yuhramu bihi rizqan qad kaana hayyan lahu -

    “Be very careful from sins against Allah, sometimes the slave commits sins, and those sins prevent him from rizq/provisions which could be easy (available) for him.
    Even when Allah warns disbelievers – He is still warning believers to not fall into such sins. Otherwise – they could face similar punishments.
    So we need to feed the poor, otherwise Allah could destroy our wealth.
    But if we gave in charity – Allah would increase our wealth and put Barakah (blessings) in it.
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    Main Qalam 5 (Ayah 34-41) [
    Ayah 34:
     

    Ayah 34:
    إِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ

    Inna li-l muttaqeenainda Rabbihim Jan-naatin-Na’eem

    Most definitely, for the Constantly God fearing, guarders against evil will be near and withtheir Lordin GardenSof Delight/Enjoyment.
    Inna – most definitely
    Li-’l muttaqeena – for the people of Taqwa.

    The Muttaqeen are those who have the highest levels of Emaan (certainty) and they are the exact opposite of the arrogant disbelievers mentioned at the earlier in this surah.
    Taqwa – guarding yourself from evil which brings Allah’s wrath.

    Noun [something in a Constant state]: mutTaQeen
    Verb [something in a Temporary state]: aladheena-atTaqaw

    The muttaqeen are of the highest level of believers because they are Constantly being aware of Allah and fearing to disobey him.
    ‘inda RabbiHim – near/with Their Lord.
    fee – in
    JannAAt = Gardens (plural)
    [from Jannat (Garden)]
    al-Na’eem – Ni’ma – commonly translated as ‘Blessing’. Why?
    TaNaa’um – to enjoy something.
    A blessing which is enjoyable.
    Jannaat Al-Na’eem – gardens which are always pleasurable/sweet/enjoyment/bliss/fun.
    “Most definitely for the Muttaqeen are Gardens of Pleasure/enjoyment/fun.”
    Syntax/Grammar:
    1 -This is abnormal sentence structure, by placing the mention of Muttaqeen earlier in the sentence structure (instead of at the) – it implies that the gardens of pleasure are exclusively for them.

    Example: Ustadh Abdul Nasir mentions; a brother invited him to a meal at a restaurant, and he took him to a table which had a sign saying “RESERVED.” I.e. This table had been reserved for him and the surprise of it made him feel happy inside.
    Now imagine Gardens of Delight and Constant eternal Pleasure which have already been reserved for you especially by Allah Himself?
    2a – The ‘people of the Garden’ (aS-haab al Jannah) was mentioned in ayah 19, when referring to the men who had the best Garden in the world.
    Whereas in this ayah when describing paradise, Allah mentions Plural: Jannaat.

    2b – Allah did not attach any extra description to their Garden (Just said ‘Jannah).
    In this ayah, Allah is describing the gardens of Paradise as Gardens of pleasure and enjoyment (Jannaatun-Na’eem). Showing they are AMAZING gardenS.
    They will enter amazing and delightful gardens and be there with their Lord, forever.
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    Ayah 35:
     

    Ayah 35:
    أَفَنَجْعَلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَالْمُجْرِمِينَ
    AFa naj’a-lu-l muslimeena ka-l mujrimeen?
    - Shall we then treat the Muslims (those who submit [to Allah] like the Convicted criminals?
    So we’re back to the wakeup call (Indhar) again.
    This is very very early revelation, so highlighting good rewards should be mentioned, but there needs to be a strong wake up call for the majority of people who are unaware and to wake up and realise the reality.

    al Mujrim – iJraam – to be Convicted of committing a crime.
    When someone has been convicted and been sentenced as Guilty.
    “Shall We make those who submit to Allah, the same as those Criminals who have been convicted and found guilty of Crime?”

    This is rational proof of Judgment Day and Justice. There needs to be Accountability for peoples actions by someone in a higher authority than them, to allow Justice.
    This is important because even if someone is a wrongdoer, but someone wrongs them – they still want justice. So this isn’t just a religious issue, rather – all humans wants fairness and justice for themselves.
    Similar aayaat:
    - Surah Sajdah 32:18 – can a true believer be like an extremely evil doer? They are not equal.
    - Surah Hashr 59:20 – the people of the fire and the people of paradise cannot be equal.
    - Surah Saad 38:28 – the people who believe and do good deeds, are We to make them no different to /equal to those who spread cause corruption on the Earth?


    Are We to make the Muttaqoon like those who blatently and openly disobedient to Allah?

    Surah Fussilat 41:34: the good is not equal to the evil. (the Laa is repeated twice to show that there is varying degrees of good and varying degrees of evil).
    If people treat others differently based on what they do, then why shouldn’t Allah treat people differently according to what they do?
    Ayah 36:
     
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    Ayah 36:
    مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ

    Maa LaKum – kayfa taHkumoon?
    What is with you, how do you Judge?
    “Maa LaKum” – what is wrong with you?
    There is a pause in the recitation.
    Hukm / yaHkum (present tense).
    TaHkumoon – To arrive at an Authoritative Decision, through experience and knowledge (wisdom).

    1- Hukm – Authoritative Decision.
    2- Hikmah – Wisdom.
    “Shall We treat those who submit to Allah as those who are convicted criminals, what is wrong with you – How have you come to this conclusion?”
    This is in Present tense form (TaHkumoon) – which is implying;
    “What is with you – How are you still upon such a decision, on what basis are you still upon it?”

    Allah is leaving the door open. You still have the chance to change your decision and become a better person.
    This is Transision (iltifaat) – to Highlight their mindset, through which – maybe they might consider changing themselves for the better.
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    Ayah 37:
     
    Ayah 37:
    أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ

    am laKum kitaabun fee-hi ta-drusoon
    Or maybe you have some special Book, in that you are Learning from (your conclusions.)
    It is translated as ‘special book’ because of the Abnormal sentence structure.

    Normal sentence structure:
    Am Kitaabun LaKum – Or a Book you have..?


    Sentence structure in this Ayah:
    Am LaKum Kitaabun..? – Or do you have a Book?
    There is more emphasis placed on the word Kitab (Book) in this ayah. Which makes it seem like a ‘special Book’.
    “Or do you have a Special Book from which you Learn (and come to these strange Conclusions which nobody else has)?”
    Dars:
    Darasa (past tense = he Learnt) / yaDrusu (present tense = he is Learning.) – to Learn. To Study, to gain Education / Insight etc.
    “Do you have a special book by which you are studying with deep Insight, and finding these conclusions?”
    The word ‘taDrusoon’ is in Present [MuDaari'] tense, which is implying; are you Still learning from such a book?
    Ofcourse this is challenging the disbelievers because they do not (and did not have a book of any kind like that in the time of Prophet Muhammad.) and even if any people do – it shows inconsistent it is wih logic and human nature.
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    Ayah 38:
     
    Ayah 38:
    إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ
    Inna lakum feehi la maa taKhay-yaroon -
    “In that book -exclusively for you, surely – is whatever you choose for yourself?”


    What does this mean?
    The disbelievers challenged Prophet Muhammad and said that if – for arguments sake – there is an afterlife, then if we are rich in this life, then we will also be rich in the next life.
    I.e. Do you have a book from which you learn? (a book which tells you) that you shall have all that you choose?

    Where are you getting all these strange ideas from? That only you will get what you want, based on your own desires.


    TaKhay-yaroon – is really TaTaKhay-yaroon. (double letter Ta at the beginning of the word).
    But it has been omitted purposelly by Allah in recitation.

    Tatakhay-yara / khay-yara / Tatakhay-yaroon – khayr (good) – to try to find that which is good.
    (in this case – the disbelievers are being described as ‘trying to find that which is good for themselves only.’)
    Takhay-yur [TaFa'-'ul] – the Verb pattern implies the meaning of someone:
    Trying to do something but not necessarily being successful in that.
    1 – So they disbelievers are trying to choose that which is better for themselves, when that which they think is good – is not really better for them. (Allah is hinting that the guidance of Allah is better for them.)
    The extra ‘Ta’ was dropped in recitation for;
    Tatakhay-yaroon has become takhay-yaroon.
    When the ‘Ta’ is dropped – it signals to something.
    I.e. In this case – it implies they have Rushed in their decision. I.e. They have not considered Islam properly, and they want only what -they Percieve – is best for themselves.
    They think that by rejecting Islam quickly without thinking deeply about it – they have done that which is good for them. But it is not good for them.
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    Ayah 39:
     

    Ayah 39:
    أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمَانٌ عَلَيْنَا بَالِغَةٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ  إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَمَا تَحْكُمُونَ

    am laKum aYmaanun alaynaa Baalighatun ilaa yawmi-l Qiyaamah, inna lakum la maa taHkumoon
    Or do you have some exclusive/special Aymaan (Special binding Oath) upon Us (Allah) – that Reaches (Baaligh) all the way till the Day of Judgment. That most definitely you will get what you Decide?

    Aymaan (plural) of Yameen – a special binding Oath.

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    Ayah 40:
     
    Ayah 40:
    سَلْهُمْ أَيُّهُم بِذَلِكَ زَعِيمٌ

    Salhum ayyuHum bi dhaalika Za’eem
    “So ask them – who amongst them is the one who is responsible and will speak on behalf of them on the choices they make?”

    Sal hum – Ask them,

    This is a Command Allah is giving to His Messenger.

    Allah talking to His Messenger directly instead:
    This is Iltifat (transision) – where Allah spoke to the disbelievers before (what an honor!), and now He will tell His Messenger to continue (an honor for the Messenger!)
    Also note that Allah in these instances is talking to the disbelievers because it is the one of the Earliest revelations in Makkah (when only a few people were Muslims [maybe a handful]).
    So the disbelievers are not totally Kuffar (firmly on disbelief). Their long term decisions are not clear. So Allah is willing to talk to them during this stage. However, once their Kufr (ungratefulness/arrogance/disbelief) is permanent, they are not spoken to, in this life, nor the next.
    ..ask them (O Muhammad)…
    AyyuHum – which (of) them

    Bi dhaalika – with that

    Za’eem – somebody who is responsible on behalf of people and speaks on their behalf.
    “So ask them – who amongst them is the one who is responsible and will speak on behalf of them on the choices they make?”
    No-one came forward from the Quraysh, and it is most probable that no-one will from other groups of people too.
    Since it is embarrassing for them – because;
    - Their arguments of treating the one who has submitted to Allah in good acts being similar to a convicted criminal does not make logical sense.
    - Nor can these people prove that they have taken a special binding covenant with Allah to support their claim of having the choice in deciding what should be right and what should be wrong etc.

    This lack of proof embarrassment causes people not to step forward, from all walks of life – except Islam. In which we can prove that we have a contract with Allah.
    Ayah 40:
     
    Ayah 41:
    أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكَائِهِمْ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ

    am laHum shurakaa’u fa-l ya’too bi shurakaa’ihim in kaanoo Saadiqeen.
    Or do they have Shurakaa‘ (partners) then let them bring these Partners forward if they are truthful.


    Shurakaa’ (plural) – Shareek (singular) – Partners

    Partners can refer to;
    1 – Partners they worship as associates along with Allah (ie. their idols, false deities etc.) who are supporting them.
    If they have these Partners with Allah, then let them bring them forward if they are truthful.
    (i.e. If they are stone idols, or people who are worshipped, or ‘nature’ itself – the unpolluted mind will laugh. ‘How can such a being be an equal with Allah?’)

    2 - it could be a Literal meaning: Partners in their stance on Disbelief.

    Are there any other Intelligent people of any Civilization, ‘great minds’ – who are willing to backup what you claim?
    But they did not have any people to support them – because they were on an island (Arabia) surrounded by 3 sides of water.
     
    Then bring these Associates you have; Idols etc. To support you in your claim, or bring your intelligent associates and ask them to prove your claim that you have a;
    - a Special Book which tells you that a Muslim (one who submits to the high moral standards set by Allah) is similar to a Convicted -founded Guilty- Criminal.
    - a Special Binding Oath with Allah till Judgment Day – which allows you to do whatever evil you want, and Allah will be fine with that.

  2. Introduction
     
    Introduction:

    There are almost 7 divisions in the entire Copy [Mus-haf] of the Qur’an according to Theme. The final of these 7 sections starts from surah Mulk [surah number 67] to surah an-Naas [surah number 114].
    This final part [last 7th of the Quran] focuses on; sources of Reflection, People, their final scenes they will face on Judgment Day and Hellfire and Paradise.
    Surprisingly, even though it is the final part of Qur’an – it was revealed the earliest in Makkah.
    It is spiritual and focused on the basic and foundation beliefs required to be a true believer.

    Similarities between this surah al Qalam, and the previous surah al Mulk:
    1 – Surah Mulk tells us how to appreciate Allah’s blessings, and how to believe in Him.
    Surah al Qalam is the pair of surah al Mulk. Some scholars even said that it is like a mirror of it.
    If surah Mulk focused on believing in Allah, this surah Qalam focuses on believing in His Messenger, Muhammad (sal Allah alayhi wasalam).
    2 – Surah al Mulk tells us to believe in Allah, and if you don’t – then here are the consequences (hellfire).
    Surah al Qalam tells us to believe in Prophet Muhammad, and if you don’t – here are the consequences (hellfire.)
    This is why the surah begins with Qalam (the Pen) and yaSTuRoon – that which they are Writing out.
    So it’s talking about Knowledge. Allah’s Messenger would recieve the Qur’an and his companions would write [transcribe] it down.
    So it’s very appropriate in the role of the deliverance of the message.

    Their is a smooth connection and Coherence between surah Mulk and Qalam:
    Surah Mulk 79:29 – Qul huwwa ar-Rahman, aamannaa bihee wa ‘alayhi tawakalnaa fa sa ta’lamoona man huwwa fee Dalaalin mubeen – say He is the Most merciful, we believe in Him and upon Him alone we have put our trust, so soon you will know who was in clear error.
    Surah Qalam 68:7 – most definitely your Master who knows who is astray and He is well informed who are rightly guided.
    So surah Mulk mentioned how there are two parties; believers and disbelievers, and this surah Qalam discusses that Allah fully knows who are astray and He knows who are the rightly guided.
    Themes
     
    Themes and Structure of surah Qalam:
    1 – Similar to surah Mulk, except that surah Qalam is sharper in it’s tone.
    2 – Surah Mulk was 30 aayaat. Surah Qalam is 52 aayaat. So this surah is more longer and detailed in describing the consequences of the peoples actions.
    3 – Surah Mulk focuses on believing in Allah, which is obvious and easy on human nature.
    However, surah Qalam focuses on believing in Prophet Muhammad as Allah’s Messenger, which requires more detail and requires more warnings of the consequences of disbelief in him.
    Even hadeeth rejectors reject the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad, and the disbelievers do too. Why? Because submitting to another human is hard for humans.
    Allah is telling us that Prophet Muhammad speaks on Allah’s behalf.
    4 – surah Mulk ended with;
    Say (O Muhammad), if Allah destroyed me and those with me or had mercy on us, then who would save the disbelievers from a painful punishment?
    The disbelievers are being told that even if the Messenger who is warning you of Judgment Day was to die, who would save you disbelievers from Allah’s punishment (for your evil actions of this life?).
    Surah Qalam is going to show us that the tactics the disbelievers use is to discredit/character assasinate this person, so the other humans will already not take the Messenger seriously. The general people will already get a biased image of the character they are going to see.
    This technique of Character Assasination has been used throughout history, especially by the corrupt and those who control the media.
    The disbelievers secretly heard the Qur’an and were amazed by it. So they could not discredit it, so their next resort was to use the method of character assasination.
    However, the praise is for Allah – this was difficult for these people because Prophet Muhammad was the most honorable and noble man with the greatest character, and so they had to resort to lies against him.
    The disbelievers claimed Prophet Muhammad was;
    1 – Crazy/mad/insane:
    They found this a useful tool. They would argue, how can you believe someone who says that you will come back to life after your bones have decomposed in the ground, and then after coming back to life – you be judged and face consequences for your actions you did in this world?
    They would tell people that a person with such beliefs is Insane, so you should not listen to him.
    2 -Corrupt:
    They would say that he is corrupt because he is causing separation between the father and his son, man from wife etc. So you should not approach this man because he may cause you problems between you and your people.
    So in this surah, Allah refutes both these claims (especially in the beginning aayaat/verses of the surah).
    Look at the character of this man, look at and listen to the revelation he is reciting to you.
    Now compare it to the corruption of the rulers you have.
    ..fa sa Tubsiru wa Yubsiroon, bi ayyikum-ul maFtoon - so soon you will see, and they will see, who is really affected (by insanity etc.)
    Soon people will find out the truthfulness of this message, it will be exposed to them and the corruption of the leaders will also be exposed.
    Then people will know who truly is insane.
    It just takes abit of Fitrah (common sense/Natural disposition) and people will realise this.
    This surah is split into 3 parts:
    1st part – Defending the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad (sal Allah alayhi wasalam). If you don’t believe in him, then don’t – but do not insult or harm Prophet Muhammad.
    2nd partThe companions of the Garden [aS-haab al Jannah].
    Allah gives us an example: Imagine there were people who have all wealth they desired (i.e. Garden full of all fruits). They took these blessings for granted and did not thank Allah for them, nor did they use these blessings to help the poor and weak.
    So Allah removed all these blessings from them suddenly within one night.
    That is the example given in this surah which we will discuss as it comes insha’ Allah.
    Quraysh is a powerful tribe who have all sorts of wealth, however – they abuse this and harm the poor believers. Isn’t Allah able to make the rich and powerful Quraysh into poor people if He wills?
    Realise your way before it’s too late.
    3rd part: Harshly rebuking those who deny life after death.
    The disbelievers would say that – if hypothetically there is a life in the next world. What is preventing us from being in power in the next world, just as we are in power in this world?
    aResponse: Do you think that Allah is so unjust that He cannot see the difference between the one who is right (and submits to Him) and the one who is wrong (disbelieves in His signs)?
    b -  Allah challenges the disbelievers that if there is no next life, or that the disbelievers will be successful in the next life, then produce your evidence or proof that this is true.
    c – the surah begins with Allah defending His Messenger, and then ends with consoling him (sal Allah alayhi wasalam.)
    This is the true beauty of the surah. It is very powerful – especially when Allah defends and consoles His Messenger.
    These are amazing aayaat because it shows the high rank of Prophet Muhammad in the sight of Allah, and how sensitive Allah is in regard to him.
    So Allah ends the surah by telling Prophet Muhammad that you should not be offended by their insults, so be patient – they will face the punishment on Judgment Day.
    Another consolation from Allah to Prophet Muhammad is;
    And do not rush (don’t become impatient). Why? Because there was another Messenger – Prophet Yunus (Jonah) – the companion of the Whale (saahib-il Hoot). He became a little bit impatient for the help of Allah to arrive/he rushed a little bit. So Allah put him through some training.
    Yunus was very patient, but just a little more patience will give you success.
    Ayah 1:
     
    Ayah 1:
    ن. وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ
    NuuN, wa-l Qalami wa maa yasTuroon
    Nun. By the pen and what they inscribe,
    Nuun (letter N in the arabic language).
    These are the Disjointed letters (i.e. you recite them as individual letters).
    There are 29 places in the Qur’an at the beginning of each surah, which have these Disjointed letters recited at their Beginning.
    Below are some examples;
    1 Letter: Qaf (surah Qaf), Nuun (surah Qalam), Saad (surah Saad), Nuun (surah Qalam) etc.
    2 Letters: Ya Seen (surah Ya Seen), Ta Ha (surah Ta Ha), Ha Meem (surah Fussilat) etc.
    3 Letters: Alif Lam Meem (surah al-Baqarah), Alif Lam Ra (surah Yusuf) etc.
    4 letters: Alif Lam Meem Saad (surah al A’raf)
    5 Letters: Kaaf Haa Yaa Ayn Saad (surah Maryam), Ha Meem Ayn Seen Qaaf.
    This is the largest amount.
    In ‘Ulum al Qur’an (sciences/knowledges of the Quran) these are called:
    alHuroof al MuQata’aat [the Disjointed Letters].
    These are letters that are to be read and recited individually.
    What do these Letters mean?
    The meaning of these letters has not been clearly explained by Allah in the Qur’an or authentically from Prophet Muhammad (sal Allah alayhi wasalam).
    However, some Companions of Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasalam) held some views regarding these letters, aswell as some of the Salaf and scholars:
    The opinions mentioned may not necessarily be authentic and may have weaknesses;
    - NUUN [N] =
    1 – Some Sahaba and scholars stated that because the letter Nuun is next to the word Qalam [Pen] in this ayah, Nuun may refer to theInkpot.
    2 – Others said; Lawh (Tablet) – that which is written on.
    3 – some said that Prophet Yunus is mentioned in this surah later on, and he is called Dhun-NUUN [surah So what do these Disjointed Letters mean?

     

    Qalam[Ayah 1-4]Download: part B/2 [MP3 Download].


    Ayah 1 continued :

    ن ? وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ

    Nun, wa-’l Qalami wa maa yaSturoon

    Nun. By the pen and what they inscribe,
     
    Nuun,


    wa-’l Qalam - by the Pen.

    Wa [huroof Jaarra] – an Oath is being taken by the Object that will come after it.
    In this context, the Qalam (Pen) is being mentioned.
    The Huroof Jaarra means that this ‘Wa’ makes the word after it in ‘maJroor’ form (with a Kasra/zeyr) on it = qalamI.
    wa-’l QalamI = (I swear) by the Pen.

    wa maa yaSTuRoon – and by what they are Writing out (in complete lines = SiTR).
     
    An Oath in the Qur’an is done by Allah to;
    1 – Honor and Dignify that creation.
    2 – Calling Attention to that object.
    3 – that creation/object ties into the Theme/message of that surah.
    4 – Elaborate/prove a point.
    In this surah – the idea of a Qalam/Pen is relevant to the Theme of this surah.

    Through these Oaths; Allah is establishing;
    1 – That which the angels write out.
    2 – Proving aayaat 2 – 4 of this surah.

    What is meant by ‘the Pen’?
    Difference of Opinion in Classical Tafseers;
    a – the Pen of Decree/Destiny – which writ the decree of all that was to come.
    Hadith 1 :
    Ubadah bin Samit narrated that the Messenger of Allah said [meaning];
    (Surely the first thing which Allah created was the Pen. Then He told it to write. So it did so -writing- uptill what would happen till the Day of Ressurection)

    (Tirmidhi and Musnad Ahmad – Hasan-Saheeh/Good-Authentic)

    Hadith 2:
    Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al ‘Aas.
    the Prophet (sal Allah alayhi wasalam) said (meaning);
    Allah wrote the decree of all of creation before creating the heavens/skies and the Earth by 50,000years.
    (Saheeh Muslim)
    So this Qalam could be the Pen of decree/Destiny, as was the opinion of Ibn Abbas.
    [as az-Zamakshari and ar-Razi quoted Ibn Abbas in their tafseers'.]
     
    The 2nd opinion is – the Pen of the Angels.
    This is not a specific pen, rather – it is the pens of the angels who constantly write the deeds of mankind and jinn – good and bad.
    (
    Surely the first thing which Allah created was the Pen. Then He told it to write. So it did so -writing- uptill what would happen till the Day of Ressurection)

    3rd opinion -
    The Pen that people use. A pen which people write with.
    a Pen is extremely powerful because it writes down; ideas, history, theories, identities, plans for the future etc. It writes down what people think, feel, experience and much much more.

    Abdur Rahman al Busti said: When the brave soldiers take an oath by their swords and they count their sword, they consider their sword as a sign of their honor.
    However, the Pen which is used to write a book – suffices for pen and dignity.
    Why? Because Allah never took an Oath by the sword, but He did take an oath by a Pen.
    So if the Pen of humans is meant, then ‘wa ma yaSturoon’ – “and what they write in complete lines”, means – Human Historywhich men write out.
    This is the view of many Muffassiroon (scholars of Tafseer).
    So Allah is pointing out to the Quraysh disbelievers and any disbelievers who oppose Allah’s guidance, that;
    Look through the history of humanity and see if you have ever come across an individual who has come even close to Muhammad ibn Abdullah (sal Allah alayhi wasalam).
    In terms of his; honour, nobility, selflessness, character, compassion, kindness, benevolence, generosity.
    Also see of the people who opposed the Messengers’ in the past and what happened to them when they opposed them.
    The Quraysh fully knew this because they were fully aware of what happened to the people of ‘Aad and Thamood, who the ‘Arabs were distantly related to.
    2 – Some scholars also had the opinion that the Qalam refers to the Pen and ‘wa ma yaSturoon’what is written in complete lines – refers to the Qur’an.
    Many scholars of tafseer and hadeeth held this view.
     
    Ayah 2:
     

    Ayah 2:

    مَا أَنتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ

    maa anta bi ni’mati Rabbika bi majnoon

    You are not -by means of the blessing of your Lord- insane.
    This ayah is a defense of the Messenger (sal Allah alayhi wasalam.)
    Ni’ma – commonly translated as ‘Blessing’:
    1 - the Ni’ma in this surah refers to the blessing of Islam. I.e. It is because of the blessing of the Divine Revelation.
    I.e. You have not become insane (O Muhammad) because of this Qur’an.
    2 - Allah is also consoling His Messenger. ‘You really are a Messenger of Allah.’ you are not insane like the liars claim. Allah is reassuring His Messenger of this reality, because when people say something about you alot – you might start to believe it.
    Surah Tur 52:29: فَذَكِّرْ فَمَا أَنتَ بِنِعْمَتِ رَبِّكَ بِكَاهِنٍ وَلَا مَجْنُونٍ-  And you are not by means of the blessings of your Lord a soothsayer or a madman.
    Surah Taha 20:2: مَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لِتَشْقَى? -  I did not send down the Qur’an on you so that you will be ruined.
    You are not crazy, and the fact that you are not crazy is because of the blessing of your Lord.
    3 - I.e. You are not insane as a Mercy from Allah. I.e. you will not get these problems that other humans have.
    I.e. You are protected from being affected by devils, insanity, and other faults and evils.

    Hassab bin Thaabit was a poet of the Messenger of Allah;
    his poetry would praise the Messenger of Allah so much – saying that the Messenger of Allah was such a perfect human being, extremely handsome, as if he chose his own attributes and characteristics. No woman ever gave birth to anyone more beautiful than him etc.
    So in this ayah – Allah has defended His Messenger from the insults and attacks by the disbelievers’.
     
    Ayah 3:
     
    Ayah 3:
    وَإِنَّ لَكَ لَأَجْرًا غَيْرَ مَمْنُونٍ

    wa inna laka la ajran ghayra mamnoon -

    And most definitely, for you is a reward that will never discontinue.
    In the previous ayah – Allah negated. A rhetorical technique used to debate and refute the people. I.e. Negation and Affirmation.
    This is really useful because it covers all areas.
    So in this ayah, and the previous ayah – affirmation and negation is used.

    Ajr – reward. Reward someone for something they have done.
    It is implicitly referring to the Da’wah (inviting people to Islam) of Allah’s Messenger, Allah will reward him for that.

    Most definitely, exclusively for you there is reward without limit:
    1 - You make life difficult for the Messenger of Allah (O disbelievers) – but your opposition raises his honor and reward.
    He becomes more dearer to Allah and the believers, the more you harm him. So you are not even successful in harming him – because your harm increases his status and success.
    maMnoon – something Cut off/limited.
    Ghayra mamnoon – NOT cut off/limited.
    2 - It is like Allah is saying to His Messenger;
    The small number of followers you have will not lessen (like the disbelievers hope), rather it will continue to increase. Your call will continue to gain even more followers.
    Allah’s help will continue to come to you without limit (ghayra mamnoon)
    3 - Then you will also gain an amazing reward in the life to come without limit (i.e. an Eternal place in Jannah/Paradise).
    There are 4 degrees of Emphasis in this ayah, to remove all doubts.
    1 – Inna = Surely – [used to remove doubt])
    2 – LaKa – For You. (because this is placed earlier in the sentence [whereas it is usually at the end of a sentence] – it produces more Emphasis).
    3 – La ajran – Surely payback.
    4 – ajraN (taFkheem – gives weight) to a statement. Al Ajr is not mentioned, but ajraN. So this is another Emphasis.
    Very great reward.
    wa INNA LAka LA ajraN ghayru mamnoon – and SURELY SURELY For you SURELY (is a) GREAT reward.
     
     
    Ayah 4:
     
    Ayah 4:
    وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَى? خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ

    wa innaka la ‘alaa khuluqin adheem

    And most definitely you are upon a very great and powerful disposition/character/mannerism.

    A few ayah earlier, Allah told His Messenger that you are not crazy. For you is a reward without limit. And most definitely you are upon a great character.
    Remember that the disbelievers wanted to Defame/character assasinate the Messenger of Allah.
    The disbelievers would say evil about the Messenger of Allah;
    i.e. they would say he breaks up a son from his father (i.e. a son may leave his fathers religion), and they would say that he does not obey his tribes leaders (who called to polytheism) etc.
    So the people would think that he is doing evil so they would stay away from him.
    So Allah negated all these lies and character assasinations of the disbelievers by simply saying one line;
    wa INNAka LA ‘ala khuluqiN AdhEEmiN

    And SURELY you are SURELY upon CONTINUOUSLY Great Mannerisms.
    We see that 4 emphasises were also mentioned in this ayah = No doubt you are upon Continuously Great Mannerisms.
    Allah is not saying your message or teachings are of a Great Mannerism (yes they are) but Allah is saying you (O Muhammad) are on the best mannerisms in all aspects of your life.
    These aayaat would later be spread to other people, so the news would spread and refute the false lies of the disbelievers’.

    ‘Ala – On top of something [isti'la] = Upon.
    ‘Ala implies; You are UPON like a train of truth (Islam) and the believers are riding on TOP of it to the destination they want to go to (i.e. Paradise).
    So Allah is telling His Messenger, you are UPON (‘ALA) great mannerisms. Which means that he is on top of great mannerisms and travelling to wherever the direction of good manners are.

    Khuluq – aKhlaaq – someones disposition/temperament/natural mode of behaviour.
    How you Made (khalq – created) yourself out to be.
    In the beginning, someone might force themselves in good behaviour. But when it becomes natural for them to act a certain way = Khuluq.
    Allah describes the Khuluq of Allah’s Messenger as Adheem;

    Adheem -
    1 – Adhama – something to be great and impressive.
    (i.e. Allah is al Adheem).
    2 – Adhama – something very strong and stable and firm.  (i.e. A bone is called Adhm because it is Tough/firm/strong).
    Allah’s Messenger – according to many ahadith – calls people to have Husn Khuluq – Good Character.
    However, he himself has Khuluqun AdhEEm – CONTINUOUSLY Great and Impressive Character. So if anyone sees him, they are amazed and impressed by his beautiful and impressive manners etc.
    Even if someone is rude to you, he would reply back with beauty and kindness which would make your heart melt in love for him.
    In every circumstance – Allah shows us that His Messenger has amazing and impressive manners. And it does not change, since the letter ‘Ya’ in adhEEm implies Constancy. I.e. He is constant in his great and impressive manners.
    When Aa’isha was asked about the character of the Messenger of Allah, she replied;

    Kaana khuluquhu al Qur’anhis manners/character/mode of behaviour was (consistent with) the Qur’an.
    The great ethics layed out in the Qur’an were what he lived by.
    Ali ibn Abi Talib was asked;
    We know what Khuluq al Hasan (Good Character) is, but what is Khuluq-ul Adheem (Great/Brilliant character)?
    He replied: It is the Adab (training/manners) the Qur’an gives you.

    Meaning: When ALL the beautiful traits of the Qur’an are applied by someone = Khuluqin Adheem.
    Adab al Mufrad by al Bukhari, Mustadrak al Haakim, Ahmad narrate that the Messenger of Allah said;

    Inna ma bu’ithtu li uTtamimma kaarim al aKhlaqI have only been sent to complete/perfect good/noble character.

    That is the premise of the life of the Messenger of Allah.
    This is why Allah said in surah al Jaathiyah 45:18;
    ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكَ عَلَى? شَرِيعَةٍ مِّنَ الْأَمْرِ فَاتَّبِعْهَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ -

    Thumma ja’alnaaka ‘alaa shariy’atin fat-tabi’ha – then after that We have placed you on a path (shari’ah = a path to live a way in life), so follow it/live on it and do not follow the desires of those who do not know. [Jathiyah 45:18]

    وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

    And I have been commanded to be of the first of the Muslims [of this Ummah/nation.] [Zumar 39:12]
    So Allah’s Messenger set the example for us.
    The scholars mentioned that theKhuluq al Adheem comprises of:

    1 – Firm adherence to the juntions/commands of the religion.
    2 – knowing the reality of the religion.
    3 – being extremely forebearing.
    4 – ‘Adl – Justiceness and Fairness in all matters.
    5 – Being able to deal with people who give you extreme difficulty, and restrain yourself.
    6 – When someone does something good to you – being Appreciative.
    7 – Having Humbleness and Humility.
    8 – Zuhd – Not being attached to the world while living the world.
    9 – Self Respect – having shame and nobility.
    10 – Being Pardoning (‘Afuw)
    11 – Confident.
    12 – Haya’ – Modesty
    13 – Shuja’a – Bravery
    14 – Knowing when to be Quiet
    15 – Being calm and collected and self control in life.
    16 – Self Respect, and Dignity.
    17 – Rahma – Mercy.
    18 – Being very Excellent when dealing with people in interaction and with ones self.

    Leadership Skills:
    19 – Being thoughtful in speech.
    20 – Having a Bright face (i.e. Smiling) and approachable.
    21 – Thubaat – being Consistent in what you start and do to achieve.
    22 – Hukm – Giving commands and authority in the correct manner to the right people.
    23 – Being Active and Noble in helping in action.
    24 – Calm, Cool and Collected, not in constant worry.
    25 – Watching what you eat and drink (i.e. only pure and good things)
    26 – Impart these same qualities to your family members.

    Specific to the Messenger of Allah:
    27 – Being skilled in managing and directing the affairs of the Ummah well.
    28 – Fasaah-il Qalam – Having the best and clearest speech.
    29 – Jawaami’-ul Qalim – Being Brief and Concise in speech – yet having so much meaning.

    Anas said;
    I served the Messenger of Allah for 10 years; he never yelled at me, he never hit, he never reprimanded me.

    Aisha said;
    Allah’s Messenger never layed his hand on anyone ever. (ie. He never hit or smacked anyone.)

    Jaabir ibn Abdullah said;
    Whenever the Messenger of Allah was asked for anything, he never said no (to their request).
    Abu Dawud narrated;
    Aisha said, “the Prophet advised his Ummah that by means of good character – they could attain and go beyond people who spend their nights praying and their days fasting.”
    So good character is one of the best acts of worship if done for the pleasure of Allah.
    Mu’aadh ibn Jabal was going to be sent as a Governor of Yemen by the Messenger of Allah. He said; when I placed my foot into the stirrup of the horse, the last piece of advice the Messenger of Allah gave me was;

    “Ya Mu’adh ahsin khuluqaka lin-Naas - O Mu’adh, perfect your character when dealing with the people.”

    This is what would make the people love him, and then they would love to obey him.
    Qalam 3 (Ayah 5-14) [
    Ayah 5:
     
    Ayah 5:

    فَسَتُبْصِرُ وَيُبْصِرُونَ

    Fa sa tubSiru wa yuBsiroon
    Very soon you will realise, and they too will realise.
    Fa – So / Then.
    So very soon you will come to realise and so will they.
    The purpose of this ayah is;
    1 – Consolation to Allah’s Messenger (sal Allah alayhi wasalam) that things will get better and work out.
    2 – Consolation to the Prophet’s Companions.
    3 – Warning to the Disbelievers.
    The ‘Fa‘ explains – ‘Then
    The ‘Sa‘ prefix added ontop of a Present (MuDari’) tense verb – implies ‘the really near future’.
    So ‘really soon’ you will see, and they too will see..

    tuBSiroon – IbSaar – BaSar – Vision / Eyesight. To see past the surface and to see deeply / reflect / realise with Insight.

    Similar word;
    Ru’ya – to See on the surface only.

    Keep doing your Da’wah (Inviting to Islam) You will realise (O Muhammad), and they too will realise.
    Ibnu-’l Mundhir narrates Ibn Abbas said – “Very soon you will and know, and they will know on Judgment Day.” (who is right and who is wrong).
    In surah al Ma’arij – Allah tells us that;
    إِنَّهُمْ يَرَوْنَهُ بَعِيدًا. وَنَرَاهُ قَرِيبًا. - they see it (judgment Day) is far but We [Allah] see it as near. [Ma'arij
    Other Companions had the view that it refers to the life of this world. I.e. The Battle of Badr showed that the Muslims were Right and who was Wrong. 6years after that – Muslims took over Makkah (Fat-h al Makkah – the Opening of Makkah).
    Ayah 6:
     
    Ayah 6:

    بِأَييِّكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ

    bi ayyikum-ul maFtoon
    With which of you is maFtoon.
    bi – this is connecting back to the previous ayah – to show a link between both aayaat. I.e. You will soon find out and they too will find out – which of you is maFtoon…

    maFtoon – Fitnah –
    Main meaning – Process of Purifying Gold and Silver (through extreme Heat – separates the pure gold/silver from the waste metals).
    Fitnah in Islamic terminology refers to Trials because you are tested in extreme hardship – so Allah can distinguish between the pure believers and the worthless hypocrites.
    Hadith: an-naasu ma’aadhin ka ma’aadhini dhahaba wa fiDDah – people are like Ores of gold and silver (when it comes to their potential.)
    When people are tested – Allah tries to purify their pure goldness and silverness – and the trials/hardships [fitan] they have to go through will see if they are the real gold/silver or the worthless metal.
    So we humans are Ores of Gold and Silver, and we can either be the pure Gold/Silver, or the worthless waste – depending on our reactions in times of Fitnah (when being Heated up.)

    maFtoon (the maF’ool form – passive participle form of Fitan.) = that which is Tested. The one who is being put through Difficulty.
    In this ayah, what does maFtoon mean?
    If we stay close to word meaning of maFtoon – Fitan – it implies;

    You will soon see, and they will soon see – Which of you has gone through Failure/Difficulty and failed the test and lost his way. (He became the worthless one.)
    Another meaning could be;

    ar-Razi and Zamakhshari say; maFtoon = maJnoon = someone who has become Afflicted with a Calamity of being Insane/Crazy/Mad/Being Possessed by Jinn.
    Because when someone was possessed by Jinn, the arabs would say; “Fatanat-hu al Jinn” – the Jinns have Afflicted him.
    The Messenger of Allah is being honored by Allah. The disbelievers were of an evil moral character so that they would insult Allah’s Messenger (sal Allah alayhi wasalam), yet Allah’s Messenger is of such a great character he did not even insult you back. But you will soon come to know (in the near future of this life and on Judgment Day – who is really Insane.)
     
    The embedded message in these Aayaatis that;
    1 - Patience is Extremely important. You have to be patient when doing that which is good – and you will face many hardships for that good – but it’s good will soon be seen. “There is light at the end of the tunnel.”
    The Companions of Prophet Muhammad complained about the torture they recieved by the disbelievers, so Allah’s Messenger replied;
    Innakum qawman tasta’jiloon – You are a people who rush (showing that Victory comes with patience).
    2 - O Common People: Reflect on your Leadership. – who seems deluded and insane?;
    The Muslims who are truly using their intellect and open-mindedness? Or the disbelieving leaders who are remaining firm on their disbelief with no authority or valid justification for the misguided religion they are upon?
     
    Ayah 7:
     
    Ayah 7:

    إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ

    Inna Rabbaka huwwa a’lamu bi man Dalla ‘an sabeelihee wa huwwa a’lamu bi-l muhtadeen
    Most definitely your Master knows fully well who has fallen off the path of their Master, and He knows fully and best about those who are rightly guided.
    So if someone is Afflicted and Confused is because they are off the path (Dalla ‘an sabeelihee). But if they are following the path of their Master – they are rightly guided.
    So Allah is hinting at us that if the people are not following the path of Allah – then they are only confused because they are astray from the path of Allah. Yet if you are certain while following the guidance – it is because Allah has guided you.
    This might hint that those who are astray from Allah’s path are the Confused ones’, just like the one who is Insane and Afflicted by Jinn.
    So it brings all the focus back to Allah.
    There are 2 outcomes; someone is Confused and will Lose. The other group is Certain with knowledge and will win.

    Eloquence:
    Dalla – Lost (past tense / verb [fi'l]).
    Those who have Already Gone Astray..
    Allah is establishing and connecting – directing the person’s blame of being misguided onto themselves. It is their fault for being misguided.

    ..Surely Your Lord knows he who went off the path of his Lord..
    He (the disbeliever) saw the path – but said to himself ‘I dont feel like following that path.’ So he left it.
    He made this choice. So this has been said in the Verb (doing) form.

    Allah is putting the blame on the disbeliever for his disbelief. It is not Allah who is to be blamed.
     
    ..wa huwwa a’lamu bi-’l muHtadeen..
    and He knows the Guided.

    muHtadeen (maf’ool – object done / passive participle) = guidED ones. (those who have been guided).

    Allah is attributing Good to Himself – that He has Guided the guided ones.This shows that it is only a favour from Allah that He has guided us.
    But He does not attribute Himself to the evil, but puts the blame on the doer of evil instead.
    This teaches us;
    1 – Accountability – for mistakes that we do make.
    2 – Greatfulness for being Guided. – when we do good – we should be thankful to Allah.
    These aayaat have clarified; You will realise who is really Mad/Insane. Who is right and who is wrong. Who is guided and who is misguided.
    Yet it has one main message – whatever evil the people say – ignore it. Since your Master knows who is truly guided, and who is not (so He will recompense you based on that.)
     
    Ayah 8:
     

    Ayah 8:
    فَلَا تُطِعِ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ

    Fa laa tuTi’i-l muKadh-dhibeen
    Then do not obey the beliers.
    These ayaat then give a Contrast to the high Great character of Prophet Muhammad which people are ignoring, to those evil and lowly leaders who people are remaining obedient to.

    Why are you obeying the evil ones of a low moral character instead of one who is on the best of Character?
    This is Hidayah/guidance. He is a form of guidance and the carrier of it. So everything he has said is guidance.
    Allah is giving instructions to His Messenger.
    What has been forbidden?

    Fa Laa tuTi’ – so don’t Obey and be Influenced by the beliers who continuously Lie against you and call you a Liar.

    tuTi’ – Taa’a = Obedience, and to be Influenced.
    al muKadhdhibeen – the Rejecting Liars.
    kidhb – to Lie.
    muKadh-dhib/Baab of taKdheeb – to repeatedly call someone a liar.
    So Allah is telling His Messenger;

    Don’t ever Listen/be Influenced by those who continuously reject you and call you a Liar.
    It is clear: Why should you listen to them and be influenced by them if they are continuously against you and your beliefs while insulting you with the worst of insults?
    It reminds you of the media today who will insult Islam, and then expect us to be influenced by it and obey what it teaches to us blindly.
    Allah is implying;
    Don’t ever listen to these people,

    وَلَوْلَا أَن ثَبَّتْنَاكَ لَقَدْ كِدتَّ تَرْكَنُ إِلَيْهِمْ شَيْئًا قَلِيلًا
    Had we not kept you firm – over time you would gradually be effected a little by what they are saying. [Isra'
    Allah gave such a strong foundation to His Messenger
    so that;
     
    Ayah 9:
     
    Ayah 9:

    وَدُّوا لَوْ تُدْهِنُفَيُدْهِنُونَ

    waddoo law tud-hinu fa yud-hinoon
    They wish that you would soften [in your position], so they would soften [toward you].
    waddOO – THEY wadd:
    al wudd – extreme desire to achieve and accomplish something.
    tudhinu – id-haan = oil.
    when you squeeze oil out of something (duhn).
    id-haan – become lenient and soft abit/compromise etc.

    Relation between; duhn & id-haan – apply Oil to something (i.e. hard leather) to Soften it up.
     
    Why are the disbelievers insulting the religion and calling the Messenger (and believers) a liar?

    They extremely desire [wad-doo] that you Soften up [tud-hinu], so they Soften up [yud-hinoon]. (i.e. they want you to Compromise in the religion so they too can Compromise in their laws.)
    This situation therefore requires the Believer to stay firm on ALL principles of the religion.
    By a believer being insulted, your firmness should become stronger, and you should not be oiled and softened up to compromise Allah’s religion.
    Yet the disbelievers have no problem in compromising their religion/laws etc. because they are upon falsehood anyway.

    Id-dihaan – someone who does not have any Integrity / moral standing.
    Even a little bit of difficulty will make him give up/compromise his morals.
    (i.e. They might have the attitude; ‘Let people hear what they like to hear’. even if they know it’s wrong).
    Abu Huraira or Abu-d-Darda’ is reported to have said – “If I have come across somebody who absolutely no-one has a disagreement with, I know he is Iddihaan (i.e. without Integrity).”
    i.e. You might say “Let’s pray”. Someone might say to you that “We’ll pray some other time.” And if you get soften up / compromise and say “Yeah, okay.” You know you have an Iddihaan type of personality.
    (Conflicts are bad, but to not stand up for what you believe in is Criticised.)
    “They desire that you soften up a little bit, then (fa) they compromise.”

    The ‘fa‘ (so/then) implies; a Sudden consequence because of something else. I.e. A happened, so suddenly – B happened
    Allah is showing us that they want us to compromise SO (fa) they will quickly compromise their beliefs/laws too. This is how desperate they are.
    From the distance it looks fair for both sides to compromise – but the Truth is not allowed to be compromised with Falsehood.
    It is a common practise for humans in the world;
    If you are dirty, you want everyone to be dirty, if you be a liar – you think of everyone as a liar etc.
    The disbelievers don’t want the believers to be pure and truthful. instead they want to drag them down to their level of immorality – so their immorality isn’t exposed by the pure believers.
    This is what having no set morals does – it corrupts you down deep into the soul. So they think that; “If i don’t have set morals, then no-one else should.” and if anyone does live a dignified, pure, and set-moral standard life – then they are termed as ‘show-offs’ or ‘claiming-self-purity’ or ‘goody-two-shoes’ etc.
    We see that these Makki surahs are focusing strongly on Tawheed (monotheism) and High Moral Standards.
    Ibn Abbas: Even aayaat which are criticizing the Polytheists and the People of the Book – then the believers should see if they have those Attributes.
    If they do – then they are in deep trouble, unless they change/mend themselves for the better.


    Grammar:
    Law - huroof at-tamani = If Only.

    tud-hinu – you Soften up (Compromise.)
    the Response (next half of the ayah) is supposed to be the Light version [of the verb];
    ..fa yud-hinOO [the letter Nuun would be dropped.]
    But in this ayah it is; fa yud-hinOON
    This implies: this grammatical change implies there is a missing word which has been omitted purposelly.
    = fa HUM Yud-hinOON = So THEY Soften up (Compromise).
    This is a STRONG EMPHASIS to show that ‘they’ definitely would compromise, because;
    - HUM = Them
    - the “Yu” [prefix], and “OON” [suffix] letters = Them.
    So Allah is telling us;
    “They extremely want you to Soften up, so suddenly THEY [HUM], THEY Compromise [YUd-hinOON].
    The ‘They’ has been said twice to emphasise their desperation in wanting to compromise if you do so.

    What kind of Easing / Softening Up / Compromise are the disbelievers wanting?
    In the Books of Tafaseer, we read:
    Ibn Abbas: They extremely want you to disbelieve and be ungrateful (taKfuru) to Allah – so they can be even more Ungrateful to Allah aswell.
    Another narration of Ibn Abbas: They want you to give them a break – so you don’t give people Da’wah (inviting to Islam), and they will stop torturing you and your followers.
    al Farra al Kalbi: They just want you to be a little lenient/nice [Leenu / Lay-yin] with them so they be lenient/nice with you.
    Mujahid: If you lean to them a little bit and stop preaching the truth – they will be really good to you like your best friend.
    ar-Rabee’ bin Anas – They just want you to lie a little bit. Just make a few adjustments to your teachings.

    Qatadah: They just want you to stop doing what you’re doing (in matters of Da’wah, exposing the evils of disbelief etc.) and they will be completely okay with you.
    al Hasan al BaSri: They just want you to compromise in your religion so they will compromise in theirs.
    Another narration (maybe of Hasan al BaSri) states;They want you to become weak so they too will become weak.

    They want you to worship their false gods, and they will be happy to worship your Allah.
    This is further supported by the hadith in which the Polytheists went to the Prophet’s Uncle Abu Talib and they presented their request of giving Women, Wealth, a Crown (i.e. Kingship) etc.
    Then Allah’s Messenger’s integrity truly showed and the disbelievers lack of integrity was exposed. When Allah’s Messenger was about to lose the protection of his Uncle, tears were coming down his eyes, and he is reported to have said;

    “If the Sun and Moon were placed in my hand, I would not give up this message. Even if I was destroyed in the process.”
    This shows the polytheists knew Islam was true, but their lack of integrity and their lack of wanting to submit made them go down to such a low level. That they were willing to give up ALL their principles and values, so long as the Messenger of Allah (and the believers) also softened up and compromised.
     
    Qalam 5 (Ayah 15-33)
    Ayah 10:
     

    Ayah 10:
    وَلَا تُطِعْ كُلَّ حَلَّافٍ مَّهِينٍ
    wa laa tuTi’ kulla Hal-laafin maheen
    And don’t incline to/obey every Hal-laafin maheen

    - Hal-laaf – takes Oaths frequently and habitually.
    - Maheen – a person of no moral or ethical standard.
     
    Ayah 11:
     

    Ayah 11:

    هَمَّازٍ مَّشَّاءٍ بِنَمِيمٍ

    Ham-maazin mash-shaa’in bi-nameem
    [And] scorner, going about with malicious gossip -
    - Ham-maaz – Poking people (i.e. with his insults and speech of gossiping [Nameem])
    It is in Fa’-'aal form [continuous doing] = It is like it is his Job, so he continuouslly does this all the time.
     
    Ayah 12:
     

    Ayah 12:

    مَّنَّاعٍ لِّلْخَيْرِ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ

    Man-naa’in li-l khayri mu’tadin atheem
    A preventer of good, transgressing and sinful,
    Has absolutely no motivation in doing good himself (nor giving in charity) and not just that – he prevents others from doing that too.

    man-naa’ – continuously preventing others.
    mu’tadin – he violates the rights of other people.
    atheem – a continuously sinning person.
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    Ayah 13:
     

    Ayah 13:

    عُتُلٍّ بَعْدَ ذَ?لِكَ زَنِيمٍ
    ‘Utul-lin ba’da dhaalika zaneem
    After that, he has no compassion, and an excess waste to society.
    ‘utullin – no compassion / mercy for others, not even at a human level.
    Ba’da dhaalika Zaneem - after that, he is continuously an excess waste to society.
    Zanama is also used for the skin which hangs loose from the neck of a goat. – something which is worthless / useless / and can cause harm more than it benefits. It actually makes the goat look ugly.

    Similarly – this person (who you should not obey) – is like a waste and ugliness to society (due to his excessive evils against everyone.)
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    Ayah 14:
     

    Ayah 14:
    أَن كَانَ ذَا مَالٍ وَبَنِينَ

    An kaana dhaa maalin wa baneen
    Because he is a possessor of wealth and children,
    Why did he do all that evil?

    Because he has got Wealth and Children/sons.
    Baneen was used with more Emphasis on sons in classical Arabic. And sons was a sign of strength who would have loyalty to their father.
    Because of this – he felt that he could oppress others and harm them and start fights with them.
    Despite being such an evil being, Allah has sent His best Messenger to recite the best of speech to this evil man. Maybe he might purify himself?
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    Ayah 15:
     
    Ayah 15:
    إِذَا تُتْلَى? عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

    idhaa tutlaa ‘alayhi aayaatunaa qaala asaaTeeru-l awwaleen
    When Our Miraculous Signs are recited on to him (Qur’anic or other Miracles are shown to him) – he says – ‘Stories of Old’.

    asaaTeer - saTr (to write down something in a Line) – ?usTooRa [singular] (asaaTeer [plural] =
    1 – Stories or random Tales which have no significance or order.
    2 – Random Stories and Fantasies that have no basis.
     
    They said it had no Basis because it (the Qur’an) points us to the Afterlife. The polytheists did not believe in an Afterlife.
    They said it had no Structures (asaaTeer) – because the Qur’an has stories in different sequences. So Moses might be mentioned in one part of the Qur’an, and then another part of his story is in another surah.
    This made past, and even some present day critics to doubt the Qur’an. Since a story should -according to humans- be told in it’s full linear form to be understandable.
    However, the intelligent believers learnt that this is done purposelly by Allah to mention an event/narrative which is relevant in giving an emphasis to the Theme of the surah’s discussion.
    Awwaleen - the Early, early people of old…
    So we see that the disbelievers would continuously reject the Message, even though an amazing, kind Messenger had come to them – reciting miracles. Yet they would become stubborn, arrogant and insult, ‘stories of old..’
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    So Allah is angry at his rejection and warns;
    Ayah 16:
     
    Ayah 16:
    سَنَسِمُهُ عَلَى الْخُرْطُومِ
    saNasimuhu ‘ala-l khurtoom
    Soon We will brand him on the Snout
    Sa [prefix] – Soon

    Nasimu – Wasam – to Brand something
    (i.e. you brand Cattle, Tattoo (al mustaWsima etc.)
    hu = him.
    ‘ala Al – upon The
    Khurtoom – means ‘Trunk’ / ‘Snout’ (i.e. of Animals.)
    Why? As a sign of humiliation / disgrace.
    Imagine branding (with hot metal) someone on their face – so everyone can know that this person was arrogant against Allah and His Messenger.
    Why was Khartoom/snout used when people do not have snouts’?
    The arrogance is expressed by people when they raise their head above others. Their nose is lifted high.
    The position of the Nose shows if the person is proud of himself or not.
    Arabic expression: “raghm al aNf” – the Nose was rubbed (in dust) = He was humiliated.
    Allah will humiliate this disbeliever – by branding that Snout that he raises high out of pride;
    1 – to humiliate him – in this life (people will call his arrogant nose a Snout)
    2 – and the next (his arrogant nose will be burnt and branded with heat to show that he was a disobedient slave of Allah).
    This is why the word Khartoom (Snout) was used. Because the disbeliever being described had an Ego problem, he had Big Arrogance, so he is described as having a big Nose = a Snout.

    “Very soon We will brand him on his Snout..”
    So the disbelievers will face humiliation in the near future, really soon.
    Context: ?Keep in mind that this is an extremely early Makki surah (maybe 3rd revelation/wahy) and the believers are an extreme minority. The disbelievers are putting pressure on them while being the majority and being the strength.
    So in the worldly perspective, the disbelievers will be arrogant. The believers will be humiliated.
    So Allah is warning the disbelievers that they will be humiliated in the near future. (which did take place in the battle of Badr, and will also take place on Judgment Day.)
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    Ayah 17:
     
    The Companions of the Garden:

    Ayah 17:
    Now that Allah has threatened the disbelievers with punishment. He will now tell us a story of a people in past nations who were similar to the high class, elite, rich disbelievers. And how their oppression would be a cause for them in losing their wealth and respect.
    Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al Qurtubi and other early Tafaseer discuss this story. Their is a difference of opinion on their authenticity.
    Some people say it is referring to a Tribe of People shortly after the time of Prophet ‘Eesa (Jesus) in Yemen, not too far from its capital city of San’aa. The town may have been called; Barawaan.

    The Story:

    These people were famous for having famous and beautiful Gardens, with ladens/loads and loads of fruits.
    Among them was an old man who had a family. He had a luxurious garden in that area. He was a pious and humble man. He let poor people enter his garden and eat from it when the fruits dropped to the floor. He was very generous and whenever fruit was plucked, he would give some of it out to people as they lined up. Some say his garden was miles and miles long.
    Eventually he died, and he had 3 sons.
    His sons said; now that we have our own families – we can’t afford to do business like dad used to do. They would close the gates of the garden and not let the poor pick fruits off the floor, and they became stingy.
    Over time – the poor started to complain. They knew that it was time for Harvest (plucking the ripe, healthy foods). And they knew that the poor would line up and ask for the food like the old days.
    So they planned that they would harvest/pluck the fruits at Fajr time (early morning) when it is partially dark. This way – the poor people would not know they are already harvesting, and by the time they reach the garden – all the fruit will have been harvested/plucked.
    They got greedy and thought they could make money out of it without helping the poor. And because of that – at night – due to some miraculous cause – silently, their whole luxurious garden was wiped out and destroyed.
    They woke up at Fajr time to harvest, and found that there were no fruits there. They traced their footsteps and went backward to see if they had come to the right garden.
    However, it was their own garden. It had all been destroyed! They couldn’t believe it.
    Then, the middle one or the best one of them – he said – I told you we shouldn’t have been greedy. So they started disputing with each other.
    Eventually they realised they were wrongdoers, so they stopped arguing and admitted that they had done oppression and wrongdoing (to the poor and also themselves.)
    One narration mentions: Once they admitted their wrong, and repented to Allah – Allah replaced them with another nice garden with lots of fruits.

    Lessons:
    However, we see that thinking of yourself as Above others, and not giving in charity causes more harm to you and your wealth in comparison to if you be generous to others in charity from the blessings Allah has given you.
    We also see that the greed and arrogance of these sons made them lose all their wealth in one night.
    They did not want to humble themselves, so Allah humbled them before the entire world. So an example is made out of them for all people, including the Quraysh who were opposing Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasalam.)
    Some narrations even mention that after the Migration of Prophet Muhammad to Medinah – a severe famine hit Makkah. And lasted for a few years and was extremely severe on the people of Makkah.
    So Allah is forewarning them that this time is coming, so take heed from this Warning.
    There is a difference of opinion on whether the following middle part of the surah is Makki or Madani revelation. Because Allah is telling us about the people mentioned in the story above, and its relation to the Quraysh – when they WILL go through the famine in the future, or when they ARE going through the famine while Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasalam) is in Medinah.
     
    Ayah 17:
    إِنَّا بَلَوْنَاهُمْ كَمَا بَلَوْنَا أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ إِذْ أَقْسَمُوا لَيَصْرِمُنَّهَا مُصْبِحِينَ

    Innaa balawnaa hum kamaa balawnaa aS-haaba-l jannati idh aQsamoo la yaSrimunnahaa muSbiheen

    Most definitely We Tested (Balaww) them, like We tested the Companions of the Garden, when they swore to cut its fruit in the [early] morning…
    Balaww – Bala / Balwa = harshly and severely test someone publically and openly so he can be an example for others.
    (Allah also tested Ibrahim with this type of test. – surah al Baqarah 2:124.)

    Similar word:
    Imtihaan - a Light Test which is easy.

    Difference of Opinion on whether these aayaat are Makki or Madani:

    Balaww (Harshly Testing) is said in the Past tense form.
    If it is Madani revealed verses, it implies: Allah harshly tested the Quraysh through a famine.
    If it is Makki revealed verses: the Past tense form of Balaww implies ‘Certainty’ – Most Certainly, Certainly We will Harshly test them…
    (the past tense implies: that it is as Certain -that Allah will harshly test them- as the Past itself is so certain.)
    .. Just like We harshly tested the Companions of the Garden.
    When they took an Oath (aQsam) that they would -most definitely- Cut the harvest in the early Sunrise.

    Saram – to Cut off with a Quick Sharp Slice i.e. the harvest crops/fruits.

    Go to Top^
    Ayah 18:
     
    Ayah 18:
    وَلَا يَسْتَثْنُونَ
    ..wa laa yastaThnoon..
    ..And they did not make Exceptions (istiThnaa).

    1st Meaning: they did not make exceptions as to sharing some of their harvest with the poor. Rather – they made the decision that they would keep all of it for themselves.
    2nd Meaning:
    LA yaSrimunNA = we SURELY will Cut off the fruits.
    The confidence that they would do it the next morning gave them false hopes, they did not have Certainty that Allah could prevent them.
    ..wa laa yastaThnoon..
    ..And they did not make Exceptions (istiThnaa) – in their Certainty (that Allah could oppose their decision.)

    3rd Meaning:
    IstiThnaa – can imply
    the meaning “inshaa’ Allah” – i.e. These people did not think about Allah even one bit when making their decision of what they would do the next day.
    Go to Top^
    Ayah 19:
     

    Ayah 19:

    فَطَافَ عَلَيْهَا طَائِفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ وَهُمْ نَائِمُونَ

    fa Taafa ‘alayhaa Taa’ifun min Rabbika wa hum Naa’imoon
    So there travelled around the garden an affliction from your Lord while they were asleep.

    Then something Taa’ifun:
    Taa’ifun – Taafa (Tawaaf) = Went Around.
    Something came and went around the garden (encircled) it.
    I.e. Maybe wind, water, fire, etc.
    And they were fast asleep (Naa’imoon)
    Then – and in morning – the garden was as if it had already been harvested. (i.e. There was not even a fruit left hanging off the trees)
    So they planned to harvest, and Allah also planned – to harvest, and destroy their garden.
    Go to Top^
    Ayah 20:
     

    Ayah 20:

    فَأَصْبَحَتْ كَالصَّرِيمِ

    And it became as though reaped [i.e. harvested / sliced / cut off].
    Allah uses the same word to show that He cut off the garden – Sareem (Sliced and cut off all its fruits.) [see ayah 17]

  3. Ayah 74:

     

    واتخذوا من دون الله آلهة لعلهم ينصرون

    But they have taken besides Allaah [false] deities that perhaps they would be helped.
    They have taken false objects of worship. They were obviously not grateful. They’ve then committed themselves to other things and paths.
    Aalihah| Word Analysis
    It is not just an idol. It is anything, any person or object that someone dedicates himself to and give priority to it over Allaah. It could be money, pleasure. an idea/notion/concept.
    What is their motive? So that maybe, they hope, that this notion will help them. It will come to their aide and rescue when they find themselves in a difficlt situation.
    Yet, that is not the reality.
    Ayah 75:

     

    لا يستطيعون نصرهم وهم لهم جند محضرون

    They are not able to help them, and they [themselves] are for them soldiers in attendance.
    Those things to which they devoted and dedicated themselves will not be able to help them in the least bit. They won’t even have the ability to help them.
    And they (these idols) for them (the people) will be present for them in the form an army.
    Jundun| Word Analysis
    It is like an army lined up. The impressiveness is in the sheer number of people. It is an endless row of false deities and objects of devotion. They will be there, right there, right by them watching them.
    This is talking about when these people are punished in the Hellfire. As another form of torment and torture for them and to show them their stupidity in decision making and choices, their false deities will stand right by them watching their punishments without any interference.
    Imagine the anguish, pain, and remorse that will bring. It’ll be an army watching over them.
    Ayah 76:

     

    فلا يحزنك قولهم إنا نعلم ما يسرون وما يعلنون

    So let not their speech grieve you. Indeed, We know what they conceal and what they declare.
    Finally, Allaah consoles the Messenger of Allaah s. What they say should not cause him any grief. Allaah is aware of everything they conspire and contract against him in private and what they do in public when attempting to disgrace him s.
    Allaah is keeping tabs on these people. He is letting them dig their own graves and will then taken them to account for it. The foolish choices they are making gave become beastly so leave them be. Everything is being recorded and they will be taken to recompense.
    Embedded within this message is also honour and distinction for the Messenger of Allaah s. He s ought not bother himself with them because the most influential of anyone and everyone will take care of him. You just keep doing what you’re doing because you’re doing a phenomenal job.
    In Verses 71-73, Allaah spoke in the first person. In Verses 74-75, Allaah spoke in the third person. Why the difference in transition?
    Western academics point to this as inconsistency, but they fail to see the literary marvel.
    The reason for this transition is that the first three verses discuss the blessings of Allaah upon the people. It is His way of reaching out to these people in order to make them realize. Then, the third person is when they’ve disappointed Him and disobeyed. A sign for showing this displeasure is turning away from the person so as not to speak to him directly. That is what Allaah has done here.
    Allaah is constantly consoling the Messenger of Allaah s throughout the Qur’aan. Someone could ask why this is so? Was he s such a sensitive person requiring this consolation repeatedly?
    Ayah 77:

     

    أولم ير الإنسان أنا خلقناه من نطفة فإذا هو خصيم مبين

    Does man not consider that We created him from a [mere] sperm-drop – then at once he is a clear adversary?
    Has the human being not seen, comprehended, reflected, and then understood?
    In the beginning of the passage, Allaah spoke to these people directly in order to mention His blessings upon them. Yet, they still rejected everything and took other objects of devotion. Allaah then speaks to them in the third person. Now, Allaah is not even addressing them. It is “the human being”. He is not even acknowledging their existence.
    Who is this insaan? There are various persons narrated
    1. Ubayy b. Khalaf
    2. Abu Jahl
    3. al-‘Aas ibn a
    all of whom were leaders of the polytheists who were very arrogant, abusive, confrontational, and disrespectful.
    At the same time, it could be general and broad. As Allaah says in (64, 2)

    هو الذي خلقكم فمنكم كافر ومنكم مؤمن والله بما تعملون بصير

    It is He who created you, and among you is the disbeliever, and among you is the believer. And Allaah, of what you do, is Seeing.
    Allaah mentions the kaafir first because despite everything being obvious, the majority of people will not believe. It’s a sad reality that the majority of people will not come to imaan. This, however, should make us that much more grateful to Allaah that we are part of a small group of people upon whom Allaah has bestowed this guidance.
    Idhaa| Word Analysis
    It expresses surprise, shock, amazement at something sudden. It can imply that something happened suddenly or amazement and baffleness.
    So this same human being to whom Allaah granted existence is from what we consider najasa. Everything this person prides himself upon (his appearance and body) is based upon filth. It’s a bitter pill to swallow. Why is he so proud and boastful if those are his beginnings?
    Not only is his beginning so pathetic, but he is khaSim.
    KhaSim| Word Analysis
    It means a loud, shouting argument where a person is adamant, arrogant and insistant. He is confrontational and stubborn. He speaks over you and yells at you. Every time you try to calm him, he shouts back. There is hyperbole in the form of this word.
    Not only that, but his argumentation is mubin. It is so clear that everyone can see and hear it. It is a public affair. He is causing a scene. So this human being becomes argumentative and confrontational, publicly against the truth and realities of life.
    Thus, the aayah means: doesn’t the human being realize where he came from – basically filth – and, yet, he still makes a scene and argues against his responsibility to being grateful?
    Ayah 78:

     

    وضرب لنا مثلا ونسي خلقه قال من يحيي العظام وهي رميم

    And he presents for Us an example and forgets his [own] creation. He says, “Who will give life to bones while they are disintegrated?”
    This human being’s arrogance clouds his judgment. He doesn’t realize what he’s doing. He gives Us, to Allaah and His Messenger s and the Qur’aan, an example. It’s ridiculous and preposterous. Allaah has given us examples throughout the Qur’aan. To teach us and explain to us. For Mr. Genius to come around and attempt this is so stupid.
    He must have forgotten that he himself was created and how he was created. Now, Allaah is explaining to us. The reader is amazed that a person will offer to give an example. Allaah is telling us that such a person is so arrogant that he must have forgotten his beginnings.
    And what is this example he gives?
    Man| Word Analysis
    He is presenting dismay and doubt at the idea. Who could possibly do it?
    Ramim| Word Analysis
    When the skeleton is literally falling to parts in your hands. The leaders from the Quraysh would actually dig up old remains and shove them before the face of the Messenger of Allaah s and mockingly question the veracity of resurrection.
    Ayah 79:

     

    قل يحييها الذي أنشأها أول مرة وهو بكل خلق عليم

    Say, “He will give them life Who produced them the first time; and He is, of all creation, Knowing.”
    Now, Allaah answers their stupidity and teaches the Messenger of Allaah, and by extension us, how to answer them. Not only that, but Allaah goes further to completely shut their mouths.
    Anshaa| Word Analysis
    Not to create, but to raise something. As if a seed is planted, watered, sunned, protected, until it is raised. This bone they were holding in their hands is after it had grown and reached its adult stage. If this is a human bone or of any creature, it wasn’t that size at first creation. It was tiny. It was permitted to grow by Allaah. Not only that, but look at the miraculous proportion and coordination of growth and development in the body. The whole body grows with the bone so that it can all flourish.
    So this Creator is so much more amazing than you can fathom. You just don’t realize this.
    He is most definitely completely informed of everything He has ever created at all times and situations.
    Who knows what He has created better than the Creator Himself? You came to argue with Allaah with your evidences and proofs to tell Allaah about that which He has created?!
    They just asked one question. Allaah answered them and specified who that someone is with proof and evidence.
    Now, Allaah will provide two lines of reason to substantiate this answer.
    Ayah 80:

     

    الذي جعل لكم من الشجر الأخضر نارا فإذا أنتم منه توقدون

    [It is] He Who made for you from the green tree, fire, and then from it you ignite.
    It shouldn’t be so hard for them to understand that Allaah will return them to life because He is the One Who made for them from the green tree, fire.
    Shajari al-akhDar| Word Analysis
    This is an idiom. It refers to a tree that is still very moist, full of life, and capable of growing. It is not like the tree which is cut down or withered. Leaves are still budding out of that tree so it is full of life.
    How does fire come from that? There are several understandings which may co-exist
    1. Accepting the aayaat in opposites. There were two types of trees famous in hejaz: markh and ‘afaar. There branches would be rubbed together and, even when moist, would spark to create fire. This was convenient for the Arabs. But why point it out? For this person, it is contradiction for life to come out of dead. Allaah then tells him that when he lights a fire using these moist branches, what is typically not used as fuel for fire, he should realize that is two opposites which are co-existing. Most scholars point to this reading.
    2. These same branches and leaves which are moist in the spring, dry to become the best fuel in the winter when they have dried.
    3. They also change from the colour green to the colour of fire.
    Then from it you light fire. Why has Allaah repeated the fire? Hasn’t He already told us that form it comes a fire?
    Remember, the idhaa shows shock and surprise. It is amazing that us as human beings knew to go from one tree to the other and use it to build a fire. Who taught us to do that? Allaah programmed us to know how to survive (20, 50)

    قال ربنا الذي أعطى كل شيء خلقه ثم هدى

    He said, “Our Lord is He Who gave each thing its form and then guided [it].”
    This is not spiritual guidance, but basic programming for existence and living. Who teaches the child to suckle or to cry? Nobody does. It’s as if its in the fitrah (30, 30)

    أقم وجهك للدين حنيفا فطرت الله التي فطر الناس عليها لا تبديل لخلق الله ذلك الدين القيم ولكن أكثر الناس لا يعلمون

    So direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth. [Adhere to] the fitrah of Allaah upon which He has created [all] people. No change should there be in the creation of Allaah. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know.
    It is part of the greatest blessings of Allaah to not leave us as wild beasts to learn things ourselves, but to give us guidance.
    This is also alluded to in (56, 71-72)

    أفرأيتم النار التي تورون

    And have you seen the fire that you ignite?

    أأنتم أنشأتم شجرتها أم نحن المنشئون

    Is it you who produced its tree or are We the producer?
    A tree is a representation of life. It is green, it provides food. It is used as a metaphor for imaan, but is also used for fire which is a sign of death. Don’t let this confuse you. It should be simple and easy to understand that Allaah can bring people back.
    Ayah 81:

     

    أوليس الذي خلق السماوات والأرض بقادر على أن يخلق مثلهم بلى وهو الخلاق العليم

    Is not He Who created the heavens and earth Fully Able to create the likes of them? Yes, [it is so]; and He is the Knowing Creator.
    And this is the second proof to that human being.
    This has already been spoken of in the surah in the passage about tawhid. Allaah has already told us in so much detail about His creations which should serve as aayaat to Him.
    The One Who created this sky and earth and everything in and between it, isn’t He able to create the likes of these people again?
    These people are fully functioning and able, but when they come to their spirituality, their brains shut down.
    Mithlahum| Word Analysis
    It’s like the mirror image of someting. Something of similitude or resemblance. It can be reflected upon to see similarities. In other places (75, 3-4)

    أيحسب الإنسان ألن نجمع عظامه

    Does man think that We will not assemble his bones?

    بلى قادرين على أن نسوي بنانه

    Yes. [We are] Able [even] to proportion his fingertips.
    Does human being really think that We can’t collect his bones back together? Most definitely, he is wrong! We can go to the extent of putting even his fingerprints back together.
    Now, Allaah will respond. This is a discussion of rhetoric. You don’t answer a rhetorical question, but Allaah is answering so that there isn’t even the slightest room for confusion remaining.
    Al-Khalaaq al-‘Alim| Word Analysis
    No doubt, He is fully capable of recreating them. In fact, He is al-Khalaaq. It is mubalagha of al-Khaliq. The One Who creates everything and creates things beyond your imagination and He has been creating since the beginning, is still creating and will continue creating at such a scope that you can’t imagine.
    Not only that, but He is al-‘Alim. He creates each and every single thing and then is fully informed about it. Everything He has created is in need of Him and it cannot do anything without His permission. This is a stronger tone of the argument in Verse 79.
    Ayah 82:

     

    إنما أمره إذا أراد شيئا أن يقول له كن فيكون

    His command is only when He intends a thing that He says to it, “Be,” and it is.
    Allaah told them how easy it is for Him to recreate them. He doesn’t need anything to create anything. No raw materials, no factory line, no nothing.
    His way, His affair, the system of Allaah is such that whenever He wants anything to happen, He simply says Kun! Fayakun.
    Shayan| Word Analysis
    It is in the common form to show the diversity of it being ANYTHING whatsoever. Allaah has wrapped the entire argument in this simple statement. Everything has been explained in details because human beings are just that dense and thick-skulled. Yet, it is so simple. He doesn’t need anyone, anything, any facilitation, any circumstances, anything at all.
    Then Allaah summarizes everything.
    Ayah 83:

     

    فسبحان الذي بيده ملكوت كل شيء وإليه ترجعون

    So exalted is He in Whose hand is the realm of all things, and to Him you will be returned.
    FasubHaan| Word Analysis
    The fa is telling us that this is the conclusion, the take-home message from Ya-Sin.
    SubHaan is a proclamation of how absolutely perfect and mindblowing.
    Who is so amazing? The One in whose hand …
    The ba shows connection as if it is tightly gripped and firm in His hand. It shows strength, confidence, total control, total ownership.
    What is in the hand of Allaah that no one can even think about taking?
    Malakutu| Word Analysis
    This is another form of mubalagha (hyperbole, exaggerated form of word). There is a rule in Arabic: when the letters within a word are increased, the meaning of that word increases as well.
    The base is mulk means dominion or kingdom or ownership. The realm of one’s power or control. So this would be total and absolute control. Not just having ownership that can be tampered with, but such that no one can even look at it the wrong way. It is sacred, very exclusive ownership.
    Somebody could raise a coup against a king or hate him, but the kingdom of Allaah is where He has total control and no one can even suppose to squeeze past His control. You can do that to the kings of this world, but no one can do that with the Kingship of Allaah.
    Allaah has also used the word in this sense here (6, 75)

    وكذلك نري إبراهيم ملكوت السماوات والأرض وليكون من الموقنين

    And thus did We show Ibrahim the realm of the heavens and the earth that he would be among the certain [in faith].
    Another understanding of using this form exists. There is an external and internal to everything. There is the tangible and measurable, but there is also the intangible which don’t have physicial natures. If someone owns a slave, he owns the body. He can order the slave to be happy, but cannot really control it. He doesn’t own the intangible to make him think or feel.
    Allaah is such an owner, however, that He controls that which the person himself cannot control. Just as Ibrahim alayhi as-salaam proclaimed (26, 78-82)

    الذي خلقني فهو يهدين

    Who created me, and He guides me.

    والذي هو يطعمني ويسقين

    And it is He Who feeds me and gives me drink.

    وإذا مرضت فهو يشفين

    And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me

    والذي يميتني ثم يحيين

    And Who will cause me to die and then bring me to life

    والذي أطمع أن يغفر لي خطيئتي يوم الدين

    And Who I aspire that He will forgive me my sin on the Day of Recompense.”
    He owns everything, even the conditions and emotions which seem to delicate. Our world can go crashing with a simple statement. Yet, He has control over every single thing (kulli shayin is in the common form to show diversity).
    Everyone likes to be on the side of the person who has authority and influence. Who has more power and influence than Allaah? In His hand is the control of everything. He has knowledge about anything for everything. How much to our advantage would it be to be on His good side, to have His pleasure. This fed the imaan and taqwa of the predecessors. Nothing fazed them. They would immediately turn to salaah. Allaahu akbar!

    Source


  4. Ayah 55:

     

    The beginning of the surah discussed two groups of people. One group will not benefit from the message, whether you warn them or not and Allaah’s decision has been confirmed for the majority of them (Verse 10). The other group were those that benefited from this message and remembrance (Verse 11). This was the objective of risalah. Now, we move on to discussing akhirah for this believing group of people.

    إن أصحاب الجنة اليوم في شغل فاكهون

    Indeed the companions of Paradise, that Day, will be amused in [joyful] occupation -
    ASHaab| Word Analysis
    Most definitely – without any doubt – the companions of Jannah. Allaah does not say ahl of Jannah, but says aSHaab of Jannah. This shows the belonging of these people to Jannah. They are the inhabitants, the dwellers. Also, they will be a group of people together. They are not isolated.
    Al-yawm is providing the imagery to make people aware of the descriptions.
    Shughlin| Word Analysis
    This is something that one engages in, one indulges in. Something that when one is involved in it, he forgets about everything else. Think of when people are playing video games and they are oblivious to everything around them. They are so engaged or absorbed in it. This is also in the common form to give it versatility, diversity in the meaning. For everyone there will be a different indulgence – hence it has not been specified.
    In the life of this world, we are told to limit our indulgences so that we may be more spiritually dedicated. In jannah, however, we will be told that for what was given up in the dunya (52, 19)

    كلوا واشربوا هنيئا بما كنتم تعملون

    [They will be told], “Eat and drink in satisfaction for what you used to do.”
    The baa here means in exchange for they had done in the days had passed. They were so focused in the life of the world, so now they can do whatever they want. They will indulge for however long in whatever in they wish to do.
    There was a bedouin man who came to the Messenger of Allaah s and asked if they would be able to farm in jannah. That is what these people do and what they enjoy. Of course they will be able to do whatever they wish.
    Faakihun| Word Analysis
    Someone is really happy, joyful. As if giddy and jolly. There is so much energy in their happiness that they almost don’t know what to do with it. They don’t know how to contain themselves. So engaging in their indulgences they will be so completely absorbed (fi) in happiness because there will be no other responsibilities or distractions for them.
    Ayah 56:

     

    هم وأزواجهم في ظلال على الأرائك متكئون

    They and their spouses – in shade, reclining on adorned couches.
    Their happiness is even greater because they are doing it with others – with their spouses! Their is no loneliness for them. They will be surrounded by shade – as if they are sitting outdoors in a beautiful scenery (the gardens of jannah). They are gardens beneath which rivers flow and these rivers are (47, 15)

    مثل الجنة التي وعد المتقون فيها أنهار من ماء غير آسن وأنهار من لبن لم يتغير طعمه وأنهار من خمر لذة للشاربين وأنهار من عسل مصفّى ولهم

     
    فيها من كل الثمرات ومغفرة من ربهم كمن هو خالد في النار وسقوا ماء حميما فقطع أمعاءهم
    Is the description of Paradise, which the righteous are promised, wherein are rivers of water unaltered (never to stench), rivers of milk the taste of which never changes, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink (from them), and rivers of purified honey in which they will have from all [kinds of] fruits and forgiveness from their Lord, like [that of] those who abide eternally in the Fire and are given to drink scalding water that will sever their intestines?
    The gardens in jannah will have blades of grass that are literally like diamonds, pearls, rubies and gems and stone. And the trees in jannah: if a person was to ride a horse, he would not be able to cross the shadow for 100 years (Bukhari).
    This is the scenery for these people.
    Usually when we are seated outdoors under the shade of a tree, we use something to recline in but it’s usually not comfortable. These people will have araaaik (sing. arik) is like something between a bed and couch – a recliner. This is unbelievable and so wonderful.
    Ayah 57:

     

    لهم فيها فاكهة ولهم ما يدعون

    For them therein is fruit and for them is whatever they request [or wish]
    What happens when one is indulging in an activity? They want some snacks. They will have fruits waiting for them. And how will this person eat the fruits? (69, 23)

    قطوفها دانية

    Its [fruit] to be picked hanging near.
    This person is sitting back in the recliner and will see the shade casting the tree above them and see this ripe, juicy fruit hanging over them. They will think that it looks delicious and the fruit itself will come closer. This person won’t even have to get up to get it! The tree will literally bend to the person’s mouth so he can eat it and then it will go back up and return when he wants more.
    The luxury we’ve seen in this world does not even compare to what is awaiting for these people in Paradise.
    And this is only a preview, the reality is that it is exclusively for them – for the people of jannah. Exclusively for them is whatever they could ask for.
    Yadda’un| Word Analysis
    Du’aa is to call out for something. This is in the exaggerated form. It means whatever they could ever ask for.
    A minority opinion is that it comes from the root of the verb meaning to claim something. This would refer to them not even having to verbalize what they want. They won’t even have to do that much. They will have whatever they have merely desired (41, 31)

    نحن أولياؤكم في الحياة الدنيا وفي الآخرة ولكم فيها ما تشتهي أنفسكم ولكم فيها ما تدعون

    We [angels] were your allies in wordly life and [are so] in the Hereafter. And you will have therein whatever your souls desire and you will have therein whatever you request [or wish].
    He will merely think it and it will be there for him. Anything, everything. It will be made available exclusively for them.
    Ayah 58:

     

    سلام قولا من ربّ رحيم

    [And] “Peace,” a word from a Merciful Lord.
    Salaamun| Word Analysis
    They will be given salaam – peace and safety. A proclamation is being made like a congratulations. It is showered down upon them. It is in the common form so it is peace and safety of every type for all of eternity.
    And this is a word (salaamun) given to them from Rabbi Ar-Rahmaan.
    Rabb| Word Analysis
    It is the one who created, provides, sustains, maintains, guides, and protects. He has done all of these for you. He has guided you to this path, had mercy upon you, forgiven you, and given you this luxurious place of abiding for all of eternity. It is self-descriptive.
    And they will say (7, 43)

    ونزعنا ما في صدورهم من غلّ تجري من تحتهم الأنهار وقالوا الحمد لله الذي هدانا لهذا وما كنا لنهتدي لولا أن هدانا الله لقد جاءت رسل ربنا

     
    بالحق ونودوا أن تلكم الجنة أورثتموها بما كنتم تعملون
    And We will have removed whatever is witin their breasts of resentment, [while] flowing beneath them are rivers. And they will say, “Praise to Allaah, Who has guided us to this and we would never have been guided if Allaah had not guided us. Certainly the messengers of our Lord had come with the truth.” And they will be called, “This is Paradise, which you have been made to inherit for what you used to do.”
    They have proclaimed that they could not have gotten here if they had not received this guidance from their Lord. Their Lord who is Ar-Rahmaan. The One Who is merciful to you from before you are created until now when you are in jannah. He has been and is ultimately and continuously merciful to you.
    Ayah 59:

     

    وامتازوا اليوم أيها المجرمون

    [Then He will say], “But stand apart today, you criminals.
    Now, we switch for the people of the left-hand, the people of Hellfire. We are introduced to them in a very powerful way. There are remarkable stories regarding this aayah that the scholars have mentioned. In their night prayers, they would come to it and recite it all night long, weeping as they are reciting until morning time has come.
    The transition from speaking regarding the people of jannah to the people of naar is remarkable.
    Wamtaazu| Word Analysis
    This is in the imperative, the command form. It comes from imtiyaz meaning to separate something that was mixed. Like picking out a particular nut from trail mix.
    People in the world are mixed up. Everyone is crossing paths, living in the same neighbourhoods, going to the same schools, and attending the same parties. There was no distinction between right and wrong, but there were some who were living a conscious lifestyle. They were crossing paths, but at the same time, they had a different lifestyle.
    Sometimes the punishment of Allaah doesn’t come immediately. People who are ungrateful and disobedient are living life without a harsh, open punishment. This should not deceive them. It should not serve as validation of their ways.
    The blessing of Allaah is of two types: quantity and quality. They forget (6, 44)

    فلما نسوا ما ذكروا به فتحنا عليهم أبواب كل شيء حتى إذا فرحوا بما أوتوا أخذناهم بغتة فإذا هم مبلسون

    So when they forget that by which they had been reminded, We opened to them the doors of every [good] thing until, when they rejoiced in that which they were given, We seized them suddenly and they were [then] in despair.
    The message came again and again to remind them that they should be grateful and obedient to their Lord, realize their real pupose in life. Their end, however, is completely bankrupt and hopeless. They are held accountable and should not live in delusions.
    They may have had time and blessing in the dunya, but now they must separate.
    This is the third time that al-yawm (today) has been mentioned in this passage. this is very rare. The reason why it is used is to make us picture the situation as if it is happening right here, right now. Imagine yourself in a group of people, seeing the gates of Paradise and the gates of Hellfire before you now. It all comes down to this moment, this day. Now, criminals separate yourselves from the others. Imagine thinking that you are one of those people. You’ll try to hide yourself and be among the others. But it will be to no avail because Allaah knows what’s even in the hearts of man.
    Mujrim | Word Analysis
    Not just a criminal, but a convicted, sentenced criminal. The one who has done something wrong and now must serve the consequences.
    And now Allaah will tell us why this is happening. This is the blessing of the Qur’aan. Sometimes when someone does something wrong and is told to pay the penalty. That person often thinks, “If I knew it was going to be this bad, I wouldn’t have done it.” Subhana Allaah, Allaah is telling us how bad it is going to be out of His mercy. To warn us.
    There is no vengence. Our Lord is so merciful, He has given us every opportunity. At the end of the day there must be some responsibility on our part. It can be analogous to a person being told he has a test in seven days and given the answer key to memorize in six days. No one can call that teacher merciless at the end. It would be ridiculous to say such a thing. Allaah has given us all the answers and told us everything in advance to read, understand and implement.
    If we don’t take the wisdom, then there is no one to blame but ourselves.
    Ayah 60:

     

    ألم أعهد إليكم يا بني آدم أن لا تعبدوا الشيطان إنه لكم عدو مبين

    Did I not enjoin upon you, O children of Adam, that you not worship Satan – [for] indeed, he is to you a clear enemy -
    Allaah addresses the criminals now. “Had I not entrusted to you (given to you the responsibility), O children of Adam?”
    What was entrusted? What was the responsibility?
    To not worship Shaytaan.
    ‘Ibadaah | Word Analysis
    It is translated as worship, but it literally means to willingly become a slave of something. So don’t become a slave or devotee of Shaytaan and his system. This is a path based upon arrogance, defiance, disobedience. Shaytaan refused to bow down because (7, 12)

    قال ما منعك ألا تسجد إذ أمرتك قال أنا خير منه خلقتني من نار وخلقته من طين

    [Allaah] said, “What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?” [Shaytaan] said, “I am better than him. You created me from fire and created him from clay.”
    He was unapologetic, not remorseful for what he had done. Then, even further (38, 82)

    قال فبعزتك لأغوينهم أجمعين

    [Iblis] said, “By Your might, I will surely mislead them all”
    and (7, 17)

    ثم لآتينهم من بين أيديهم ومن خلفهم وعن أيمانهم وعن شمائلهم ولا تجد أكثرهم شاكرين

    Then I will come to them from before them and from behind them and on their right and on their left, and You will not find most of them grateful [to You].”
    The Qur’aan develops obedience within us. Shukr is a direct result of the reminder of the Qur’aan and becoming grateful makes us obedient. It makes it easy for us to devote ourselves. Shaytaan’s problem was that he was not grateful and falling into his schemes and deception is to become ungrateful.
    Why should we be wary of Shaytaan?
    He is for us (especially for us because lakum is early in the phrase) a clear, known, open enemy. Shaytaan is not hiding his animosity towards us. He will have a discussion with the people of Hellfire (14, 22)

    وقال الشيطان لما قضي الأمر إن الله وعدكم وعد الحق ووعدتكم فأخلفتكم وما كان لي عليكم من سلطان إلا أن دعوتكم فاستجبتم لي فلا تلوموني

     
    ولوموا أنفسكم ما أنا بمصرخكم وما أنتم بمصرخي إني كفرت بما أشركتمون من قبل إن الظالمين لهم عذاب أليم
    And Shaytaan will say when the matter has been concluded, “Indeed, Allaah had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, but I betrayed you. But I had no authority over you except that I invited you and you responded to me. So do not blame me; but blame yourselves. I cannot be called to your aid, nor can you be called to my aid. Indeed, I deny your association of me [with Allaah] before. Indeed, for the wrongdoers is a painful punishment.”
    Hasan al-Basri described this scene as if Shaytaan is the khatib in the Hellfire and the people are all surronding him. When everything is said and done and they have all been doomed to Jahannam. He merely made recommendations. You bought into his marketing. Don’t blame him, but blame yourselves.
    The Prophets told us that Shaytaan is our enemy. Look around us, the people who are following the life Shaytaan is pedaling are miserable. They have small, temporary moments of pleasure. Overwheleming, however, they lack contentment, peace, and tranquility.
    The happiness and peace we feel when fasting and standing in tarawih, they don’t feel it.
    So what had Allaah wanted us to do?
    Ayah 61:

     

    وأن اعبدوني هذا صراط مستقيم

    And that you worship [only] Me? This is a straight path.
    Allaah wanted for us to devote and dedicate ourselves in worship to Him. To completely live to please Allaah.
    What does that entail?
    Humility. Realizing that we know nothing and we have nothing, but Allaah knows everything and has given us everything.
    Gratitude. To show Allaah that we are grateful for everything He has given us.
    This is a straight path.
    Hadha| Word Analysis
    This is ism’l-ishara – it is a pointing word. It is for that which is near (dhalika is for that which is far). The implication of it being near is that it’s so near and attainable. It’s so easy to reach forward and grab.
    It is a straight path. It is so natural. Our fitrah tells us to be obedient to Allaah. It is easy.
    To leave the easy and go for that which is disobedient is difficult and less accessible. It is rough and has more consequences.
    Ayah 62:

     

    ولقد أضل منكم جبلّا كثيرا أفلم تكونوا تعقلون

    And he had already led astray from among you much of creation, so did you not use reason?
    Despite all of this, how sad is the condition of humankind. Despite everything being so obvious and simple, we are so pathetic. The reality of the situation is that most definitely he has led astray much of us.
    Jibillan| Word Analysis
    It comes from the same root as jabal meaning a mountaing. It means something that is huge and reaching high into the sky. So it is a huge group of people that is so crowded it is as if people are sitting on top of each other.
    Didn’t we think for a moment? If we had thought for just a minute, we would have considered what we were doing and the consequences of these choices. A sane and rational person would not have done this because those (39, 18)

    الذين يستمعون القول فيتبعون أحسنه أولئك الذين هداهم الله وأولئك هم أولو الألباب

    Who listen to speech and follow the best of it. Those are the ones Allaah has guided, and those are people of understanding.
    That is the tragedy. They are intelligent people, very successful and educated in their work and careers. They are exemplary in investments, social navigation, social status, etc. They are brilliant and exceptional, so good at everything. Their brains, however, shut down when they come here.
    If Islam is so logical, then why didn’t these brilliant people take it? Were they not as smart as we think they are or is there something wrong?
    1. Guidance is in the hands of Allaah. Allaah chooses whom to guide and whom to misguide. This is not based on qualification, but is a gift from Allaah.
    2. The people do not show the same dedication in spirituality as in other areas. They do not bring the same fervor, dedication, and commitment to this matter while they carry it in others. We need to bring our A-game to din. It is not ritual! It requires intelligence and understanding to be fully impactful. Bring ihsaan, bring your best abilities. Allaah will give further guidance to those people (39, 18 – above).
    This passage has served to separate the people of Paradise from the people of Hellfire. To conclude, Allaah has said (40, 10)

    إن الذين كفروا ينادون لمقت الله أكبر من مقتكم أنفسكم إذ تدعون إلى الإيمان فتكفرون

    Indeed, those who disbelieve will be addressed, “The hatred of Allaah for you was [even] greater than your hatred of yourselves [on this Day in Hell] when you were invited to faith, but you refused.”
    You may be frustrated with yourselves today, Allaah was more frustrated with you when you were called to imaan but you disbelieved.
    How can you treat Shaytaan as your friend when he is taking advantage of you and is your clear enemy? Allaah is your true friend, your Protector, your Mawla.
    Ayah 63:

     

    هذه جهنم التي كنتم توعدون

    This is the Hellfire which you were promised.
    Now, we get to the sentencing being issued to these criminals. At this point and time, Allaah is directly addressing these people. This is the most appropriate matter for the occasion.
    Again, ism’l-ishara is used and it emphasizes that the Hellfire is so close and near. It’s close enough to touch and take them. It will be right there. Just like jannah was right there for the obedient to smell, now jahannam is right there for the disobedient to feel.
    Jahannam| Word Analysis
    It is the actual, given name of the fire of Hell.
    Allaah has said (46, 34)

    ويوم يعرض الذين كفروا على النار

    And the Day those who disbelieved will be made to stand, presented before upon the fire …
    This is the scene of the Hellfire and punishment. Imagine somebody taken and hung over the fire so that only that which is holding on to him is keeping him from falling into it. We were warned about this and promised that if we continued doing what we’re doing, this would be the outcome. This, this fire before our eyes, is what we were warned about.
    Ayah 64:

     

    اصلوها اليوم بما كنتم تكفرون

    [Enter to] burn therein today for what you used to deny.”
    ISlaw| Word Analysis
    This is the command form from sad-laam-ya meaning to enter into fire. It is specified to entering into fire. It is sometimes used in its transitive form (tasliya) “to enter something into fire”. It depends upon the discourse in the Qur’aan.
    1. Sometimes, criminals are told to enter themselves into the Fire even if they know what happens in it.
    2. Other times, Allaah enters the criminals into the Fire or commands the Angels to enter them into it.
    Either way, it’s very scary.
    Al-yawm| Word Analysis
    It is mentioned again (now, the fourth time) to show the imperative nature of these consequences. These people would say to the messengers to bring the punishment. They would be arrogant in this manner. Now, they are told to go and walk ahead into it because it is here.
    Bimaa| Word Analysis
    Baa is the most versatile letters in the language. In classical works of grammar there are 12-13 uses. One is the causative baa : what comes before it is a result of what comes afer it. {Result – baa – cause}.
    They are told to enter because of that which they used to deny – they were disobedient and ungrateful which made them disbelieve. The first reaction as they are pushed into this punishment will be, “Why are you doing this to me?” They will be defensive, but no one is pushing them in. They chose this for themselves repeatedly. That is why this is happening to them.
    Kuntum is there to show the persistence of their actions. Their ungratefulness was persisting and did not end.
    Takfurun| Word Analysis
    This surah has repeatedly highlighted the role of shukr in obedience. The aayaat of Allaah remind us (dhikr) which makes us grateful (shukr) which manifests itself in ibadaah (worship, devotion, dedication.
    The opposite is true as well. When you don’t pay attention to the aayaat you are not reminded. When you are not reminded, you are heedless, oblivious and unaware. So you are not grateful because you have not given yourself the opportunity to think This will then manifest itself in the form of disobedience and eventually disbelief. And this is the result of it today – jahannam.
    Ayah 65:

     

    اليوم نختم على أفواههم وتكلمنا أيديهم وتشهد أرجلهم بما كانوا يكسبون

    That Day, We will seal over their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their feet will testify about what they used to earn.
    From the literary marvel of the Qur’aan, something changes here. Allaah was speaking to them (kuntum) in the second person, to speaking about them (-him) because they have been sentenced and were entered into the Hellfire. They will continue to cry out from there, pleading and begging, but will be told (23, 108)

    قال اخسئوا فيها ولا تكلمون

    He will say, “Remain despised therein and do not speak to Me.”
    Ikhsau fiha is like shooing a dog away. They had their chance and now ought not speak or make noise.
    ‘Alaa| Word Analysis
    It is on top of something. So here it is like sealing over top of something so that the seal is complete and cannot be broken. This propogates the graphic and vivid nature of the verse.
    Their hands will start to speak because they will try to lie with their mouths. We know from other places that even with ‘Isa ‘alayhi as-salaam they will try to lie.
    They belied the messengers repeatedly in the beginning of the surah. They belied Allaah and mocked the idea of giving what Allaah had given them. They said so much nonsense and garbage. All of that was in the dunya. They had every opportunity to say something good, just like that man from the edge of the town who said something. They made their choice, but today no one wants to hear their trash.
    Their legs will testify. They will literally be witnesses to what the person has done, just like other parts of their bodies (41, 20)

    حتى إذا ما جاءوها شهد عليهم سمعهم وأبصارهم وجلودهم بما كانوا يعملون

    Until, when they reach it, their hearing and their eyes and their skins will testify against them of what they used to do.
    They will complain to their skin, “Why are you testifying against us?” Their sight and skin will complain, but when they retort it will only be to the skin. That is because the skin will feel the punishment. And they use the plural because all of that person is in it together (41, 21)

    وقالوا لجلودهم لم شهدتم علينا قالوا أنطقنا الله الذي أنطق كل شيء وهو خلقكم أول مرة وإليه ترجعون

    And they will say to their skins, “Why have you testified against us?” They will say, “We were made to speak by Allaah, who has made everything speak; and He created you the first time and to Him you are returned.
    What are they testifying to? They are testifying to that which these people used to do. They are only answering to what they did. Allaah makes them testify because it cannot be denied by another person. This is the helpless nature of these people. The people of jannah had pure luxury, but these people have pure desertion in their condition.
    They caused emotional distress to the messengers. They taunted them over the deaths of their wives, uncles, and sons. They had no mercy, no humanity. They made opportunities out of everything. That’s how ruthless they were. Today, they are being tormented.
    Ayah 66:

     

    ولو نشاء لطمسنا على أعينهم فاستبقوا الصراط فأنى يبصرون

    And if We willed, We could have obliterated their eyes, and they would race to [find] the path, and how could they see?
    Tams| Word Analysis
    It literally means to rub something out. Think of an eraser on very hard writing. There will still be some mark to show existence. So something would have been remained of their eyes, but they would be disfigured. Then they would be running around looking for that path.
    But how could they ever see again?
    Ayah 67:

     

    ولو نشاء لمسخناهم على مكانتهم فما استطاعوا مضيّا ولا يرجعون

    And if We willed, We could have deformed them, [paralyzing them] in their places so they would not be able to proceed, nor could they return.
    Similarly, Allaah says that He could have disfigured them themselves. They would have been completely mutiliated, destroyed where they stood. They wouldn’t be able to go forward. They wouldn’t have the ability to move on, nor could they ever go back.
    All their faculties were completely taken away to leave raw pieces of meat. That is very powerful. It’s a graphic and disturbing image. That’s the point – at the end of the day, it’s not fun and games. They played with their own situations. They put themselves in harm’s way.
    The mercy in this, however, is that it is being told to us now. This is no surprise. It’s right here, right now. Read it and fix it. Change things for yourselves.
    The scholars point out that Allaah says law nashaa – if We wished. These people actually get opportunity and chance after chance. They have the opportunity to turn back and realize their purpose in life. If they, however, continue to ignore the signs around and even within them and the message relayed to them, they are digging their own pits in the Hellfire. If this came to pass, this would happen. Yet, on that Day they will be taken to recompense for their choices.
    Ayah 68:

     

    This is somewhat a conclusion for this passage. It also serves as a transition to the following passage.

    ومن نعمره ننكسه في الخلق أفلا يعقلون

    And he to whom We grant long life We reverse in creation; so will they not understand?
    {And whomsoever We grant extended life to, We cause him to regress in his overall condition; so don’t they process this?}
    These are very sophisticated words.
    Wa man| Word Analysis
    This presents a hypothetical situation.
    Nu’ammirhu| Word Analysis
    ‘Umar means age and the verb category means to grant extended age. The verb pattern here has the implication of something happening little-by-little, step-by-step, stage-by-stage. This is like anzal (all at once) or tanzil (little-by-little).
    Nunakkishu| Word Analysis
    This comes from naks literally means to flip something over from head to tail. It is used metaphorically to speak of something regressing backwards. This person is turned backwards, his faculties are flipped, in creation.
    As the people begin to age, their bodies begin to slow down; their minds slow down; emotionally, they slow down. This is also pointed out in (30, 54)

    الله الذي خلقكم من ضعف ثم جعل من بعد ضعف قوة ثم جعل من بعد قوة ضعفا وشيبة يخلق ما يشاء وهو العليم القدير

    Allaah is the one Who created you from weakness, then made after weakness strength, then made after strength weakness and white hair. He creates what He wills, and He is the Knowing , the Competent.
    Da’af (weakness) refers to infancy. Then from it comes strength – you get older and become competent until you are independent. Then from it comes weakness and eventually old age. As a person ages, he regresses. To the point where it becomes so detrimental (22, 5)

    يا أيها الناس إن كنتم في ريب من البعث فإنا خلقناكم من تراب ثم من نطفة ثم من علقة ثم من مضغة مخلقة وغير مخلقة لنبين لكم ونقر في الأرحام

     
    ما نشاء إلى أجل مسمّى ثم نخرجكم طفلا ثم لتبلغوا أشدكم ومنكم من يتوفى ومنكم من يرد إلى أرذل العمر لكيلا يعلم من بعد علم شيئا وترى الأرض
    هامدة فإذا أنزلنا عليها الماء اهتزت وربت وأنبتت من كل زوج بهيج
    O people, if you should be in doubt about the resurrection, then [consider that] indeed, We created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, them from a clinging clot, and then from a lump of flesh, formed and unformed – that We may show you. And We settle in the wombs whom We will for a specified term, then We bring you out as a child, and then [We develop you] that you may reach your [time of] maturity. And among you is he who is taken in [early] death, and among you is he who is returned to the most decrepit [old] age so that he knows, after [once having] knowledge, nothing. And you see the earth barren, but when We send down upon it rain, it quivers and swells and grows [something] of every beautiful kind.
    He is returned to the worst period of life – from knowing something to knowing nothing at all. Think of Alzheimer’s Disease – they wake up and don’t even recognize people.
    In and of itself, this verse is powerfully reminding us of the blessings we have. The people denied and rejected risalah, then tawhid, then akhirah. So what allows a person to continue being arrogant in this manner? It is the capability this person has. Their strength and faculties can cloud their judgment. So realize and understand that this delusion is temporary. Time is what we all crave. As time goes on, however, life’s challenges come with it. You may have more time, but everything you pride yourself for is withering away.
    So won’t you wake up? This isn’t hypothetical anymore. This is very real and around us all. Everyone sees that age.
    The mufassirun have much discussion over how this ties in with the previous discourse (Verses 65-67). There are a few opinions.
    1. The two hypotheticals (law nashaa …) were supported with evidence with this example. The diminishing is happening at a lower level around us all. These people do fall to the stage of being mere flesh seated before us. Allaah could speed the process and make it happen faster.
    2. Allaah can flip the situation for people (nunakkis). They may have all that pomp and glory which is providing them with the arrogance to deny and belie the message and warnings, but their situation can so easily be turned around. And it will be so easily turned around.
    3. This is an evidence for being resurrected. The person can go from being helpless to strong to helpless again just like Allaah can bring about the situation of life to death and to life again.
    4. In the last two verses, Allaah said law nashaa (if We had willed), but He didn’t do it to them. Why didn’t He do that? Rather, what did He do to them? That would have brought a quick end to things and only suffered in the hereafter. They will also, however, pay for their crime in this world. For their arrogance and crime. They will be humiliated in this life. They will grow old, they won’t be as loud or smart as they once were. Not only are they now lacking that upper hand, but they are old and feeble.
    Abu Lahab was very arrogant. There were some who met a quick end like Abu Jahl, but Abu Lahab had a very ill end where his body was almost rotting. His family literally locked him up and cast him to the side. His last days were spent far from being that handsome man, but being a deteriorated person. They didn’t even realize he was dead until days had passed. Eventually, they had to pay slaves to dispose of his body. He wasn’t even buried properly, but was left for some birds or animals to eat. Look at the torture they experience for the boastfulness they have.
    So won’t they wake up and use their minds for the reality that is presented before them?
    Ayah 69:

     

    We begin a new passage here. The surah concludes with the same issues with which it opened.
    It began by swearing by the profound wisdom of the Qur’aan; it will end by emphasizing the power, validity and substance of the Qur’aan. It is not like poetry which loses substance if it focuses upon style and loses style if it focuses upon substance.
    Then it will focus upon that substance being the greatest proof for the validity of the messengership of the Messenger of Allaah s. It then focuses upon telling the Messenger of Allaah s that only a person whose decency is still intact will express any interest in the message being spread. Those who reject it are only doing it because of a problem lying within themselves and not a problem with the message itself. Then it will focus on the signs around us. Next, it will conclude by focusing upon shukr as reflection upon the aayaat.
    Finally, it will given consolation to the Messenger of Allaah s for his frustration with the people who continue to reject, refuse and deny the message and criticize him. Allaah tells him that these people have the audacity to talk ill of Allaah Himself; they are so blatantly disobedient, arrogant and even stupid, so why would you be surprised that they speak ill of you? They have no decency left in them. So leave them to Allaah for He can handle them most appropriately.

    وما علمناه الشعر وما ينبغي له إن هو إلا ذكر وقرآن مبين

    And We did not given him [Prophet Muhammad] knowledge of poetry, nor is it befitting for him. It is not but a message and a clear Qur’aan.
    Allaah is refuting the very obvious go-to criticism of anyone refusing the Messenger of Allaah s. Their easiest cop out was (21, 5)

    بل قالوا أضغاث أحلام بل افتراه بل هو شاعر فليأتنا بآية كما أرسل الأولون

    But they say, “[The revelation is but] a mixture of false dreams; rather, he has invented it; rather he is a poet. So let him bring us a sign just as the previous [messengers] were sent [with miracles].”
    Allaah refutes this in a very intelligent and comprehensive manner. Allaah did not say that “he does not speak in poetry”, but rather he connects the source of the knowledge to Himself. If he were to learn poetry, he would have learned it from Us, but We did not teach him poetry. The only source of knowledge for him s was Allaah Himself. He does not deliver from someone or something else. The claims of academic research papers that he s learned from others and then came up with the Qur’aan – yet, if only they read the sirah, they would see the errors of their claims.
    Yanbaghi| Word Analysis
    And it was not befitting for him. It was not fit for him to be a poet or to engage in poetry. It is literally just not right.
    In Surat’l-Shu’araa (26), Allaah tells us three problems with poetry or poets. This is not to condemn poetry, but when comparing it to divine revelation.
    1. Poets are more concerned with style and adoration of people. It is important to them, how their entertainment and art is critiqued and received. Divine revelation, however, is more concerned with the substance and living up to what they are presenting.
    2. Poetry can contradict itself; it can say one thing and defy it in the next line. The Qur’aan issues this challenge for itself.
    3. People who usually become obsessed with poets and their work and poetry are those who lack focus in life. A lot of people who follow their poetry very closely don’t really know what they’re doing. Today, they are usually the musicians and may even be stoners. Divine revelation, prophets and messengers and their followers, however, are people of great intelligence and purpose. They are integral contributors to humanity. You’d be embarassed to look back at it years from now, but never will that happen for divine revelation.
    The Messenger of Allaah s for this reason had a dislike for pushing patterns unnaturally. His s statements were natural, they were inspiration. He s condemned to sit and make up supplications which had patterns (e.g. rhythm) within them. Be sincere, substance is what matters. What will add acceptability to your prayers? To humble yourself, as if groveling, before Allaah. If you are so humbled that you are stumbling over yourself and cannot even be coherent, that is heavier than the most eloquent and practiced supplication.
    Even when speaking to people, don’t speak over a teleprompter. Be sincere in your communication because it will hit home harder. It will be more effective.
    So if it’s not poetry and it’s not even befitting for him to be carrying poetry to people, then what is it? It is nothing but dhikrun (a reminder).
    Dhikrun| Word Analysis
    It is a reminder, in the common form to emphasize that it is a reminder of many, many things.
    1. The reality of life
    2. Fitrah – their true innate nature
    3. The history of humanity. What’s happened to the people of before, the messengers and prophets, those who denied them, those who followed them.
    4. The outcome, the consequences of their choices in this life and in the hereafter.
    It’s remarkable that we are told to look to these aayaat to find the evidences for Allaah, yet proclaimed academics like Hawking’s new work say that they point to evidence against God. There are, however, other academics who make such profound statements against this argument. They say it is because Hawking is obsessed with the question “How?”, but he cannot ask himself nor answer the question “Why?” If he were to ask, “Why?”, then he would never arise at this conclusion. So that we may come to shukr.
    Mubin| Word Analysis
    This is nothing but a reminder and mubin. It is a clear, self-evident Qur’aan. This word has repeated itself throughout Ya-Sin – the message of the prophets, the open error of the townspeople, the animosity of Shaytaan. It proves itself. It doesn’t require any philosopher to explain it.
    It can mean that thing in and of itself is clear (intransitive), but that it verifies, is a verifying force (transitive). Like glasses that are foggy which you clean. We have a lot of distraction around us, but the Qur’aan brings that clarity. Just build it into your life and everything will begin to make sense.
    This is not new information, it is reminding us of something we may have merely lost focus about. It is reminding us of that reality all around us.
    But if the Messenger sis not a poet, then what is his job?
    Ayah 70:

     

    لينذر من كان حيّا ويحق القول على الكافرين

    To warn whoever is alive and justify the word against the disbelievers.
    His s job is to warn.
    Indhar| Word Analysis
    It is to warn someone of the imminent danger they are in, and he is only doing it out of concern for them. His s job is to remind so that he may warn the one who is alive.
    It sounds obvious. We don’t remind dead people. It’s not speaking about physically living, but spiritually living people. Those who still have some humanity in them. It will make a difference if you warn them because they will follow it, fearing Allaah in absence. This is just like in the introduction of Ya-Sin and (35, 22)

    وما يستوي الأحياء ولا الأموات إن الله يسمع من يشاء وما أنت بمسمع من في القبور

    And not equal are the living and the dead. Indeed, Allaah causes to hear whom He wills, but you cannot make hear those in the graves.
    Somebody who has lost all decency and is covered with darkness, he cannot be made to hear. So his s job is only to warn those who has a living heart. The others will have their organs speak for their choices. They are building the case against themselves.
    And al-qawl is the decision from Verse 7. This is for those who are ungrateful to Allaah, enjoying all the pleasures Allaah has given them, but not realizing the gratitude or obedience owed by them to Allaah.
    Ayah 71:

     

    Now, Allaah is reiterating the blessings and signs around people to instill gratefulness in them. Yet, what is their reaction and what will be its conclusion.

    أولم يروا أنا خلقنا لهم مما عملت أيدينا أنعاما فهم لها مالكون

    Do they not see that We have created for them from what Our hands have made, grazing livestock, and [then] they are their owners?
    Have these people not seen, then thought about, then reflected and realized something profound from it?
    There is an interesting sequence here which will be repeated. Allaah is attributing these blessings to Himself and He created it exclusively for them, as if for their benefit. For them to use, for them to enjoy. It is a facility he has provided for them. This is a powerful method of reminding people by means of reminding them of what He has done for them. This is a very natural way of convincing someone. When someone wants you to show them some level of respect and you are not showing it, they will mention all those things they have done for you. That is how our minds work. We need reminders of these things sometimes and it makes a difference for us.
    Allaah is showing us the lengths to which He went to facilitate this for us – He made it with His own hands. He did it for us Himself jalla wa ‘alaa. These verses are very similar to 33-35; Allaah mentioned that they did not make these things they enjoy with their own hands. The flipside of this argument is that Allaah has made it all for them from His own hands.
    From amongst the things He has made are an’aaman – livestock (four-legged things). So many of our basic needs and necessities are fulfilled through these creatures. For example, (88, 17)

    أفلا ينظرون إلى الإبل كيف خلقت

    Then do they not look at the camels – how they are created?
    Even when trying to make the human being realize to live up to the standard of being a human being, Allaah uses this comparison (7, 179)

    ولقد ذرأنا لجهنم كثيرا من الجن والإنس لهم قلوب لا يفقهون بها ولهم أعين لا يبصرون بها ولهم آذان لا يسمعون بها أولئك كالأنعام بل هم أضل

     
    أولئك هم الغافلون
    And We have certainly created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind. They have hearts with which they do not understand, they have eyes with which they do not see, and they have ears with which they do nor hear. Those are like livestock; rather, they are more astray. It is they who are heedless.
    They are even more lost than livestock which brings benefit to others.
    And then those human beings are exclusively in ownership of these animals. Allaah created these animals and then gave full ownership to us. But why discuss ownership?
    Ayah 72:

     

    وذللناها لهم فمنها ركوبهم ومنها يأكلون

    And We have tamed them for them, so some of them they ride, and some of them they eat.
    Dhalalnaahaa| Word Analysis
    It comes from the opposite of ‘izza – strength or the ability to dominate something or someone. Dhulal is to be helpless and completely at someone’s mercy. These animals are at our mercy. We can tie them, herd them, milk them, eat them, ride them, etc. We can do whatever we need with them.
    This requires reflection. Why is it a blessing? There are lots of creatures of Allaah, but not as much at our mercy as livestock. Others cannot be dominated and may even be sources of danger for us. These animals, however, meet our needs.
    Some of them serve as transporation. Some of them are forms of nutrition, plentiful and endless supplies of food.
    Ayah 73:

     

    ولهم فيها منافع ومشارب أفلا يشكرون

    And for them therein are [other] benefits and drinks, so will they not be grateful?
    And exclusively for human beings, in these animals are benefits.
    Manaafi’u| Word Analysis
    This is a form of the plural which is exaggerated. There are lots and lots and lots of benefits from these animals. We use their skin and hide, their bones, their bodies themselves and what come from them.
    Even our basic need of drink can be provided for by them!
    Now finally, the culmination of all this should be that we are grateful. Yet, why aren’t we?
    Another example where Allaah uses the cow to invoke our gratitude (16, 66)

    وإن لكم في الأنعام لعبرة نسقيكم مما في بطونه من بين فرث ودم لبنا خالصا سائغا للشاربين

    And indeed for you in grazing livestock is a lesson. We give you drink from what is in their bellies – between excretion and blood – pure milk, palatable to drinkers.
    This animal in and of itself is so fascinating. It is pure milk, but also very satisfying and nutritious for the human. This is in the conclusion of Ya-Sin. Allaah has spoken about risalah, tawhid, akhirah, and to invoke our gratitude for His blessings He points to what we take for granted.
    Yashkurun| Word Analysis
    It is in the present/future tense. Why don’t they become grateful? Will they never become grateful? We will see these blessings constantly and make use of them repeatedly. Will we not realize at some time or another just this one blessing?
    When they don’t become grateful or realize, what is the outcome? What is the choice they have made? When somebody rejects such a basic argument it is almost as if stupidity manifests itself within him.

  5. Ayah 37:

     

    Now, Allaah will point out some pairs He has created in particular.

    وآية لهم الليل نسلخ منه النهار فإذا هم مظلمون

    And a sign for them is the night. We remove from it [the light of] day, so they are
    in darkness.
    Naslakhu| Word Analysis
    It comes from the root sa-la-kha meaning to peel the skin off an animal. So from the night we peel away from it the day. The day comes in to cover the night, but when the sun sets the daylight recedes so that it becomes darker and darker. Until all of a sudden we are in complete darkness.
    Ayah 38:

     

    والشمس تجري لمستقرّ لها ذلك تقدير العزيز العليم

    And the sun runs [on course] toward its stopping point. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.
    The sun is moving for a set course that has been fixed for it. Mustaqar typically means for something to be placed in a fixed place. The permanent fixture or setting of something. This, however, is obviously discussing the course and life cycle of the sun. So why use this term? Even if the sun moves and it has growth and movement, it is as if it is fixed in a place because Allaah has set it on its course and it cannot be moved from it.
    That is the determination, that is what has been fixed, set and sent down. Done by Al-’Aziz the One Who is Dominating and cannot be dominated. He has put everything into its place and nothing can move from its course or divert away from its set path.
    And He is al-‘Alim. He is constantly aware of everything. He is in full knowledge of everything. If that thing were to move from its place, He would know.
    Ayah 39:

     

    Now, because we are talking about pairs, it seems appropriate to mention the moon after the sun.

    والقمر قدرناه منازل حتى عاد كالعرجون القديم

    And the moon – We have determined for it phases, until it returns [appearing] like the old date stalk.
    The moon has been fixed with manazil – stages, the 28 or 29 days we have.
    ‘Urjun| Word Analysis
    It refers to a date stalk or date palm’s trunk. When it was alive and abundant and fruitful, it had dates hanging from it. This makes the trunk curve and bend over.
    When it has become qadim, however, it is old, dry, and fruitless. It is standing there, fruitless, but frozen in that curved shape.
    Look at the pair Allaah has made in this comparison – the moon in the sky, above the earth and the date stalk seated on the earth. Nobody else can create such a universal, such a flawless, symmetrical creation that has everything tied together. Day and night also have an effect upon everything that grows from the earth.
    Ayah 40:

     

    لا الشمس ينبغي لها أن تدرك القمر ولا الليل سابق النهار وكل في فلك يسبحون

    It is not appropriate for the sun to catch up to the moon, nor does the night overtake the day, but each, in an orbit, is swimming.
    The sun has its time and the moon has its time. Everything has its set time and it’s not appropriate for one to overpower the other.
    Why mention the sun catching up to the moon and not the moon catching up to the sun? The sun is the more dominating figure. We know that from what we see. Astronomically speaking, the moon is there, but the sun is the centre of this solar system. Yet, even as powerful as that sun may be, it cannot catch up to the moon. Everything stays in its place and follows the orders it has been given.
    Saabiq| Word Analysis
    It means not just to precede, but to run away from it. As in the night becoming crazy and rabid until it speeds ahead until the night is for the entire day. Remember, He has just mentioned that the day is peeled back. This is from the blessing of Allaah (28, 71)

    قل أرأيتم إن جعل الله عليكم الليل سرمدا إلى يوم القيامة من إله غير الله يأتيكم بضياء أفلا تسمعون

    Say, “Have you considered: if Allaah should make for you the night continuous until the Day of Resurrection, what deity other than Allaah could bring you light? Then will you not hear?”
    Likewise, what if Allaah were to make it day forever (28, 72)

    قل أرأيتم إن جعل الله عليكم النهار سرمدا إلى يوم القيامة من إله غير الله يأتيكم بليل تسكنون فيه أفلا تبصرون

    Say, “Have you considered: if Allaah should make for you the day continuous until the Day of Resurrection, what deity other than Allaah could bring you a night in which you may rest? Then will you not see?”
    Finally, Allaah concludes all of this by mentioning that each thing is in an orbit, swimming.
    Falaq| Word Analysis
    It is like a pattern or a system, like an orbital path. It comes from the word referring to ships sailing in the ocean – they are set on a route, a path.
    Each one of these things are yasbaHun (present and future form). They are constantly swimming. Once again, the swimming is that regular and constant action. They are on their set path, swimming like a ship on its set route.
    Spiritual Reflection
    Previously, the discussion was about the person who has died from the inside and how Allaah can revive his heart to make him a source of good for an entire community!
    Now, Allaah has mentioned that things are in pairs. There is the life of the dunya , but there is also the life of aakhirah. Allaah has told us (87, 17)

    والآخرة خير وأبقى

    While the Hereafter is better and more enduring.
    The Messenger of Allaah s tells us that the life of this world is sweet and lush green (meaning it is attractive). Sweet things, however, spoil faster than bitter things. So even though it is very sweet, it spoils very quickly. A plant which is green and lush, however, dies sooner.
    So it is better to sow the seeds for the Hereafter now because it will be better and eternal.
    Other opposites also exist: imaan and kufr, khayr and shar, haqq and baatil, shukr and kufr, humility and arrogance. We must constantly make the choice of which is better between the two. Allaah has shown us the two paths and we must choose (90, 10)

    وهديناه النجدين

    And have shown him the two ways?
    And we’ve also been told (18, 29)

    وقل الحق من ربكم فمن شاء فليؤمن ومن شاء فليكفر إنا أعتدنا للظالمين نارا أحاط بهم سرادقها وإن يستغيثوا يغاثوا بماء كالمهل يشوي الوجوه

     
    بئس الشراب وساءت مرتفقا
    And say, “The truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills – let him believe; and whoever wills – let him disbelieve.” Indeed, We have prepared for the wrongdoers fire whose walls will surround them. And if they call for relief, they will be relieved with water like murky oil, which scalds [their] faces. Wretched is the drink, and evil is the resting place.
    Allaah has given us the faculties and capacity and laid out all the signs, now it is his choice. There are physical and spiritual pairs. Paradise and the Hellfire.
    Darkness and Light
    It is easy to take for granted being born Muslim. Look at the darkness in peoples lives. The lack of peace and tranquility brought from the lack of connection with Allaah. The light is like guidance. Just like peeling the day away, Allaah can peel the guidance away.
    Look at something as beautiful and glorious as the sun – it follows its path, non-diverging. Why cannot the human be like this?
    Look at the moon going through its cycles. Look at the human being going through its cycles. Zygote, fetus, baby. Then becoming physically able, intellectual, ages, marries, grows old until there is no benefit from him just like the dry date stalk. The moon goes through this cycle every month, we as humans are going through a cycle.
    The Messenger of Allaah s said to take the value of five things before five come. Youth before old age, health before sickness, wealth before poverty, free-time before preoccupation, life before death. (Haakim)
    Make the most of what you have. Nothing will break this cycle of Allaah (48, 23)

    سنة الله التي قد خلت من قبل ولن تجد لسنة الله تبديلا

    [This is] the established way of Allaah which has occurred before. And never will you find in the way of Allaah any change.
    This is what Allaah has decreed for His creation. Just like the sun and moon, we will not be able to escape this cycle (7, 34)

    ولكل أمة أجل فإذا جاء أجلهم لا يستأخرون ساعة ولا يستقدمون

    And to every nation is a [specified] term. So when their time has come, they will not remain behind an hour, nor will they precede [it].
    When the fixed appointment comes for us to leave the earth it will not be alterable. One cannot take a step away from this world until he has taken all the breaths decreed for him and not a single less or a single more. Just like everything else is swimming in orbit, so are we.
    Ayah 41:

     

    وآية لهم أنا حملنا ذريتهم في الفلك المشحون

    And a sign for them is that We carried their progeny in a laden ship.
    We had mention of the dead earth and the night and day pair. Now, this is the third major sign of reflection Allaah is indicating for these people.
    MashHun| Word Analysis
    It comes from sha-Ha-na which means to fill up something, specifically a boat. This is a boat that has been completely filled to capacity.
    So a miraculous sign for them is that Allaah carried their progeny in a maximum capacity ship.
    Allaah has directed our attention in different directions for His signs. First, we looked down at the ground, at the barren earth which becomes lush and fruitful. Then, we looked up at the sky, to the night filled with the moon and the day with the sun. Now, we look to the water, at the ship coasting on the water with people inside.
    These are all facilities Allaah has provided for us to move around on this earth. We have been provided with transportation means. The most difficult type of travel is often considered crossing waters and Allaah is showing us that He has permitted that and there is a marvelous sign for us in it.
    Who is this progeny? This is the progeny of humankind, of humanity. Human beings have been carried, allowed to travel in the ship that was filled to capacity.
    This reference may be to one of two situations
    1. (Majority of Classical tafasir) The Ark of Nuh ‘alayhi as-salaam
    1.One very important area of tafsir that is neglected in recent times (which was the first point for the classical scholars) is tafsir al-Qur’aan bi al-Qur’aan. Many secrets of the Qur’aan are unlocked by looking at other passages in other areas of the Qur’aan. It is a comprehensive discourse in its entirety and it is very cohesive.
    1.
    A similar verse is found in (26, 119)
    فأنجيناه ومن معه في الفلك المشحون
    So We saved him and those with him in the laden ship.
    this same wording (al-fulk al-mashHun) has been used to describe the Ark of Nuh ‘alayhi as-salaam.
    2. (Minority) Allaah is just discussing travelling in ships in general.
    2.There is no harm in such an opinion because the Qur’aan is so deep, it has many layers of understanding.
    This carrying on a ship permitted the survival of these humans (or humankind in general if referring to the people of Nuh ‘alayhi as-salaam).
    Ayah 42:

     

    وخلقنا لهم من مثله ما يركبون

    And We created for them the likes of that that which they are also able to use for ride.
    There have been other modes of transportation created by Allaah.
    What is this referring to?
    1. Other modes of water transport
    1.If Verse 41 was referring to the Ark of Nuh ‘alayhi as-salaam then this may be referring to all other ships, boats, and canoes – whatever else is used to move around in the water.
    2. Any other modes of transport
    2.If Verse 41 was referring to boats in general, then this may be referring to other modes of transport on the earth. As Allaah has said (43, 12)

    والذي خلق الأزواج كلها وجعل لكم من الفلك والأنعام ما تركبون

    And who created the species, all of them, and has made for you of ships and animals those which you mount.
    And following it Allaah educates us about the du’aa for transportation (43, 13-14). Whenever we board anything as a mode of transport, we ought to recite this supplication.
    These other modes of transport may be other than ships; animals, carts, vehicles, planes, etc. Allaah has created it, facilitated for us, and permitted it for us. This is a huge sign and moment of reflection. How easy and faciltated are our lives with these modes of transportation?
    Ayah 43:

     

    وإن نشأ نغرقهم فلا صريخ لهم ولا هم ينقذون

    And if We should will, We could drown them; then no one responding to a cry would there be for them, nor would they be saved
    How often have we seen such an amazing mode of transport, but the people drown? We may think of the mode as colossal, but they can so easily be damaged. A little bit of ice on the road to make a car slip.
    Sarigh| Word Analysis
    It comes from the root of the word meaning to scream for help. It not only means the scream for help, but the one who hears the scream, and the one who rushes to the aid of the one screaming for help.
    There would be no aid and no one coming to alleviate these peoples’ situation. Nobody would hear their screams in the darkness of night in the depths of the ocean. Look at that perspective! We’ve taken from a zoom in at the ships to the bigger picture.
    Recall inqadh means to save someone who is akin to falling off a cliff, someone who is in very grave danger. So no one will come to these peoples’ rescue.
    Allaah has placed emphasis by adding the pronoun (hum) and by placing the verb in the present/future tense in order to show that no one will ever come, nobody could ever come to these peoples’ rescue.
    Ayah 44:

     

    إلا رحمة منا ومتاعا إلى حين

    Except as a mercy from Us and provision for a time.
    All of this – the facilitation of transport without people dying – would not be possible except by the mercy of Allaah.
    Allaah has said raHmatan, it is in its common form. A mercy, not the mercy. This is one display of Allaah’s mercy. If all the transportation we have and our survival in this travel is only attributed to a mercy, then how abundant is that mercy and how much do we have to be grateful for? How vastly is transportation used and it is just from a drop of the mercy of Allaah. Things we don’t even know or realize are from His mercy.
    This is a facilitation to be used and it is to be used for a Hinin. This is again the common form, meaning that time is fixed when we must leave this world, but nobody knows that time or how it will come. It is facilitated for us to benefit, but there is the reminder that it is for a short time.
    Primarily, this discourse has been a reprehension for these people who don’t believe. A reference to these great travels is to tell these people to not be so engaged or lost in these temporary benefits. To realize that they are only for a limited time. Use these facilities to gain some benefit for what awaits from the greatest mercy of Allaah.
    Linguistic Beauty
    Here, Allaah has said raHmatan minnaa. In other places, Allaah says raHmatan min ‘indinaa.
    For example, in referring to Khidr ‘alayhi as-salaam (18, 65)

    فوجدا عبدا من عبادنا آتيناه رحمة من عندنا وعلمناه من لدنا علما

    And they both found a servant among Our servants to whom we had given mercy from Us and had taught him from Us a [certain] knowledge.
    The latter means a mercy especially from Us, as in a mercy as a gift from Us, as a favour from Us.
    Also in discussing Ayub ‘alayhi as-salaam and what was bestowed upon him (21, 84)

    فاستجبنا له فكشفنا ما به من ضرّ وآتيناه أهله ومثلهم معهم رحمة من عندنا وذكرى للعابدين

    So We responded to him and removed what afflicted him of adversity. And We gave him [back] his family and the like thereof with them as mercy from Us and a reminder for the worshippers [of Allaah].
    What is the difference?
    The latter is a larger construction so its meaning is greater as well – as mercy that is a special gift from Us. Whenever Allaah discusses believers, prophets, messengers, pious individuals, then He uses this more powerful construction. When, however, Allaah is discussing the mercy He has bestowed upon general people (including disbelievers), then He uses the simple construction.
    This also happens with ni’matan minnaa and ni’matan min ‘indinaa.
    The simple construct is used for ordinary or unexceptional people (39, 49)

    إذا مس الإنسان ضر دعانا ثم إذا خولناه نعمة منا قال إنما أوتيته على علم بل هي فتنة ولكن أكثرهم لا يعلمون

    And when adversity touches man, he calls upon Us; then when We bestow on him a favour from Us, he says, “I have only been given it because of [my] knowledge.” Rather, it is a trial, but most of them do not know.
    This person has arrogance within him. For this person the blessing is not special.
    The elaborate construct is used for praiseworthy people, the family of Lut ‘alayhi as-salaam (54, 35)

    نعمة من عندنا كذلك نجزي من شكر

    As favour from us. Thus do we reward he who is grateful.
    The promiscuity and shamelessness of societies are struggles for the people grasping imaan. Sexual perversion is exceptionally difficult because it is becoming an accepted practice. The people of Lut ‘alayhi as-salaam didn’t just have it accepted, but it was majority. These people dealt with threats and violence from people who lived this lifestyle, yet they stood firm with their faith and their messenger.
    Ayah 45:

     

    As a conclusion to the middle passage of Ya-Sin (regarding tawhid), Verses 45-50 proceed.
    These people have signs all around them and these signs are being pointed out to them. They are being told to reflect upon these signs and to see the obedience that all of creation has to Allaah. Then, to sit and reflect as to why they are so disobedient to Allaah. Everything around them is a sign pointing to the oneness, power, magnificence and greatness of Allaah.

    وإذا قيل لهم اتقوا ما بين أيديكم وما خلفكم لعلكم ترحمون

    But when it is said to them, “Beware of what is before you and what is behind you; perhaps you will receive mercy…”
    This verse begins with an interesting construction.
    These people are not being told
    وإذا قال لهم رسول\قرأن\الله – But when a messenger/the Qur’aan/Allaah said to them
    Those would have been active constructs. Instead, the passive construct (majbul) is used. One of the benefits of using the passive in this manner is that it does pinpoint or elaborate who is the doer – who is the one saying this to them. This serves two purposes
    1. It makes the focal point of that address and aayah the one who is addressed and not the one who is addressing. These people are being told to consider themselves, to take a long, hard look in the mirror. Look at their own situation and condition. Nothing else needs to be looked at here except for these people.
    2. It creates variety, versatility in the meaning and interpretation. They were told time and time again from different angles, by different people. Allaah spoke to them, the divine scripture advised them, the messenger was tirelessly preaching to them, the other believers came to advise them. Everyone is telling them. From multiple angles, from multiple people.
    Ittaqu| Word Analysis
    They are being told to have taqwa. Taqwa does not just mean to be afraid or to have fear. It means to be aware, to be conscious, protect yourself, guard yourself, take precautions.
    Take these precautions from what? From that which is in front of you and from that which is behind you. What does this refer to?
    1. In front of you is the result of your actions, their consequences. Behind you are the actions you have already performed.
    2. In front of you is al-akhirah and behind you is ad-dunya. The next passage will discuss the Hereafter and the first passage discussed these peoples’ rejection of the messengers in the dunya.
    3. In front of you is what is about to happen to you, your own situation. What is behind you is what happened to previous peoples. This message was for the Quraysh. They ought to look to ‘Aad and Thamud – their locations were know to them within Hejaz. The Arabs knew where these nations had existed and what had transpired with them. They ought to look at them and then see if they are headed along the same path or if they will differ.
    4. This is found in (34, 9). This is a collection of suwar that have similar themes and are like continuations of each other. Fatir and Saba’ both start with al-hamdu lillah al-ladhi. Then there is Ya-Sin in the middle after which there are Sad and Saffat which are also similar and have address like themes. Ya-Sin is like the centrepiece of these suwar. So in (34, 9) Allaah says

    أفلم يروا إلى ما بين أيديهم وما خلفهم من السماء والأرض إن نشأ نخسف بهم الأرض أو نسقط عليهم كسفا من السماء إن في ذلك لآية لكل عبد منيب

    Then, do they not look at what is before them and what is behind them of the heaven and earth? If We should will, We could cause the earth to swallow them or [could] let fall upon them fragments from the sky. Indeed in that is a sign for every servant turning back [to Allaah].
    This is talking about the punishment of Allaah. So one interpretation is that punishment of Allaah which could come from the sky, from beneath your feet, from the left, from the right. It could come anywhere at any time. So come to the obedience of Allaah. Grasp the understanding of being a slave of Allaah.
    The Qur’aan is not simple in having a single meaning. It is sophisticated. We are simple minded. There is a concept called at-tawasu fi’l-ma’na fi’l-Qur’aan al-Karim that the meaning of the Qur’aan is very broad and to allow the meaning to be broad and not narrow it down. Sometimes one verse will have multiple meanings and understandings. We consider someone speaking with double meanings (double entendre) to be clever, but this is the kalaam of Allaah. It is an endless ocean that will never be completely understood.
    La’alla| Word Analysis
    Why should they be cautious of these? So that you may receive mercy. A correction is needed here. La’alla is translated in the Arabic language as “so that”, but it doesn’t actually mean this. It actually means “maybe, hopefully, possibly”. So if they lead a life of cautiousness, maybe they’ll receive the mercy of Allaah. It is also placed in the present/future tense to drive the incentive home. Strive for this mercy, the only thing that will protect anyone.
    Nobody will enter jannah because of his deeds. Everyone will only enter jannah because of the mercy of Allaah.
    Allaah has placed it there to make us alert, to become aware, to be conscious and aware and to lead a life in this way so that one day, hopefully in the future, we will qualfy for the mercy of Allaah. As Allaah says in (17, 8)

    عسى ربكم أن يرحمكم وإن عدتم عدنا وجعلنا جهنم للكافرين حصيرا

    [Then Allaah said], “It is expected, [if you repent], that your Lord will have mercy upon you. But if you return [to sin], We will return [to punishment]. And We have made the Hellfire, for the disbelievers, a prison-bed.”
    It is very near, it is a strong possibility that your Lord will have mercy upon you. If you return back, then We will also return back. Think of this like two people having a strife. If one comes back, the other comes back. Allaah has created, provided and protected us. If we turn back and make tawbah, just make effort by turning around, then the mercy of Allaah will rush towards us (e.g. with even more mercy than what we have received).
    Ayah 46:

     

    وما تأتيهم من آية من آيات ربهم إلا كانوا عنها معرضين

    And no sign comes to them from the signs of their Lord except that they are from it turning away.
    They end up willingly, intentionally turning away from the sign. This is apathy, arrogance, stubbornness. Allaah has said “whenever” from the many, many signs of Allaah. This tells us that Allaah continues to send these signs. These type of people, however, have ‘iraaD. They are arrogant, choosing not to notice.
    This is like in Verse 30, when the townspeople would ridicule and mock the messengers who would come to them. Here, Allaah is mentioning that their standard operating procedure with the aayaat is just like it is with the messengers.
    Imaan leads to Morality
    Here we begin to see something about the character of these people. They display arrogance and stubbornness. Next, Allaah will refute their behaviour. He will mention how arrogant and sarcastic and stubborn they have literally become. In reality, they are mocking and jeering at the message which has come to them.
    There is such poor conduct from these people. They threatened their messengers, killed an innocent man. They possessed no morals. Imaan, however, brings about morality. This is a profound connection.
    Many will argue today that faith has nothing to do with morals, but morality is an independent entity. People who have the facade of religion, but no true spirituality, their horrendous actions are sensationalized. Allaah, however, makes a constant connection about a moral compass arising from having imaan. Imaan is the basis of morality.
    For example, in (83, 1-6) Allaah is addressing the people who do not measure out the right due amounts when giving to people. When measures are due to themselves, however, they take the full measure from people. They don’t realize that they will be resurrected and brought to stand before Allaah. It is a direct connection being made between their morals and their lack of imaan.
    Also, (107, 1-7) begins by pinpointing the one who denies the Recompense (e.g. the accountability of the Resurrection). Then it mentions that is the person who drives away the orphan, who does not encourage feeding the poor, who are heedless of prayer, who flaunt their dedds, but withhold simple assistance. Woe to these people.
    This person doesn’t just avoid supporting it himself, but he degrades what others are doing. This comes around as a lack of imaan.
    Imaan brings about the ultimate conduct and good character.
    There’s a beautiful story mentioned by Ibn Kathir. True order in society can only come about as a result of imaan. Even if all the laws and best police force has been established, there will not be morality.
    There was one man from Banu Isra’il who needed to borrow money. He went to another man and asked for a loan. This person then asked who can vouch for him. He said, “Allaah is enough as a wakil.” The man did not argue.
    He said, let us at least get a witness. The man said, “Allaah is enough as a witness.” The man did not argue.
    There was a river that separated their homes. The borrower promised to meet the man at a certain day and time at this place to return the money to the lender.
    The time passed. When the man arrives at the river, the river is over-flowing. The people who normally run the ferries to cross the river are not there. The borrower is sitting there with the money, frustrated that he had given his word and now was in this predicament. He stands and waits, but gets more frustrated. He takes a log, carves a hole in it and puts the money in it. He writes a note to the man that this is the money he owed him and if it reaches him, then it is done.
    He throws the log into the river and makes du’aa to Allaah that it reaches the lender. This was out of his frustration from the idea of cheating the man.
    On the other side of the river, the man was waiting. He sees the condition and realizes the man cannot come. The time passes so he decides to go home. Before going home though, he wants to pick up some wood. He sees a log floating into the water. He takes it home. When he begins to chop it, he sees the money and the note. His loan is completed.
    The borrower, however, is not comfortable in his position. He thinks he should have returned the money as it had been given to him. So he waits some days, the water subsides. He gets some more money and crosses the river to the lender’s home. He tells the man that he has returned to pay him back and how he could not make it previously. The lender could be thinking that he has already received the money, but he could be getting more from him. He told him that he received the log. Their imaan was firm. One man’s imaan wouldn’t let him rest and the other’s wouldn’t let him cheat.
    Ayah 47:

     

     

    وإذا قيل لهم أنفقوا مما رزقكم الله قال الذين كفروا للذين آمنوا أنطعم من لو يشاء الله أطعمه إن أنتم إلا في

     
    ضلال مبين
    And when it is said to them, “Spend from that which Allaah has provided for you,” Those who disbelieve say to those who believe, “Should we feed one whom, if Allaah, had willed, He would have fed? You are not but in clear error.”
    This is the same passive construction.
    Spend from that which Allaah has provided for you. This amount is not even yours to begin with! Allaah has provided you with everything. Keep most of it and spend from it a little in this sake. Just to show your devotion and dedication. Its just a gesture.
    How do these ungrateful, disbelieving people respond to the people who are believing and advising them?
    They have told them to give in charity to those who are poor and needy in difficult situations. Yet, they over-rationalize to mock the command of religion. If Allaah had wanted that person to have something, wouldn’t He have provided for him?
    How to answer these questions?
    Sometimes, some people are just saying things for the sake of saying them. Some people are just trying to make trouble. They have no interest in truth. Look to (25, 7)

    وقالوا مال هذا الرسول يأكل الطعام ويمشي في الأسواق لولا أنزل إليه ملك فيكون معه نذيرا

    And they say, “What is this messenger that eats food and walks in the markets? Why was there not send down to him an angel so he would be with him a warner?”
    If Allaah had sent an angel they would have still argued that it does not understand their situation. Again, they are complaining for the sake of complaining
    In antum fi Dalaalin mubinin| Analysis
    You are in nothing but in very clear, open misguidance. Fi is as if they are drowning in their delusions. They are completely lost and astray. There are two ways this can be understood.
    1. This is the same kuffar saying it to the believers.
    1.They are merely continuing with their complaining and ridiculing.
    2. This is an answer to the kuffar from Allaah. When they say something as foolish, stubborn, arrogant, and disrespectful as to say this, Allaah will tell them they are completely drowning in their delusions.
    This is a powerful lesson in da’wah. People will make confusing and senseless arguments. We should not have a lapse in our imaan at that moment. Philosophical objections have existed from the beginning of time. Not only did the Messenger of Allaah s deal with this, but messengers before him dealt with the same. We are no different. This no new phenomenon.
    We can only be that strong, however, if we have read the Qur’aan.
    The counter is exactly what this surah has done. Remind them of the Oneness of Allaah. And if that doesn’t work, then remind them of the Hereafter when they will be returned to their Lord and then they will be woeful of their own situation (36, 51-52). Are they willing to sacrifice everything they have with this choice they have made? For all of eternity? Think about that before carrying on this light of discussion.
    If the person continues to persist, remember there has been a Firawn, a Nimrod, a Haamaan, an Abu Jahl. These people have existed and Allaah and His Messenger s have informed us about them for a reason. Some people just aren’t interested in the truth. Allaah has given us a very powerful conclusion to this issue (41, 44)

    ولو جعلناه قرآنا أعجميّا لقالوا لولا فصلت آياته أأعجمي وعربي قل هو للذين آمنوا هدى وشفاء والذين لا يؤمنون في آذانهم وقر وهو عليهم عمى

     
    أولئك ينادون من مكان بعيد
    And if We had made it a non-Arabic Qur’aan, they would have said, “Why are its verses not explained in detail [in our language]? Is it a foreign [recitation] and an Arab [messenger]?” Say, “It is for those who believe, a guidance and cure.” And those who do not believe – in their ears is deafness, and it is upon them blindness. Those are being called from a distant place.
    It is guidance and a solution to the problems of the believers. Those who do not want to believe are confrontational. They have an obstruction in their ears. They say they are listening, they have ears physically, but spiritually they are unaware of the truth – as if it is invisible to them.
    Ayah 48:

     

    ويقولون متى هذا الوعد إن كنتم صادقين

    And they say, “When is this promise, if you should be truthful?”
    For these people who are told to lead a life of taqwa, but reacted with ‘iraaD and spoke in inappropriate manners where they went to the depths of stupidity, Allaah does not discuss the faculty nature of their logic. He lets is speak for itself, its stupidity, disobedience, and disrespect speaks for itself.
    When they’ve reached this arrogance where they are reminded continuously in different ways, but react with ignorance, eventually a warning is issued to them. They need to realize the err of their ways otherwise the punishment of Allaah could befall them, as a consequence of their actions.
    Their arrogance and kufr does not allow them to heed the warning. They respond with even more arrogance, with even more mockery. In this verse, Allaah is saying that these people would continue to say (present and future verb), “When will this promise come?” This warning that they are being given is being mocked.
    They are questioning this morality and truthfulness of these people. Recall that morality arises from imaan. Look at their conceit.
    Ayah 49:

     

    ما ينظرون إلا صيحة واحدة تأخذهم وهم يخصمون

    They do not await except one blast which will seize them while they are disputing.
    Then Allaah says a very stern warning. SiHah is that large, piercing sound. A single blast could take them in their refusing and rejecting states.
    In the previous passage, a similar conclusion was seen (36, 29)

    إن كانت إلا صيحة واحدة فإذا هم خامدون

    It was not but one shout, and immediately they were extinguished.
    They had conceitedly disregarded the messengers and murdered the believer who advised them. As a result, Allaah punished them with this single, piercing sound. He did not make a huge, elaborate arrangement for their destruction.
    This same note is used here. They may continue to reject the clear, evident signs of Allaah, but they are waiting for nothing but that one sound to extinguish them.
    Their mockery will continue and at once they will be taken.
    YanZuruna| Word Analysis
    In this construction, Allaah does not say:

    ما ينتظرون

    Instead, He says:

    ما ينظرون

    These both come from the same root and intiZar means to wait for something.
    YanZuruna comes for naZr which means to look. It can also be used to wait for something, but it is moreso waiting for something as watching it approach. This is like waiting for a train which you see coming. So these people will be standing there, it will be there before their faces. It will be a result of their own actions.
    Ayah 50:

     

    فلا يستطيعون توصية ولا إلى أهلهم يرجعون

    And they will not be able [to give] any instruction, nor to their people can they return.
    They will not have the ability to tawSiyatan.
    TawSiyah| Word Analysis
    It means to will something, a last will, a last testament. Your last words, your last wish, your dying wish. They won’t even have the ability to make a dying will. Nothing. They won’t have the chance to say anything.
    This has several ramifications.
    1. It shows how unfulfilled their lives were. They refused, rejected, and didn’t believe because they wanted to live this life. Yet, in this life they weren’t even able to make a last wish, something they desired to do.
    2. A known convicted criminal on death row may be a serial rapist or killer, but still receives a last wish. He is permitted to say something, to get a last meal, to visit a clergyman, to visit family – but these people will get nothing.
    They won’t even be allowed to return to their families. This is the outcome of these people and what will transpire of them. It is very similar to the people who rejected the messengers (36, 30-31). It will still be regretful for them to have done themselves in. It was a result of their own actions, their own rejection.

    يا حسرة على العباد ما يأتيهم من رسول إلا كانوا به يستهزئون

    How regretful for the servants. There did not come to them any messenger except that they used to ridicule him.

    ألم يروا كم أهلكنا قبلهم من القرون أنهم إليهم لا يرجعون

    Have they not considered how many generations We destroyed before them – that they to them will not return?
    Ayah 51:

     

    Now we begin the third passage of Ya-Sin which will focus upon the Hereafter. This first part, like in the previous two passages, is an introduction to this theme. Then, we will proceed into the nuances of the life of the Hereafter.

    ونفخ في الصور فإذا هم من الأجداث إلى ربهم ينسلون

    And the Horn will be blown; and at once from the graves to their Lord they will hasten.
    Literally, the Horn was blown into – meaning that someone was sounding the Horn. It is in the past tense, although this is yet to occur. This is to show that this is a confirmed fact – it’s such a done deal to happen that it can already be considered to have happened. Nothing will change this fact.
    All of a sudden they. Who is this they? These are the same people whom the surah has addressed until now. The same people who denied the messengers. The same people who rejected the concept of the Oneness of Allaah. The same people who mocked this concept.
    Ajadaath| Word Analysis
    All of a sudden they from ajdaath.This is the plural of jadath, meaning grave. This is a specific type of grave. (Grave is literally kabar and the plural is kubur). Here, jadath is used because it carries the meaning of graves that have disappeared. They are so old, that it is forgotten where they existed. The signs of those graves have disappeared. They were forgotten.
    This is profound. The previous two passages (regarding risalah and tawhid) ended with one warning to these people. That it would only take one piercing sound to get rid of these people.
    The first passage (Verse 29) ended with fa idha hum khaamidun – then all of a sudden they will be put out like a fire. Part of the understanding of this is that all signs of these people would disappear. It would be as if these people never even existed. This is a whole new level of humiliation for these people. People are normally buried respectfully and people visit them and make du’aa for them. It is a sign of dignity. These people, however, are completely forgotten and, as such, are humiliated.
    They were so arrogant that they weren’t able to give sadaqah out of what Allaah has given them and mocked such behaviour. In return, not only were they wiped away, but all signs of them were wiped away.
    So these people are crawling out of graves that people didn’t even know existed and they are going straight to Allaah on the Day of Judgment.
    Yansilun| Word Analysis
    This comes from nasal. At the core of it, it means to walk quickly towards something. More specifically, it is used for someone who is walking or running downhill. They are moving so quickly as if they are running downhill, they are speeding faster and cannot be stopped. They will naturally be forced to go in that direction and cannot impede themselves.
    These are the people who would have been pleaing Allaah to let them return so that they may make amends. They will have experienced the torment of the life of al-barzakh. They know exactly what is in store for them. They don’t want to go in that direction, but they will be compelled to go forth and will be made to present themselves before Allaah (Verse 32).
    Ayah 52:

     

    قالوا يا ويلنا من بعثنا من مرقدنا هذا ما وعد الرحمن وصدق المرسلون

    They will say, “O woe to us! Who has raised us up from our sleeping place?” [The reply will be], “This is what the Most Merciful had promised and the messengers told the truth.”
    Wael| Word Analysis
    They will curse themselves. This is an expression of remorse, regret, like having pity upon someone.
    Ba’ath| Word Analysis
    Who has ba’athna? It means to bring back to life and to push along. They have not only been brought back to life, but are being pushed along to be made to stand before Allaah. It’s like they will be herded together like cattle.
    Raqada| Word Analysis
    From our raqada. It means to take a nap. Not like deep sleep, but just laying down and resting in light sleep. This is a very relaxing rest. When you’ve been awakened, you don’t want to leave the position. This is so relieving. It is disturbing when someone bothers you, even if it is for your own good.
    These were a bad group of people. It is a confirmed fact that such people will be punished in their graves. Why then would they refer to their graves as that comfortable place? Because what they will see for themselves on the Day of Judgment to be so horrific and terrifying, that what they experienced in the grave will have been like taking a nap in comparison. These are the same people who were screaming when being put into the graves that they be given another chance (23, 99)

    حتى إذا جاء أحدهم الموت قال رب ارجعون

    Until, when death comes to one of them, he says, “My Lord, send me back!”
    The image before their eyes will be terrifying (89, 23)

    وجيء يومئذ بجهنم يومئذ يتذكر الإنسان وأنى له الذكرى

    And brought [within view], that Day is Hell – that Day, man will remember, but what good to him will be the remembrance?
    The Hellfire will react upon seeing them (25, 12)

    إذا رأتهم من مكان بعيد سمعوا لها تغيظا وزفيرا

    When the Hellfire sees them from a distant place, they will hear its fury and roaring.
    It will be tied up in 70 000 chains held by 70 000 Angels hold the chains. Yet, it will still be growling like a wild beast at its prey. Seeing this, they will look back at their graves and ask to return to them.
    Then, comes the response. Who is speaking these words?
    1. The people are speaking to themselves, realizing that what they denied was true and the messengers they rejected were speaking only the truth. This is affirmed in (32, 12)

    ولو ترى إذ المجرمون ناكسو رءوسهم عند ربهم ربنا أبصرنا وسمعنا فارجعنا نعمل صالحا إنا موقنون

    If you could but see when the criminals are hanging their heads before their Lord, [saying], “Our Lord, we have seen and heard, so return us [to the world]; we will work a (any) righteousness. Indeed, we are [now] certain.”
    They are not saying this is that which Allaah had promised, but rather they are saying this is that which Ar-Rahman had promised. Why would they use this name of Allaah?
    This name is constantly used in the surah to inspire the emotions of obligation to Allaah. It reminds us of everything Allaah has given to us. He has given us so much that we truly cannot comprehend it. This is the depth of their realization, but it will be too late.
    2. Allaah or the Angels are speaking to the people. That this is what Allaah warned you of and told you to prepare for. The messengers who came to you were speaking the truth. This aayah shows how the akhirah is the culmination of belief in Allaah and belief in the message delivered by messengers. If one believes in both, then he will have a good outcome; if one disbelieves in them, the outcome is bleak.
    Ayah 53:

     

    إن كانت إلا صيحة واحدة فإذا هم جميع لدينا محضرون

    It will not be but one blast and at once they are all brought present before Us.
    This same statement was made at the ends of passage 1 (Verse 29) and passage 2 (Verse 49). That one loud, piercing sound literally extinguished the people and then would be used to collect the people on the Day of Recompense.
    Allaah does not need to make any elaborate preparations or processes to take their lives, to bring them back to life.
    Now, all of a sudden (idhaa) they will be brought back. There is repetition of hum and jami’un to show that they will ALL be brought back – no matter if they were rich or poor, pious or sinful, believing or disbelieving, old or young, male or female. They will ALL be made to stand before Allaah and be held accountable.
    Accountability is a very powerful idea. It helps people manage themselves, conduct themselves. It is how we live our lives, pay our bills, get an education, make money, balance cheque books. Everything has accountability built into it. This stimulate productivity. Din makes us accountable by speaking of the Hereafter. Imaan inspires people to live properly.
    The famous story about ‘Umar d and the mother and daughter and the mixing of milk with water – that was accountability. Allaah is watching so it doesn’t matter if no one else is aware (36, 11)

    إنما تنذر من اتبع الذكر وخشي الرحمن بالغيب فبشره بمغفرة وأجر كريم

    You can only warn one who follows the message and fears the Most Merciful unseen. [...]
    Ayah 54:

     

    فاليوم لا تظلم نفس شيئا ولا تجزون إلا ما كنتم تعملون

    So today no soul will be wronged at all and you will not be recompensed except for what you used to do.
    Now, Allaah is using imagery to set the tone for the next aayaat.
    It is as if Allaah is having us image we are standing in the field, in the gathering of the Day of Judgment. Then today! Don’t consider it a fairy tale or far away galaxy. It is here, it is now. This is reiterated throughout the Qur’aan (70, 6-7)

    إنهم يرونه بعيدا

    Indeed, they see it [as] distant,

    ونراه قريبا

    But We see it [as] near.
    The time is so very close (21, 1)

    اقترب للناس حسابهم وهم في غفلة معرضون

    [The time of] their account has come very close for the people, while they are in heedlessness turning away.
    Allaah has said iqtaraba – this is in the exaggerated form – meaning that the time is very, very, very near. It’s right there under their noses, yet they are completely oblivious to this reality and truth.
    Nafsun is in its common form, meaning not a single soul will be wronged in the least bit. Zulm is to misappropriate, to wrong someone and to violate his rights. Not a single person will be wronged in the least bit (shayan). Their book of deeds will be placed open for them to check (18, 49)

    ووضع الكتاب فترى المجرمين مشفقين مما فيه ويقولون يا ويلتنا مال هذا الكتاب لا يغادر صغيرة ولا كبيرة إلا أحصاها ووجدوا ما عملوا حاضرا ولا يظلم ربك أحدا

    And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open], and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it, and they will say, “Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or great except that it has enumerated it?” And they will find what they did present [before them]. And your Lord does injustice to no one.
    And you will not be recompensed, rewarded, you will not find as a return except what you did to yourself. This is the epitome of justice. You will reap what you’ve sown. There will be no additions, no subtractions. Nobody can argue against that – they can beg and plead. This is the reason for seeking istighfar, for performing tawbah. As Allaah says (19, 60)

    إلا من تاب وآمن وعمل صالحا فأولئك يدخلون الجنة ولا يظلمون شيئا

    Except those who repent, believe and do righteousness, for those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged at all.
    For then (25, 70)

    إلا من تاب وآمن وعمل عملا صالحا فأولئك يبدل الله سيئاتهم حسنات وكان الله غفورا رحيما

    Except for those who repent, believe and do righteous work. For them Allaah will replace their evil deeds with good. And ever is Allaah Forgiving and Merciful.
    This passage is letting people know that they must deal with the consequences of their actions. They may have rejected and mocked the message and its messengers and even Allaah, but they will have to deal with what they have earned.

  6.  
    Ayah 18:

     

    This continues the discussion about the town’s people and their rejection of the messengers who came to them.

    قالوا إنا تطيرنا بكم لئن لم تنتهوا لنرجمنكم وليمسنكم منا عذاب أليم

    They said, “Indeed, we consider you a bad omen. If you do not desist, we will surely stone you, and there will surely touch you, from us, a painful punishment.”
    Now, Allaah is discussing what the response of these people is after the primary response of the messengers. This is showing the progression of the refusal and denial of the message. This passage, remember, is not just about this specific town, but about such events transpiring for every messenger sent by Allaah.
    They say now, “We most definitely feel evil or misfortune from you…”
    TaTayyar| Word Analysis
    It comes from Tayr meaning “bird”. It also refers to making birds fly (e.g. throwing pigeons in the air to make them fly). In history, to test whether situations were good or bad, the people would throw birds in the air and based upon the direction and length of flight, they would make their decisions. It was superstition. So this word in this context means a bad omen, some misfortune coming one’s way. They sensed something bad would happen to them because of these messengers.
    Is this statement substantiated or not? We look through the Qur’aan and find (6, 42)

    ولقد أرسلنا إلى أمم من قبلك فأخذناهم بالبأساء والضراء لعلهم يتضرعون

    And We have already sent [messengers] to nations before you, [O Muhammad]; then We instantly grabbed them with poverty and hardship that perhaps they might humble themselves [to Us].
    These people were befallen by something. What were they stricken with?
    • Ba`sa = difficult economic situations (e.g. poverty, famine, drought, starvation, crop failure)
    • Darraa = other difficult situations (e.g. of social nature, conflict, war, external other difficulties and problems)
    So there were nations to whom messengers were sent and then there were difficulties sent upon these people but it was in order for them to humble themselves. It would crack that shell of ego they had placed around themselves.
    This is repeated (7, 94) and made more explicit

    وما أرسلنا في قرية من نبيّ إلا أخذنا أهلها بالبأساء والضراء لعلهم يضرعون

    And we sent to no city a prophet [who was denied] except that We seized its people with ba`sa and Darraa so that they may humble themselves.
    They would come down from their delusions, from their high pedestal just a little. So when a messenger is sent and people refuse and deny the message, some difficulty comes their way. This is to reinforce the message of the messenger and serve as a wake-up call. This is after the messengers have given the first warning, been denied, presented a miracle, been denied, and now are on to the next step. This is the loud, blaring alarm clock to awake them from their apathy, insistence upon ignorance, stubbornness.
    We know about the story of Musa ‘alayhi as-salaam who called the people of Firawn, then showed them miracles, and they still denied. Then Allaah sent upon them (7, 133)

    فأرسلنا عليهم الطوفان والجراد والقمل والضفادع والدم آيات مفصلات فاستكبروا وكانوا قوما مجرمين

    So We sent upon them the flood and locusts and lice and frogs and blood as distinct signs, but they were ignorant and were a criminal people.
    One after another in waves, these adversities came to wake them up, snap them out of their deep sleep. This is a sunnah of Allaah, if you will, to bring hardships upon people who deny the messengers sent to them so that they may humble themselves.
    Therefore, this statement of the townspeople does have some significance in that difficulty came upon for not believing. Their mistake, however, is attributing the misfortune and misfortune to come (taTayyar holds that future connotation of an omen) to the messengers as opposed to their own arrogance.
    The Next Step of their kufr → Aggression, Violence, Threats
    If you don’t stop, we most definitely will stone you and most definitely you will feel from us (experience from us) a most painful, tormenting punishment.
    Rajam literally refers to “throwing rocks at something” and it can also mean “to cast something away, like garbage”. They say it with emphasis (laam) to say they will most definitely do it.
    They have escalated to a high level.
    Switch over very quickly to the life of the Messenger of Allaah s. Did not the believers experience similar torments? The mushrikin came to them Abu Taalib saying that he s had torn apart their homes and they were willing to give him whatever it took to make him stop. They even got to the point where the negotiation was for him s to continue practicing his religion, but stop preaching it. Abu Taalib called his nephew, told him what the people had said and asked if it made any sense to him. He s responded tearfully (even his own uncle did not support him?), if they put the sun in my left hand and moon in my left (even if they could do the impossible), I would not stop to do what I’ve been sent to do. Abu Taalib, in order to reassure the Messenger of Allaah s of his support, told him to proceed and he would continue to do what he had to do.
    So the Quraysh had experienced similar hardships and they attributed them to their messenger s. Just like these people who attributed it to their messengers.
    Then it progressed to violence. They killed Sumayyah and Yaasir f and several others were tortured mercilessly. Even women were not spared. All of this was the escalated aggression.
    Ayah 19:

     

    So what is the response of the messengers to these people?

    قالوا طائركم معكم أئن ذكرتم بل أنتم قوم مسرفون

    They [the messengers] said, “Your omen is with yourselves. Is it because you were reminded? Rather, you are a transgressing people.”
    These evils which they sense, feel, are alluding to – these are their own problem. The messengers are not substantiating the fact that their are evil omens. If there is anything bad happening to them, it is from themselves. They ought to look at themselves in long and hard in the mirror. Taairukum – it is their own problem.
    Where did all of these complaints come from? From the simple fact that they were reminded and given a message telling them what is right and what is wrong. Dhukirtum. Rather than internalizing the message and seeing how it could benefit them they would turn it into something so negative and attribute any hardships to their warners.
    Musrifun| Word Analysis
    Rather you are a people musrifun. Musrifun comes from israaf meaning “crossing the line”. So they are people who cross the line. Allaah has not specified what line they are crossing because they are crossing several lines.
    • They crossed the line of not believing in Allaah.
    • They crossed the line of the messengers by rejecting them, slandering them, refusing them, accusing them of things.
    • They crossed the line against themselves that when they are afflicted with difficulties they turn the blame upon others. They don’t see within themselves.
    • Someone had come to them, sweating, bleeding, sacrificing, putting themselves on the line to benefit them. Rather than understand and appreciate the message and efforts, they turn the blame upon them. The messengers are actually the best thing to have happened to them!
    This had occurred with all the messengers previous. For example, Musa ‘alayhi as-salaam (7, 130-131)

    ولقد أخذنا آل فرعون بالسنين ونقص من الثمرات لعلهم يذكرون

    And We certaintly seized the people of Firawn with years of drought and a deficiency in fruits that perhaps they would be reminded.

    فإذا جاءتهم الحسنة قالوا لنا هذه وإن تصبهم سيئة يطيروا بموسى ومن معه ألا إنما طائرهم عند الله ولكن أكثرهم لا يعلمون

    But when good came to them, they said, “This is exclusively for us [by right].” And if a bad [condition] struck them, they saw an evil omen (Tayar) in Musa and those with him. Unquestionably, their fortune is with Allaah, but most of them do not know.
    Even about the people of Makkah, Allaah tells us (4, 78)

    وإن تصبهم سيئة يقولوا هذه من عندك

    …And if evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you.”…
    When they began to act in this way, blaming the messengers for their own problems and eventually escalating to aggression, how are the messengers to respond? Allaah is teaching His Messenger s that the previous messengers told them rightfully what needed to be said – that it was the peoples own faults for crossing lines that should not be crossed. It was tarbiyah for the Messenger of Allaah s to not fall to their level, but to be firm.
    The Concern of the Messengers
    Finally, by speaking about what the Messenger of Allaah s is experiencing and the experiences of messengers past, Allaah provides him s with consolation. He s is deserving of this consolation because he spent himself for the betterment of creation.
    Allaah mentions that the greatest mercy and blessing sent to creation and to the Muslim ummah in particular was that this messenger was sent to us (9, 128)

    لقد جاءكم رسول من أنفسكم عزيز عليه ما عنتم حريص عليكم بالمؤمنين رءوف رحيم

    There has certaintly come to you a Messenger from among yourselves. Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you and to the believers is kind and merciful.
    This is a beautiful aayah in the Qur’aan. He s came from amongst you so he could understand you, he could relate to you. He was empathetic to you. It was rough on him, what you were going through. When he s saw others suffering or in pain, it would hurt him. He would cry for people, pray for them, stay awake at night in worry for them.
    HariS comes from HirS which we usually associate with wealth, greed. We are greedy for money, cars, houses, fame, luxury, reputation, power, influence. He s desired something as well. It wasn’t, however, any of these things. It was the well-being of creation. This was the dedication of his entire life.
    My example and then your example is like a man who lit a big fire.
    All these bugs and fire comes to it. I’m trying to shoo them away from the fire.
    You are like those bugs, not realizing what you are doing.
    I try to save you, pushing you away, but you keep slipping by.
    I try harder, but you pass right before my eyes.
    He s is rauf very soft and gentle and raHim most merciful to the people who do believe. Look at how he s acted with the bedouin who urinated in the masjid and with the young man seeking permission to engage in zina. He intelligently spoke with them and treated them respectfully. He s reasoned with them at their level to make them understand, to show love and compassion, build a bond, to show that he loved them. He placed his hand on the young man’s chest and made du’aa that Allaah guide and purify him. All this showed to them how much he s cared. Even the young boy whose bird died (ya abba ‘umayr, maa fa`alan nughayr?). He s still took out the time to go sit with this boy and ask about his bird.
    This is how much he s would do for us. The greatest thing we can do is try to live up to that standard, empathizing with people, sharing the message of Islaam with our compassion, care, and character.
    Ayah 20:

     

    This passage is essentially the core of this surah, the central theme. It is one of the most powerful messages of this surah in aayaat 20-25.

    وجاء من أقصى المدينة رجل يسعى قال يا قوم اتبعوا المرسلين

    And there came from the farthest end of the city a man, running. He said, “O my people, follow the messengers.
    Now the confrontation or situation has reached a very critical point (the townspeople are accusing, slandering, and becoming violent and the messengers will not stoop down, but will hold firm to their responsibility).
    Yas’aa| Word Analysis
    The messengers are delivering the message to a disbelieving people, but there is a man. He is not even from the same vicinity. In fact, he is from the farthest end of town and he is coming from there if that’s what it takes to get to the message. Not only that, but he’s rushing.
    Yas’aa is from sa’i meaning to rush towards something when you have a target or a goal. He’s a man on a mission.
    Itabi’u| Word Analysis
    The said, “O my people, follow those who have been sent.”
    Itaba’ means to listen attentively with an open mind and heart, to internalize the message, and then to spread it to others. This is the word used whenever we are told to “follow the messengers” like when Allaah commands His Messenger s to say (3, 31)

    قل إن كنتم تحبون الله فاتبعوني يحببكم الله ويغفر لكم ذنوبكم والله غفور رحيم

    Say, [O Muhammad], “If you should love Allaah, then ittab’iuni (= follow me) so that Allaah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allaah is Ghafurun Rahimun.
    Following the messengers is what is key. Islaam, din, the core, basic tenets of it came to us from the Qur’aan. But the practical structure, the framework, practice of, implementation of Islaam comes from the Messenger of Allaah s. Otherwise, it all remains theory.
    This man has not just said to follow them, but he has presented evidence. The mufassirun say he is providing three pieces of information.
    1. They are al-mursalin. Meaning they’ve been sent to us by Allaah. They are not ordinary people, they’ve come from a higher authority, the ultimate authority. Refer to Verse 3 for more information regarding this term.
    2. & 3. may be found in Verse 21
    Ayah 21:

     

    اتبعوا من لا يسألكم أجرا وهم مهتدون

    Follow those who do not ask of you [any] payment, and they are [rightly] guided.
    This man has not just said to follow them, but he has presented evidence. The mufassirun say he is providing three pieces of evidence to follow them.
    1. (From Verse 20) They are al-mursalin. Meaning they’ve been sent to us by Allaah. They are not ordinary people, they’ve come from a higher authority, the ultimate authority. Refer to Verse 3 for more information regarding this term.
    2. They do not want any retribution from you.
    2.Ajr means reward for some work having been done by you. This is someone’s entitlement, someone’s right. It is not a favour to someone. It is an exchange. These messengers are providing their services, sacrificing time, energy, money, resources, investing their own talents and intellects into bettering you and your situation. Even if you were to pay them for it, it would be completely justified and deserved. So these messengers are not asking for a justified return and this is from their own nobility and the nobility of the message they are delivering.
    2.This is like when Hud ‘alayhi as-salaam said to the people of ‘Aad (11, 51):

    يا قوم لا أسألكم عليه أجرا إن أجري إلا على الذي فطرني أفلا تعقلون

    O my people, I do not ask you for it any reward. My reward is only from the One Who created me. Then will you not understand?
    Their reward is due on the One Who created them. This is their nobility. They will do everything for the people, sacrifice for them and expect nothing in return from them.
    The Messenger of Allaah s asked people for nothing. The people wanted to give him something and they felt their own honour in giving him a gift. He s would use a little from it to satisfy the people and please them and then he would distribute the rest to others. This is the nobility of the messengers.
    3. And they most definitely are guided. They live a life of guidance. Their manner of living life shows that they are guided. When you look at them, watch them, observe them you will see they are guided. Their personal lives, family lives, and public lives always show guidance. Everything about them is amazing, it is exemplary. It is the most amazing way to do everything. The Messenger of Allaah s was the best at everything and in every relationship.
    Ayah 22:

     

    This man has provided the people with evidences for why they should follow the messengers. Now, he will try to rationalize with them regarding the message itself. Notice a point in da’wah: mentions the righteousness of the messengers and then follow up with the message. Make them understand what is at stake and that it is for their own good.

    وما لي لا أعبد الذي فطرني وإليه ترجعون

    And why should I not worship He who created me and to whom you will be returned?
    He takes a very interesting point in giving them da’wah. He speaks about himself, but not in an arrogant way. In a way to make it seem real, but non-accusatory.
    FaTara| Word Analysis
    What’s wrong with me? Why wouldn’t I worship the One Who has originated me? The One Who has given me existence in the first place?
    Ibn ‘Abbaas f once said that he was trying to understand the difference between the words faTara and khalaqa. He was travelling and came across bedouins who had a dispute over a well’s possession. He asked them for their evidence.
    One man said, “الذي هو فطرته” meaning “I am the one who originated this well”. So he was the one who had dug it up in the first place.
    What would be wrong with me if I did not worship the One Who gave me existence in the first place?
    Then he kindly has them reflect by changing the subject from first person to second person. He is the One to Whom you all have to return. He has engaged them into the conversation, he has provided food for thought.
    Ayah 23:

     

    أأتخذ من دونه آلهة إن يردن الرحمن بضرّ لا تغن عني شفاعتهم شيئا ولا ينقذون

    Should I take other than Him [false] deities [while], if the Most Merciful intends for me some adversity, their intercession will not avail me at all, nor can they save me?
    Now, he goes back to the message. He’s asking a rhetorical question for how foolish it would be for him to take other objects of veneration. How ungrateful, foolish would that be? Is that what they are suggesting?
    Now, he uses a very interesting example. If my Lord, the One Who is Abundantly Merciful intended for me some difficulty, it would not help me in any way, the intercession, the intervention of those others gods whom I venerated.
    If the One Who has blessed me with everything I have, if He has afflicted me with some difficulty, the intercession of other things I worshipped would not help me in the least bit!
    Inqaadh is like someone is falling into something and you grab them and pull them out from there. It is like someone falling off the edge into something and you saving them. These deities would not be able to save him in the least bit.
    Why does he mention adversity?
    Why does he give the example? It is discussed in the Qur’aan a lot as in (10, 21)

    وإذا أذقنا الناس رحمة من بعد ضراء مستهم إذا لهم مكر في آياتنا قل الله أسرع مكرا إن رسلنا يكتبون ما تمكرون

    And when We give the people a taste of mercy after adversity has touched them, at once they conspire against Our verses. Say, “Allaah is swifter in strategy.” Indeed, Our messengers record that which you conspire.
    When people are tested with difficult situations, they immediately turn to Allaah (10, 22)

    هو الذي يسيركم في البر والبحر حتى إذا كنتم في الفلك وجرين بهم بريح طيبة وفرحوا بها جاءتها ريح عاصف وجاءهم الموج من كل مكان وظنوا

    أنهم أحيط بهم دعوا الله مخلصين له الدين لئن أنجيتنا من هذه لنكونن من الشاكرين
    It is He who enables you to travel on land and sea until, when you are in ships and they sail with them by a good wind and they rejoice therein, there comes a storm wind and the waves come upon them from everywhere and they assume that they are surrounded, supplicating Allaah, sincere to Him in religion, “If You should save us from this, we will surely be among the thankful.”
    In such a horrible situation they start making sincere du’aa to Allaah and promise that if they are saved they will always be grateful. Yet, when they are removed from the adversity, they go right back to their heedlessness. This is the nature of people. Adversity reminds them of Allaah, but in khayr they think it is all from themselves. They forget (6, 17)

    وإن يمسسك الله بضرّ فلا كاشف له إلا هو وإن يمسسك بخير فهو على كل شيء قدير

    And if Allaah should touch you with adversity, there is no remover of it except Him. And if He touches you with good, then He is over all things competent.
    He gives them the example of difficulty because in that even these townspeople can comprehend turning to the true Lord. We must give relatable examples to people.
    Ayah 24:

     

    إني إذا لفي ضلال مبين

    Indeed, I would then be in manifest error.
    If he were to do this (Verse 23), then most definitely he would be in that situation would be in very serious, open, clear misguidance.
    Fi| Word Analysis
    Fi means to be inside something. When Allaah speaks about misguidance, He uses this preposition fi. It connotates being inside something, as in a bubble that does not permit them to see outside of it. Everywhere he looks, he will only see more misguidance. Thus, it is as if he is drowning in misguidance.
    Mubin| Word Analysis
    Mubin was previously used in Verse 17 to mean the self-clarifying message. This man is telling them that if he himself refused, resisted, and was arrogant and stubborn against the message then he would be in a very clear misguidance. There is sharp contrast between there being self-clarifying message and clear, distinct misguidance.
    Ayah 25:

     

    إني آمنت بربكم فاسمعون

    Indeed, I have believed in your Lord, so listen to me.”
    In this final verse, the man says something very powerful. He makes a proclamation to the people with confidence and firm stance. He openly declares his support for these messengers and their message.
    Aamantu| Word Analysis
    I have already believed. It is in the past tense. Meaning it is so certain and true that has he brought belief before now.
    Birabbikum| Word Analysis
    In your Lord. This is directed at the townspeople. Why would he use the second person possessive pronoun? You are not willing to believe in him, you are being arrogant and ungrateful, but regardless He is your Lord. I have believed in him so listen to what I am telling you. This is for your own good. He is not speaking to them for any personal benefit, but only for their own good.
    Instrumental Lesson
    The messengers were preaching the message. The townspeople were disregarding and desisting the message and behaving violently with the messengers. A man from, not there nor a witness feeling empathy for the messengers, but from the farthest regions of town comes forth. He hears about the message, understands it, believes in it, and understands his own responsibility. He mobilizes himself and takes it upon himself to rush to voice his support and provide his backing to the messengers.
    This is speaking to us about our roles. This is Makkan Qur’aan. This is especially for us who are living in a Muslim minority area where we see more and more scrutinization and criticism.
    Islaam is not just there for amusement and pleasantries. Part of our obligation, the blessing of Islaam, and being grateful for the blessing of Islaam is to become supporters of the Messenger of Allaah s and the message of Islaam.
    We have nothing to be ashamed about. We are telling people to follow the most amazing person to step foot on this earth. Muhammad s.
    Laa yasalukum ajran
    The Messenger of Allaah s did not have any ulterior motives or agenda. For example, he s would give away personal gifts. We should help people for the sake of helping them. For the sake of pleasing Allaah.
    Muhtadun
    Next, we should be proper, good, effective presenters of Islaam. Our lives should show that we have guidance. We can’t just keep speaking or writing, we have to live it eventually. The primary means of da’wah will always be our behaviour and interactions with people. One of the biggest problems today for those coming into religion is seeing religiously active individuals saying one thing, claiming to represent one thing, but their personal life, business life, and self-conductance are not lived in accordance.
    Speak about one’s own self
    Come down to speak to people at their level. Don’t speak downwards to people. Empathize with people. The best one in speech is the one who relates himself to people (41, 33)

    ومن أحسن قولا ممن دعا إلى الله وعمل صالحا وقال إنني من المسلمين

    And who is better in speech than one who invites to Allaah and does righteousness and says, “Indeed, I am only one among the Muslims.”
    The khatib, imaam, and scholar are just muslims at the end of the day.
    Reflection
    Give people something real to think about. Where will we return after this life?
    Relevance to the recipients
    Talk to people about something they understand and can relate to.
    Firm in faith
    At the end of the day, our da’wah requires us to be very clear and confident in what we believe in.
    These are the major guidances from this surah. The messengers have come and done their job. This man could have thought what more he could have done if the townspeople were not listening to messengers? Did he, though? Of course not! What about the Companions f? They were carriers of the message and spread it to people with the etiquettes and guidance taught to them by the Messenger of Allaah s and presented to us in this passage.
    Ayah 26:

     

    قيل ادخل الجنة قال يا ليت قومي يعلمون

    It was said, “Enter Paradise.” he said, “I wish my people could know
    There is a consensus among the mufassirun. When the Qur’aan describes to us a situation, tells us a narrative, it doesn’t tell us step by step everything that has occurred. When this man spoke up and stated his faith to his own people, it seemd to them as if one of their own had confronted them. These townspeople responded as people in such a situation usually do. The scholars agree that the transition is that they killed this man. Now, we will learn what happened to this man after his death.
    Qil meaning it was announced, proclaimed to him udkhuli al-jannah enter into the gardens of Paradise. He’s being commanded! There is no reckoning, no questioning, no hisaab, no kitaab. This is that ultimate status of specific groups of people who will be entered into Paradise without any reckoning.
    At that time, that man says that he wishes his people could have known this. This shows his sincerity of this individual. His true concern for his people is apparent even in his afterlife. When we give da’wah we take a lesson from this man. Its not done to establish hujja against people. Its done with sincere care for the people, to improve their condition.
    Ayah 27:

     

    بما غفر لي ربي وجعلني من المكرمين
    Of how my Lord has forgiven me and placed me among the honoured.”
    What does he wish his people would know? How his Lord has (past tense) forgiven him. His slate was wiped clean! Whatever he might have done, we don’t know. That’s the whole point, he could have been anything (a thief, liar, crook, mutaqiI), but it doesn’t matter because of what he has engaged in.
    Ghafara literally means to cover something up. So this means not just to forgive, but to have it hidden such that nobody ever knows about it. We don’t know anything about this man before this situation. Allaah has hidden that from us in this narrative!
    Wa ja’alni and he made me min from among al-mukramin.
    Mukramin comes from ikram meaning to honour someone. Mukramin are those who are honoured.
    This is an interesting sentence structure. He doesn’t say, mukramani (= He honoured me) where ikram is in the verbal form. Instead he used the nominal form (mukramin = the honoured people). The significance of the noun over the verb is that the verb is bound by time, but nouns are eternal. So it is as if Allaah has granted him this honour for all of eternity.
    In the life of the hereafter, honour is eternal. In this world, honour today could be disgrace tomorrow.
    What’s even more in the sentence structure is that he is min al-mukramin. He’s honoured, but he’s not alone. He’s among a group of people. He’s among others who are also equally honoured. The company we keep reflects upon who we are. We feel distinction and honour based upon with whom we associate. This person is among the most amazing, awesome people.
    Ayah 28:

     

    وما أنزلنا على قومه من بعده من جند من السماء وما كنا منزلين

    And We did not send down upon his people right after him any soldiers from the heaven, nor would We have ever done so.
    Now, Allaah the Exalted and Most High speaks. The man was speaking before because Allaah had given him that honour to speak from the Hereafter. Allaah allowed him to speak of his situation, but now He will speak of the townspeople who rejected and harmed His messengers and killed even the one man who came forth to support them.
    Ba’dihi would mean “after him”, but the additional mim adds immediate action. Meaning the punishment of Allaah and his decision upon this people was not for much later even after this egregious act they have done – persecuting and killing a man who spoke on behalf of truth.
    Allaah uses min again for jundin (= army). He could have simply said jundan, but by adding the min it means Allaah did not send upon them any type of army. No type of army (people, Angels, etc.) was sent to these people.
    Allaah uses the word jundin (=army) because when the Angels would be sent down to people they would resemble armies in their organization, like a battalion. Think of the Battle of Badr (3, 125) and (8, 9)

    بلى إن تصبروا وتتقوا ويأتوكم من فورهم هذا يمددكم ربكم بخمسة آلاف من الملائكة مسومين

    Yes, if you remain patient and conscious of Allaah and the enemy comes upon you [attacking] in rage, your Lord will reinforce you with five thousand angels musawwimin (having marks of distinction).

    إذ تستغيثون ربكم فاستجاب لكم أني ممدكم بألف من الملائكة مردفين

    [Remember] when you asked help of your Lord, and He answered you, “Indeed, I will reinforce you with a thousand from the angels murdifin (following one another).
    They came down in the form of an army, organized like a battalion. When Allaah sometimes gives them a punishment at the hands of others (e.g. defeat), we can still say that it arises mina as-sama (from the sky) because the command originated in the skies.
    Nor would we ever said down
    What does this mean? It is a phrase in Arabic and can be understood in a few ways:
    1. We did not send an army upon them nor are we ever going to
    2. We did not send an army upon them and it wasn’t even appropriate to do so because these people aren’t even deserving of such attention.
    2.When Allaah decides just punishment for a group of people, He is not required to do so by sending an army upon them. Allaah’s will is not restricted in any way (16, 40)

    إنما قولنا لشيء إذا أردناه أن نقول له كن فيكون

    Indeed, Our word to a thing when We intend it is but that We say to it “Be” and it is.
    3. We did not send an army upon them and there was no benefit in sending down an army.
    3.Sending down an army or Angels is to send a message, teach a lesson, make a point. There was no point to do that with these people.
    Ayah 29:

     

    إن كانت إلا صيحة واحدة فإذا هم خامدون

    It was nothing except for one shout and immediately they were extinguished.
    SiHah| Word Analysis
    It means a very, very loud sound like a scream (e.g. he’s lying his head off). Such a loud scream that it is disturbing to people. When it is used to describe a punishment of Allaah it refers to such a huge piercing sound that it would literally make people’s heads explode.
    Just a single sound! One screaming, piercing sound was enough to make their heads explode.
    Then immediately (without warning) they became khaamidun.
    Khamad| Word Analysis
    It refers to putting out a fire, extinguishing a fire. As if they had been put out like a fire completely and suddenly extinguished.
    This could refer to their arrogance, pride, boastfulness.
    It could also refer to how they died; walking around one minute and suddenly fallen dead.
    Profound Lesson
    This lesson is being given to the Muslims being persecuted in Makkah and the Quraysh persecuting them. When somebody stands for what is right, he may not see the fruits of his labour in this world. These townspeople became more arrogant and ended up killing him. Yet, there is return on the investment – it may be the best long-term profit. Jannah, honour, being given distinction. The townspeople may have scoffed at the end of this person, but Allaah is telling them that there is more than they can see! Much more (4, 69)!

    ومن يطع الله والرسول فأولئك مع الذين أنعم الله عليهم من النبيين والصديقين والشهداء والصالحين وحسن أولئك رفيقا

    And whoever obeys Allaah and the Messenger – those will be the ones upon whom Allaah has bestowed favour of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions.
    To be in the company of these people! That is where this man ended.
    People who oppose the truth should not be deluded by what they perceive to be an immediate, short-term victory. Sometimes it is just another trap, another part of their errors. They would have used this as a lesson against other followers and people. They were increasing their arrogance upon arrogance (24, 40).

    أو كظلمات في بحر لجيّ يغشاه موج من فوقه موج من فوقه سحاب ظلمات بعضها فوق بعض إذا أخرج يده لم يكد يراها ومن لم يجعل الله له نورا فما له من نور

    Or [they are] like darknesses within an unfathomable sea which is covered by waves, upon which are waves , over which are clouds – darknesses, some of them upon others. When one puts out his hand [therein], he can hardly see it. And he to whom Allaah has not granted light – for him there is no light.
    Look at what happened to them. Allaah did not even trouble His armies to bring the punishment upon them. A single, one, loud piercing sound was enough to bring them into destruction.
    Ayah 30:

     

     

    يا حسرة على العباد ما يأتيهم من رسول إلا كانوا به يستهزئون

    How regretful (hopeless) for the servants. There did not come to them any messenger except that they used to ridicule him.
    Previously, Allaah spoke directly of His wrath and anger upon these people and the plight of them.
    Hasrah| Word Analysis
    This is a very, very strong word. It even sounds strong when one says it. Its even stronger than ندم (meaning remorse or regret). Hasrah literally means when a person becomes completely hopeless (67, 4)

    ثم ارجع البصر كرتين ينقلب إليك البصر خاسئا وهو حسير

    Then return [your] vision twice again. [Your] vision will return to you humbled while it is Hasir (fatigued).
    There’s no light left at the end of the tunnel. These people have experienced that Sihah and are khamad, now lying on the ground dead instantly.
    These slaves
    (interesting to note that ‘ibaad is specific to slaves of Allaah. When one refers to a group of slaves, the word used is العبيد.)
    are in a hopeless situation. Why is it hopeless? Not because Allaah cursed them or did not want any good for them, but because no messenger came to them except that they would mock him, make fun of him, treat him inappropriately.
    Istihza| Word Analysis
    It means to make fun of someone, but even more it means to make fun of someone in a very foolish manner. Making fun of anyone is inappropriate. This is humiliation. It is as if one is making things up just to get a few laughs and kicks out of it. They woudl come up with senseless things. How uncomfortable would it be to say something like that about a messenger?!
    This is a template of what happened repeatedly in history. Every single time these people were sent a messenger, they would mock them. No matter how bleak the situation becomes, however, it always works out in the end. This is the message to the Messenger of Allaah s and the Muslims in Makkah.
    As well, this passage is shown elsewhere (43, 6-7), but the Qur’aan is never supfluous

    وكم أرسلنا من نبيّ في الأولين

    And how many a prophet We sent among the former peoples,

    وما يأتيهم من نبيّ إلا كانوا به يستهزئون

    But there would not come to them a prophet except that they used to ridicule him.
    Here Allaah uses the word nabi, but in Ya-Sin Allaah uses rasul because He has been using it from the beginning of the surah! It is, thus, more appropriate to use the word surah and keep consistency in the surah.
    Ayah 31:

     

    ألم يروا كم أهلكنا قبلهم من القرون أنهم إليهم لا يرجعون

    Have they not considered (understood) how many generations We destroyed before them – that they (who have been destroyed) will not return to them?
    This is now addressing the people of Quraysh.
    La yarji’un it is in the present and future tense meaning that these people are not and will not ever come back to them. Don’t wait up late at night for them. They’re gone, wiped clean from the face of the earth. They were eradicated, erased.
    To the point that there were sometimes no remnants of these people.
    Ayah 32:

     

    وإن كل لما جميع لدينا محضرون

    And indeed, all of them will yet be brought present before Us.
    History is repeating itself. It has happened time and time again, previously, and now again to these people. Even though they were eradicated, all of them will most definitely be gathered together near Allaah.
    In the Hereafter, they will eventually all be presented and placed before Allaah. It is a reminder fo accountability for their actions. It is not so easy that it is over once they have died after their egregious actions.
    MuHDarun| Word Analysis
    Allaah does not say حضرون (they will present themselves). He the Exalted uses the passive form, meaning “they will be presented”.
    They will be forced. Allaah speaks about this elsewhere (41, 19) and (39, 71)

    ويوم يحشر أعداء الله إلى النار فهم يوزعون

    And [mention, O Muhammad], the Day when the enemies of Allaah will be gathered to the Fire while they are [driven] assembled in rows

    وسيق الذين كفروا إلى جهنم زمرا حتى إذا جاءوها فتحت أبوابها وقال لهم خزنتها ألم يأتكم رسل منكم يتلون عليكم آيات ربكم وينذرونكم لقاء يومكم

    هذا قالوا بلى ولكن حقت كلمة العذاب على الكافرين
    And those who disbelieved will be driven to Hell in groups until, when they reach it, its gates are opened and its keepers will say, “Did there not come to you messengers from yourselves, reciting to you the verses of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?” They will say, “yes, but the word of punishment has come into effect upon the disbelievers.”
    They will be herded like wild beasts and animals, cuffed and chained and collared, to stand before their Lord. And this will be in the truest form of justice because they will be shown what they have done to see for themselves (17, 14)

    اقرأ كتابك كفى بنفسك اليوم عليك حسيبا

    [It will be said], “Read your own record. Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as an accountant.”
    It is as if Allaah is saying to you, “You tell me what I should do with you?”. This is the reality of the reckoning before Allaah on the Day of Judgment.
    Underlying Lessons
    We’ve seen this issue and lessons of da’wah. The progression of da’wah has been clear. There was aggression requiring people to speak up and support the message. The results may not be immediately seen, but the reward is with Allaah.
    As a consolation and to build conviction for living by the truth, the truth is never eradicated and diminished. It never happens.
    In Madinah, things became very difficult, but Allaah brought Fath’l-Makkah.
    Allaah says (37, 171-173)

    ولقد سبقت كلمتنا لعبادنا المرسلين

    And Our word has already preceded for Our servants, the messengers,

    إنهم لهم المنصورون

    Indeed, they would be those given victory

    وإن جندنا لهم الغالبون

    And [that] indeed, Our soldiers will be those who overcome.
    As well, Nuh ‘alayhi as-salaam was presented with distress from his people so (54, 10)

    فدعا ربه أني مغلوب فانتصر

    So he invoked his Lord, “Indeed, I am overpowered, so help me”
    Allaah wiped out the people against him and kept only him and his followers, those who were upon truth. Thus, the da’wah will never go away (17, 81)

    وقل جاء الحق وزهق الباطل إن الباطل كان زهوقا

    And say, “Truth has come, and falsehood has departed. Indeed is falsehood [by nature], ever bound to depart.”
    Injustice, falsehood, evil is meant to go away. Its purpose in life is to be temporary! A beautiful parable is given by Allaah (13, 17)

    أنزل من السماء ماء فسالت أودية بقدرها فاحتمل السيل زبدا رابيا ومما يوقدون عليه في النار ابتغاء حلية أو متاع زبد مثله كذلك يضرب الله الحق

    والباطل فأما الزبد فيذهب جفاء وأما ما ينفع الناس فيمكث في الأرض كذلك يضرب الله الأمثال
    He sends down from the sky rain and valleys flow according to their capacity and the torrent carries a rising foam. And from that [ore] which they heat in the fire, desiring adornments and utensils, is a foam like it. Thus, Allaah presents [the example of] truth and falsehood. As for the foam, it vanishes, [being] cast off; but as for that which benefits the people, it remains on the earth. Thus, does Allaah present examples.
    That foam will eventually dry up and the debris in it will fall to the bottom. And that which benefits people stays there in the earth. This is the example of truth and falsehood. Truth comes, falsehood rises to the top, but it is temporary until it falls away.
    Our intent and purpose is truly to help humanity. The Messenger of Allaah s just wanted to better peoples’ situation. If that is our heart we need to continue to do good for people to better their quality of life. Bring them peace, tranquility and fulfillment in life by finding Allaah. That will overcome in every and all obstacles and difficulties. Allaah has presented this to us in the example of the messengers and previous people.
    At the end of the day, whose right and wrong is not our decision. All of us, everybody, will stand before Allaah on the Day of Judgment whether he wants to or not and Allaah will make the decision.
    Ayah 33:

     

    وَآيَةٌ لَّهُمُ الْأَرْ‌ضُ الْمَيْتَةُ أَحْيَيْنَاهَا وَأَخْرَ‌جْنَا مِنْهَا حَبًّا فَمِنْهُ يَأْكُلُونَ

    And a sign for them is the dead earth. We have brought it to life and brought forth from it grain, and from it they eat.
    A new passage begins. This is the middle part of the surah and it serves a pivotal role in the theme and concept of the surah. In the introduction we discussed the three main topics of Makkan suwar (tawhid, risalah, aakhirah). Ya-Sin very powerfully and emphatically speaks of all these three topics.
    The first part of the surah focused heavily upon prophethood and messengership.
    The end part of the surah will focus heavily upon the life of the hereafter and the reckoning.
    The middle part, starting now, will discuss tawhid. This is a very fitting manner of presentation because messengers bring the message and the hereafter is the result of how that message is taken. What, however, is the crux of the message? What determines the faith of people? It is how well they accepted and founded tawhid. Their commitment to Allaah. How they were able to live by this creed.
    Before beginning the tafsir, we must discuss some basic concepts by which the Qur’aan discusses the Oneness of Allaah.
    Normally, especially today, in the Muslim community, the discussion of tawhid is very philosophical and logical to prove the presence of a Higher Being. That has become the tone of this conversation. Even Muslims are infatuated and enamoured by using this philosophical and scientific perspective.
    The Qur’aan, however, teaches the existence of a Divine Being differently. It does not use philosophical terms. It uses deductive reasoning and deductive logic. There are certain observations to be made which lead us to a particular conclusion. Look to these verses (88, 17-20) and (67, 15)

    أفلا ينظرون إلى الإبل كيف خلقت

    Then do they not look at the camels – how they are created?

    وإلى السماء كيف رفعت

    And at the sky – how it is raised?

    وإلى الجبال كيف نصبت

    And at the mountains – how they are erected?

    وإلى الأرض كيف سطحت

    And at the earth – how it is spread out?

    هو الذي جعل لكم الأرض ذلولا فامشوا في مناكبها وكلوا من رزقه وإليه النشور

    It is He who made the earth tame for you – so walk among its slopes and eat of His provision – and to Him is the resurrection.
    This so powerfully summarizes the concept. The earth is here for us to trample all over it! We can walk all over it and eat from everything it grows and we will still be gathered exclusively before Allaah.
    It is almost elementary how the Qur’aan teaches imaan, but that is the way it strikes us best that Allaah is One and He Alone deserves to be worshipped.
    We will see this same introduction to Allaah in this verse.

    وآية لهم الأرض الميتة أحييناها وأخرجنا منها حبّا فمنه يأكلون

    And a sign for them is the dead earth. We have brought it to life and brought forth from it grain, and from it they eat.
    Aayah| Word Analysis
    Allaah points to aayat to explain to us, to clarify to us (2, 242):

    كذلك يبين الله لكم آياته لعلكم تعقلون

    Thus does Allaah make clear to you His verses that you might use reason.
    It means sign; a very obvious, apparent, unavoidable, immutable sign. You have to be trying to miss it in order to miss it. It is also such a sign that it does not engage or absorb you into looking at the sign itself. Rather it immediately points you to something else. You are not required to make a conscious effort. When someone gives you a gift – a plaque or card – you won’t think of its make. You will think immediately of the memories associated with it, the person who gave it to you.
    These signs should immediately make us think of Allaah. If we look at these things and we don’t think of Allaah immediately then that means one of three things.
    1. There is a lack of intellect, mental awareness or consciousness
    2. Deficiency in the fitrah of that person, the core of that person.
    Thus, all aayaat will lead one to immediately think of Allaah when there is intellect (mind is awake and open) and the fitrah is clean.
    An Arab poet has said:

    وفي كل شيءله آية ةدل على أنه واحد

    In each and every thing there is a miraculous sign pointing you to the fact that He (Allaah) is one.
    The bedouins have beautiful and eloquent statements in this regard. There was once a bedouin man who was challenged by somebody. For every claim there is evidence, what is you evidence and proof for believing in Allaah? He said,
    Camel droppings tell you that a camel was here.
    Footprints in the sand tell you someone walked by here.
    The earth is full of trees, the sky full of stars,
    and the ocean full of waves, doesn’t that tell you Allaah is there?
    Allaah uses a beautiful example in the Qur’aan (6, 59)

    وعنده مفاتح الغيب لا يعلمها إلا هو ويعلم ما في البر والبحر وما تسقط من ورقة إلا يعلمها ولا حبة في ظلمات الأرض ولا رطب ولا يابس إلا في كتاب مبين

    And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what it on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there written within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record.
    This is a beautiful example. Why a leaf? It is something so small and insignificant that we don’t even consider it. Every single leaf falling from a tree is by the knowledge and command of Allaah.
    There is a narration in Tabaraani (graded hasan) that says the Messenger of Allaah s was passing by a bedouin man who was making du’aa in his prayer. The Messenger of Allaah s stopped to listen for a minute. The man was saying
    “O You Who eyes cannot see in this world, minds cannot comprehend You! People cannot praise You as You deserve to be praised, and Who changes the incidences and occurrences which occur, but does not change Himself, He does not fear the trials and tribulations of time. He knows the exact weight of mountains on the earth, He knows the exact volume of water on the earth, He knows the exact number of rain drops that fall from the sky. he knows the exact number of leaves on every tree on the earth. He knows the exact number and details of everything that the darknesses of the night hide and the light of the day illuminates with its light. One sky cannot hide or shield another sky from Allaah. One ground cannot hide or shield another ground from Allaah. And a mountain in its deepest darkest caves cannot hide anything from Allaah and the ocean in its deepest depths cannot hide anything from Allaah.
    This is how these people would believe in Allaah and this is how Allaah has taught us to believe in Him in the Qur’aan.
    Second, the Qur’aan has a progression for how it brings change and enlightenment to the human being.
    1. Aayaat to direct attention. They are not just here to inspire awe in us. They are to lead us somewhere else (88, 21). It is for reflection, it is to remind. It is a wake-up call.

    فذكر إنما أنت مذكر

    So remind, [O Muhammad]; you are only a reminder.
    And what is a reminder? A reminder does not present new information. It is bringing to attention information that we already have and already know and realize (30, 30)

    فأقم وجهك للدين حنيفا فطرت الله التي فطر الناس عليها لا تبديل لخلق الله ذلك الدين القيم ولكن أكثر الناس لا يعلمون

    So direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth. [Adhere to] the fitrah of Allaah upon which He has created [all] people. No change should there be in the creation of Allaah. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know.
    We are all created upon this innate nature to turn to Allaah. to believe in Allaah, to dedicate and devote in worship to Allaah. The Qur’aan even tells us that when we were created we all testified to His Lordship (7, 172)

    وإذ أخذ ربك من بني آدم من ظهورهم ذريتهم وأشهدهم على أنفسهم ألست بربكم قالوا بلى شهدنا أن تقولوا يوم القيامة إنا كنا عن هذا غافلين

    And [mention] when your Lord took from the children of Adam – from their loins – their descendants and made them testify of themselves, [saying to them], “Am I not your Lord?” They said, “Yes, we have testified.” [This] – lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection, “Indeed, we were of this unaware.”
    That realization is hidden within each of us. These miraculous signs are to remind us. They lead us to the reminder.
    When a person heeds the reminder, remembering his purpose in existence, he is at a very important stage. Shukr, gratefulness, thanks to Allaah for everything he has been given. The Qur’aan opens with the very verse to proclaim this gratefulness (1, 1)

    الحمد لله رب العالمين

    The very best praise is to Allaah, Lord of the worlds
    The opposite of shukr is kufr. It means to be ungratefulness and disbelief because we know shukr is the basis of imaan. Once that person becomes grateful, the manifestation of that gratitude is not just lip-service. It leads to ibaadah – enslaving one’s self to Allaah voluntarily. The most obvious form of this slavery is worship.
    A person who takes heed of the reminders and signs does not need anything more to direct him to Allaah in worship. He feels compelled.
    Now, let’s get back to the verse at hand.

    وآية لهم الأرض الميتة أحييناها وأخرجنا منها حبّا فمنه يأكلون

    And a sign for them is the dead earth. We have brought it to life and brought forth from it grain, and from it they eat.
    Aayatun this is in its common form (nakira). This is either
    1. لتفخيم to magnify that this is something of importance being discussed
    2. to diversity that there are multiple ways of reflecting upon what is to be discussed لتنويع
    A miraculous sign for these people who aren’t realizing the truth is the dead earth which We have revived. This is not difficult for Allaah, it simply rains. We bring out from it habban a grain, a seed. That is what they are living off of. Not only that, but what is the progression of that? See Verse 34.
    Ayah 34:

     

    وجعلنا فيها جنات من نخيل وأعناب وفجرنا فيها من العيون

    And We placed therein gardens of palm trees and grapevines and caused to burst forth therefrom some springs -
    The progression of that seed from which the people eat is that it evolves into many, many gardens in this earth. They are full of date palms and grapes. These are amazing forms of sustenance provided on this earth.
    For the Arabs, nakhil is how they provided for themselves and sustained and grapes were a form of luxury. Not only does Allaah creates gardens of sustenance, but even luxuries!
    And We have made gush forth in this earth from springs.
    So first this earth was barren, there was nothing there. Not only did Allaah revive it, but he put forth fruit from it and even luxurious fruits. Then even water is gushing forth from it. Water is coming down from top (rain) and bottom (springs).
    Ayah 35:

     

    ليأكلوا من ثمره وما عملته أيديهم أفلا يشكرون

    That they may eat of His fruit. And their hands have not produced it, so will they not be grateful?
    And why was all this done? So that the people may eat from His fruit. But if you have forgotten, note, that their hands haven’t done any of this. Allaah makes this happen, don’t you forget (67, 30)

    قل أرأيتم إن أصبح ماؤكم غورا فمن يأتيكم بماء معين

    Say, “Have you considered: if your water was to become sunken [into the earth], then who could bring you flowing water?”
    If Allaah made the water recede back into the earth, nobody could bring it back up for us.
    There are two ways to understand this ما
    1. As negation e.g. their hands did not produce it
    2. Maa mansula e.g. and that which their hands have done
    2.Meaning Allaah has provided all of this so they may eat the fruit from Allaah or even that which they do with their own hands – it is also only due to what Allaah has made possible. Nothing we do is possible without the facilitation of Allaah. A farmer requires the the temperatures and soil and water and conditions that Allaah provides. Without them, his crops are nonexistent.
    So will they not be grateful? This is a conclusion. Don’t these people realize? Don’t they show gratitude? Why don’t they live a life of gratefulness if they can’t live without these provisions (the verse mentions food and water) provided to them by Allaah?
    This was the physical understanding of Verses 33-35. There is also a spiritual understanding, a spiritual reflection. Verse 32 ended upon each and every single person being presented before Allaah at resurrection. We know the mushrikun of Makkah and all the other disbelievers always questioned being brought back to life once they have died and the bodies have decomposed.
    They had doubts about humans being brought back to life, yet, they didn’t even look at the earth. This barren earth was brought back to life and then it was sprawling with lush gardens and vegetations. The same ground which was barren is flowing with water and people are benefiting from it, eating from it, making more out of it. Why don’t you realize? Why can’t you be grateful? If Allaah can bring it back to life, then He can do the same to you.
    Even further, this shows how a person can be spiritually revived. A person without the understanding of tawhid is like a dead person.
    AHyaynaha – When Allaah grants him the understanding of tawhid, imaan he is brought back to life.
    wa akhrajna minha Habban – some good comes out of him
    faminhu yakulun – he starts to benefit from it, people start to benefit from him
    wa ja’alna fiha jannaatin min nakhilin wa a’naabin – if he continues to walk on this path, he can continue to climb the steps of taqwa, shukr, birr, tawakkul. He can become like the lush garden which has benefits in society, family, business, etc. Everywhere he goes, people benefit from him.
    wa fajjarna fiha mina al-‘uyun – the Messenger of Allaah s has often used the example of water for knowledge.
    “My example and the example which Allaah has sent me with is like abundant rain falling from the sky.”
    What brings life to things? Water! What will spiritually revive society and people? Good people! So this person can then be a source of knowledge, teaching others about that source of good.
    liya kulu min thamarihi – everyone will be able to live a good life
    wa maa ‘amalathu aydihim – and he will be rewarded for this good he is doing
    afalaa yashkurun – so will he not given thanks?
    This spiritual understanding is not new to the Qur’aan? Look at these verses (14, 24-25)

    ألم تر كيف ضرب الله مثلا كلمة طيبة كشجرة طيبة أصلها ثابت وفرعها في السماء

    Have you not considered how Allaah presents an example, [making] a good word like a good tree, whose root is firmly fixed and its branches [high] in the sky?

    تؤتي أكلها كل حين بإذن ربها ويضرب الله الأمثال للناس لعلهم يتذكرون

    It produces its fruit all the time, by permission of its Lord. And Allaah presents examples for the people perhaps that they will be reminded.
    That good word is imaan. That same dhikr is mentioned. It is to remind people of their purpose, goal, and objective in life.
    Ayah 36:

     

    سبحان الذي خلق الأزواج كلها مما تنبت الأرض ومن أنفسهم ومما لا يعلمون

    Exalted is He who created all pairs – from what the earth grows and from themselves and from that which they do not know.
    SubHaan| Word Analysis
    This is an exclamation of the perfection of Allaah. It comes from tasbiH meaning to glorify Allaah. It means how amazingly glorious, how amazingly perfect is Allaah.
    The root of this word as we’ll see in Verse 40, comes from the root (sa-ba-Ha) meaning to swim.
    How do the root and word connect?
    There is a process in the Arabic language that a word which is conjugated from a root word takes on a life and meaning of its own. TasbiH is one such word which means to speak of Allaah’s perfection.
    There are, however, logical and spiritual connections. sa-ba-Ha means to swim with one’s head above water (e.g. not diving). Subhaana and tasbiH is like that head, meaning that Allaah is above creation.
    Swimming is a very interesting action. When a person is swimming, in order to remain afloat he requires calculated, regular movements. Similarly, tasbiH is what keeps us spiritually afloat in this world otherwise we are surrounded by so many items which pull us down.
    A companion once asked the Messenger of Allaah s “The different ahkam are various, but I ask you for something that will constantly keep me latched to Allaah.” He s told him to keep his tongue moist with the remembrance of Allaah.
    Dhikr is not formal. The etiquette of the Muslim is to remember Allaah whenever something, anything occurs in his life. Sometimes in communities people find it awkward to make mention of these terms, but this is how the believer speaks.
    Allaah is attributing glory and perfection to the One Who created pairs in everything. Slowly, we begin to realize how many pairs there are. The things we do not know, Allaah knows best.
    Cross-pollination is a method of agriculture to increase the harvest.

  7. Shaykh Abdul-Nasir Jangda

     

    Tafsir Surah Ya-Sin
    Shaykh Abdul-Nasir Jangda
    RAMADHAAN 1432 A.H.
    Allaah ta’aala says in the Qur’aan,

    ولقد يسرنا القرآن للذكر فهل من مدكر

    {And We have certainly made the Qur’aan easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember? (54, 17)}
    The Qur’aan is easy, Allaah has made it easy. There is no doubt. The only requirement placed is li dhikri – whoever reads/listens/learns the Qur’aan to come closer to Allaah for him it is made easier. Then, it is placed on a silver platter – who will come forward to remember it?
    Introduction:

     

    This is a Makkan surah, revealed during the time the Messenger of Allaah s lived in Makkah.
    The Makkan suwar focus upon three main aspects in imaan:
    • tawhid (the Oneness of Allaah)
    • risalah (Messengership of Muhammad s, that he is a messenger sent by Allaah to guide all of creation and he receives divine revelation)
    • and the reality of the al-aakhirah and what will be encountered therein.
    Surah Ya-Sin’s (36) placement within the mus-haf: it follows Saba (34) and Faatir (35) which are also Makkan suwar. Saba and Faatir are also Makkan suwar so there focus is to discuss tawhid, risalah, and al-aakhirah. Ya-Sin continues with these themes, but it takes a different tone. It starts by focusing more heavily on the prophethood of Muhammad s. Faatir did discuss the prophethood and the importance of believing in the Messenger of Allaah s, but it more heavily focuses on tawhid. Ya-Sin places a heavy emphasis on the prophethood of Muhammad s.
    There are few ahadith which discuss the virtue of Ya-Sin as mentioned by the Messenger of Allaah. There is discussion regarding the authenticity of these narrations, but the two that exist are
    (1) Everything has a heart and Ya-Sin is the heart of the Qur’aan.
    What this exactly means is heavily discussed by the scholars. The most apparent understanding, however, is the beauty with which Ya-Sin constructs this argument and the beauty with which it flows discussing themes and concepts. It is so comprehensive and coherent that it is a perfect example of the miracle of the Qur’aan. Second, it is so universally loved, admired, revered, and respected by Muslims. The most renowned scholar and the average Muslim who may not be able to recite with proper tajwid will hold in common their reverance and love for this surah. They still know it is something amazing and mindblowing. It is its acceptability in the hearts of people that alludes to it being the heart of the Qur’aan.
    Another narration with this idea is “I wish for Surah Ya-Sin to be in the heart of every single believing person.” This is the focus behind this study: to memorize the surah as in the wish of the Messenger of Allaah s.
    (2) Recite Surah Ya-Sin upon your dead.
    Meaning when somebody is at the door of death, experiencing the pangs of death, the Messenger of Allaah s is advising us to recite it to ease their transition to the afterlife and make it easier for that person to leave this world.
    This is a prevalent practice in the Muslim community, but it has been more into a ritual. They are the words of Allaah so they do have soothing, calming affect on people, but so do other suwar. Why this surah? It talks about imaan, it reaffirms tawhid, risalah, al-aakhirah. It talks about everything of great importance.
    What the Messenger of Allaah s is actually alluding to is that when there is mass education in our communities of Qur’aan and the meaning and understanding, the recitation will reaffirm the faith of that person. It will reconnect him to Allaah. It will remind him of the fundamental principles of imaan leading him to a better death and place in the Hereafter.
    Ayah 1:

     

    Faatir ended on a powerful note
    (35, 42) They take oaths upon Allaah and they would exhaust taking oaths e.g. they swear by each and everything they can image. Their oaths are that if somebody was to come to them and warn them, they would be one of the most guided amongst the people. Yet, when a prophet did arrive to them, it did not increase them in any way except they began to run away from him even more.
    Now, we begin with Ya-Sin.

    يس

    Ya-Sin
    Huruf al-muqatt’aat (the disjointed letters)
    These are repeated throughout the Qur’aan. What do they mean?
    The most authentic and majority position of the ulema is that only Allaah knows the true meaning.
    In this case, however, there is more discussion regarding what they mean. Some claim it means “O human being” others that it is a name of the Messenger of Allaah s. The reality of the matter, however, is that we have no confirmation of these facts. Nothing to establish these hypotheses exist. The most authentic and safest understanding is still that Allaah knows best what they mean.
    They can also be seen from the miracle of the Qur’aan. These are the letters of the Arabic language. The Arabs of that time were some of the most poetic and eloquent people this earth has seen, the masters of this language. They had never before seen, however, the letters being used in this manner.
    When the Arabs put together the letters alif-laam-mim they always assumed it meant alam; Ha-mim was ham; ya-sin was yas. It shocked and amazed them.
    That is the purpose of these suwar beginnings. It catches the attention immediately. It captivates the listener as if it is an announcement. The fact that we don’t know what it means humbles the person. It humbles even the scholar of the language.
    An interesting point regarding the suwar that begin with these letters is that the very next aayah is about the Qur’aan. Oftentimes, there is an oath involved as well. The word kitaab or Qur’aan occurs in this next verse. The point of these letters is to call your attention to the Qur’aan.
    The Framework| What can we expect from Surah Ya-Sin?
    The three main themes of imaan: tawhid, risalah, al-aakhirah.
    This surah is very philosophical and will focus upon the fundamental ideas of our life and its purpose.
    It will focus heavily upon gratefulness and what it requires of a person.
    a. Why should we be grateful?
    b. How should we express our gratitude?
    c. Now that we are grateful, what is expected of us if we are grateful?
    1. The first part of the surah is a consolation to the Messenger of Allaah s that what he is doing is correct. He s should not pay heed to these people who slander him, curse him, abuse him, lie against him.
    2. The second part of the surah is giving a lesson to the Quraysh by referring to people of previous nations who were sent messengers but they rejected them just like the Quraysh. What happened to those people in return?
    3. The third part of the surah will talk to us about the beauty of Allaah’s creation. How we can look all around us and appreciate that Allaah is our Creator, Sustainer, and how Magnificent He must be if His creation is this magnificent.
    4. The fourth part of the surah will discuss that when the message is delivered, when the disbelievers are shown these magnificences and told to believe in Allaah, but they refuse and reject its truth, what happens to them.
    5. The fifth part of the surah will discuss the Hereafter. What will happen on the Day of Judgment with these two groups of people? The group that believed and the group that disbelieved.
    6. Finally, Allaah will issue a warning to people who have intelligence, faculties, money, assets, resources and talent. They are fully functioning human beings, but they refuse to believe in Allaah. To use their abilities to understand the Oneness in Allaah. This is a final warning to those people.
    7. The surah concludes by again providing consolation to the Messenger of Allaah s: by reminding him that he was given a task. His responsibility is to deliver the message. Some people will believe and he is to teach them, others will disbelieve and he is not to worry about them.
    Ayah 2:

     

    والقرآن الحكيم

    By the wise Qur’aan.
    This is an oath. The waaw here means an oath (as opposed to its usual ‘and’). By the Qur’aan that is full of wisdom.
    The Word Qur’aan Itself
    This is the given name by Allaah to His Book. We call it the Qur’aan.
    It comes from the root of the word meaning ‘to read something’.
    The ending on the word (aan) it means “abundance”. That pattern alludes to abundance. So Qur’aan is that which is read in abundance.
    It is not a coincidence that Allaah begins this surah with the term Qur’aan – for Ya-Sin is one of the most frequently recited parts of it.
    Al-Hakim
    It can have two possible meanings.
    1. We know that it means ‘Wise’. It comes from Hikmah (wisdom) and Hakim is someone who is full of wisdom.
    There is a profound message in calling the Qur’aan wise. It is miraculous for many reasons. The science, the prophecies, the unmatched language. Its most prominent miracle, however, is its wisdom, profundity, depth. It tells us how to lead our life, exactly what to do to lead a successful, meaning life. It is the cure for whatever problem creation has. It is that deep in its wisdom.
    2. It can also comes from the word Hukm (authority) and Hakim would be someone who is full of authority (authoritative). It tells you what to do. It is decisive in delivering a message to you.
    Which one does it mean? The reality of the matter is that it means both. This is part of the beauty of the Qur’aan that one word can have multiple meanings. This is called al-tawasu fi’l-ma’na fi’l-Qur’aan al-Karim. This creates depth in the meaning of the Qur’aan.
    Thus, the Qur’aan is both full of wisdom and it is authoritative (e.g. it tells us what to do).
    Ayah 3:

     

    إنك لمن المرسلين

    Indeed you, [O Muhammad], are from among the messengers,
    Allaah has sworn by the Qur’aan that this is true.
    In the Qur’aan, the singular, second person (you = kaaf) refers to the Messenger of Allaah s.
    Inna is to provide emphasis, to remove doubt. Allaah is saying there should remain no doubt about the fact that You are most definitely (laam is for emphasis) from (min) al-mursalin.
    Al-Mursalin is from the root of irsal (someone who has been sent by a higher authority). Mursal is someone who has been sent by a higher authority. Rasul is someone who has been sent to convey by a higher authority. Thus, if somone is a rasul or a mursal it doesn’t just mean he is a messenger. It’s connecting the word back to Allaah. The ultimate authority is Allaah. The word is connecting the people back to Allaah.
    Thus, the verse means: there should remain no doubt that you are from the group of people who have been sent by Allaah to convey the message to the people.
    A few matters that need to be understood here:
    1. Allaah swore by the Qur’aan that Muhammad s is a messenger of Allaah. This is another part of the wisdom of the Qur’aan. Allaah is creating that connection here. Allaah knew the situation would arise where people would be comfortable accepting the Qur’aan, but having difficulty accepting the Messenger of Allaah s. Meaning if you are accepting the Qur’aan you must accept the Messenger of it. One is the kasam (oath) and the other is the jawab al-kasam (reason for the oath).
    2. Allaah does not say innaka mursal or innaka rasul. Allaah says that “you are from” those people. Once again, it is a consolation. He s is not the first person to be communicated to by Allaah, to convey a message from Allaah, to be rejected by his people for delivering the message. There were many before you s and you belong to this fraternity of people. This makes dealing with the difficulty easier. To know that someone has experienced it before. Makkah is tough and you are experiencing a lot, but you are connected to Allaah and there have been others who have been through this before.
    Ayah 4:

     

    على صراط مستقيم

    upon a straight path.
    ‘Alaa means “upon”, “on top of”.
    Siraat means “path”.
    Another word meaning path is sabil. Siraat has no plural, but sabil has a plural (subul). When Allaah talks about guidance, imaan, din, hidayah, He ta’aala uses siraat becomes there is a single path to guidance. When He ta’aala discusses charity, however, He uses sabil (e.g. fi sabil lillah) because there are multiple ways for giving in the sake of Allaah.
    You have been sent to people to set them upon this path.
    Mustaqim means to stand upright. It comes from the root “to make stand”. When something is sitting, the body is crooked at an angle. When it is standing, however, it is straight and upright.
    It is the quickest (direct) shortest path to the pleasure of Allaah.
    It is noble because it is upright. There is nothing humiliating, disgusting within the din.
    ‘Alaa is a beautiful harf al-jarr (preposition). It provides imagery of being atop. It’s like one is inclining upon the straight path. The ulema describe it like getting on a train. Once you are on the track, you don’t have anything to do afterwards except recline to have it take you to your destination. It is a smooth, easy ride. There is effort in attaining the ticket and catching the train, but once you’re on it, life becomes easy, smooth sailing. There must be some effort put in to get there, but from there Allaah will take us the rest of the way.
    Notice the tanwin (siraatin mustaqimin). It is in its common form. Other places it is in its proper form (1, 5).

    اهدنا الصراط المستقيم

    Why is it in its common form? When something is in this form there is versatility and diversity in the meaning. There is multi-layered meaning. It is telling the Messenger of Allaah s that he is inviting to a straight path, the Qur’aan is layinging out a straight path, Allaah is calling people to a straight path. Believing in Allaah is part of the straight path, the Qur’aan is inviting to the straight path, the Messenger of Allaah s is on the straight path. They are all calling us, bringing us to the straight path. There is broad meaning in what the terms are alluding to.
    Ayah 5:

     

    تنزيل العزيز الرحيم

    [This is] a revelation of the Exalted in Might, the Especially Merciful,
    {It has been sent (that which has been sent) from that One that is Aziz and Rahim.}
    Tanzil | Word Analysis
    Tanzil comes from the root meaning to “send something down” or even further “to descend”. In the Arabic language, specifically within the Qur’aan, there is another form of this word “to send something down”; it is anzal as in (3, 3).

    نزل عليك الكتاب بالحق مصدقا لما بين يديه وأنزل التوراة والإنجيل

    About the Qur’aan, the word nazala is used (meaning “He sent down”). About the tawrah and injil the word anzala is used (meaning “He sent down”). The Qur’aan is divine and precise; these words are not interchangeable. What then is the difference?
    Anzala means to send something down all at once. The previous divine scriptures were sent down as complete books from Allaah ta’aala. The Qur’aan, however, was revealed little by little by little (tadhreejan) which is what tanzil means.
    Even about the Qur’aan though, in some places Allaah says anzala and others He says tanzala. For example, (97, 1) Allaah uses anzala

    إنا أنزلناه في ليلة القدر

    We most definitely sent it down in the Night of Power.
    Here, Allaah is mentioning that He sent down the Qur’aan from lawh al-mahfuz (the Preserved Tablet) where the Qur’aan was preserved, to bayt al-izza in the lowest heavens, the sky closest to the earth. In this revelation, it was sent down in its entirety.
    Then in (2, 185), Allaah uses anzala

    شهر رمضان الذي أنزل فيه القرآن

    The month of Ramadhaan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’aan …
    The Qur’aan was revealed in its entirety in this month. Yet, we know Allaah sent it down little by little. Again, here Allaah is mentioning the revelation from lawh al-mahfuz to bayt al-izza. This is demonstrating from the above verse in Surat’l-Qadr that the Night of Power is in Ramadhaan.
    Everywhere else when discussing the revelation of the Qur’aan, Allaah uses tanzil because it was gradual and He is referring to the revelation to the Messenger of Allaah s.
    What’s the significance of sending the Qur’aan little by little?
    Allaah is giving the Qur’aan importance. He ta’aala is teaching us that the Qur’aan is meant to be digested, approached, understood, absorbed, internalized LITTLE BY LITTLE. Just like it was sent down. We may have the entirety, but we should still learn it in a portion of a time.
    Now, from whom was it that the Qur’aan was coming down?
    Remember, the purposes of Ya-Sin are to establish the truth of the Qur’aan and the validity of the prophethood of Muhammad s. Establishing that he s is the Messenger of Allaah.
    This isn’t coming down from any random place. It is coming down from al-Aziz ar-Rahim referring to Allaah.
    Al-Aziz| Word Analysis
    It means the One Who dominates, but cannot be dominated. Powerful, firm, strong, dominating.
    Ar-Rahim| Word Analysis
    It comes from the root word meaning mercy (raHmah). It means the One Who is constantly merciful.
    These two Names being mentioned is of importance because in the next few aayaat Allaah will discuss the peopel who reject the Qur’aan. They who don’t listen to it, they who choose not to believe in it. For them, Allaah is Aziz – firm, strong, powerful and dominating. His warning is being given – that His punishment will dominate these people.
    Then in aayah 11,

    إنما تنذر من اتبع الذكر وخشي الرحمن بالغيب فبشره بمغفرة وأجر كريم

    Allaah talks about people who do take the message of the Qur’aan. They accept it, they listen to it, they reflect upon it, they live it. For them, Allaah is mentioning the attribute of ar-Rahim – to them, Allaah will be constantly merciful.
    Ayah 6:

     

    لتنذر قوما ما أنذر آباؤهم فهم غافلون

    That you may warn a people whose forefathers were not warned, so they are unaware.
    {So that you may warn a people that there forefathers were not warned, therefore they are completely in (in a state of) heedlessness.}
    Historical Explanation
    Ibrahim ‘alayhi as-salaam, considered the forefather of the prophets and messengers. It is from him that the two major chains of prophets came – Bani Isra’il and the Arabs. We know there was the conflict there. He had two sons and their tribes: Banu Ishaq and Banu Isma’il.
    The progeny of Ishaq ‘alayhi as-salaam were people amongst whom many of the prophets mentioned in the Qur’aan came: Zakariyyah, Yahya, Sulayman, Daw’ud, ‘Isa, Musa, etc. ‘alayhum as-salaam.
    The progeny of Isma’il ‘alayhi as-salaam did not get any messengers until Muhammad s. So for these Arabs, the divine revelation did not come to them for at least 100s and 100s if not 1000s of years. Allaah says this book has been revealed to them from Aziz and Rahim whose forefathers were not warned. As a result of their forefathers not being warned ghafilun. Allaah did not say ghafalu, yaghfilu. Allaah uses the nominal form. These people were drowning in heedlessness. Heedlessness is simply people who are unaware, oblivious to reality, completely lost. They have complete lack of awareness of what is going on. Some of the scholars mention there are multiple forms of ghafla – some are accidental, others are intentional. These people had an intentional branding. They chose to be heedless. They liked the way things were for them.
    Guidance has not come to these people for a very long time so it will take longer for the message to be absorbed, for them to take from it. At the same time, Allaah is hinting that amongst them, there are some who have the element of choosing to be heedless. They know about their situation and they like the way things are, they are content with the situation. Fahum ghafilun.
    Allaah is reminding them of this. He is telling the Messenger of Allaah s that this is the purpose of the revelation of the Qur’aan . In (28, 46), He ta’aala makes mention of this in (28, 46)

    لتنذر قوما ما أتاهم من نذير من قبلك

    …to warn a people to whom no warner had come before you…
    {So that you can use this Qur’aan to warn a people that no warner had come to them before you – nobody had come to warn them before you}
    Allaah is saying what the purpose of the Qur’aan is. When we completely treat the Qur’aan as functioning to decoration and formality or opening of auspacious occassions we run into a problem Its main purpose is to wake people up. We need to develop this relationship with the Qur’aan for ourselves and for our communities. It wakes us from being lost.
    Ayah 7:

     

    لقد حق القول على أكثرهم فهم لا يؤمنون

    Already the word has come into effect upon most of them, so they do not believe.
    {Most definitely, the word has been confirmed upon the majority of them. Therefore they will not believe.}
    We know the Messenger of Allaah s was sent for all of humanity, but the first recipients of his message were the Quraysh, the Arabs. So Allaah is talking about them specifically. In the previous aayah, Allaah has mentioned that he s has the job to warn them, to awake them from this deep sleep. Now in this aayah, Allaah is saying most definitely (laam is emphasis and qad is further emphasis = like pounding fist on table).
    Haqq| Word Analysis
    Haqq is from the root meaning “that which is stable/constant/solid” but it also carries the meaning of “that which is reality/confirmed/happens/no doubt about it”. The word or saying or decision has been confirmed upon you. What is this qawl?
    Qawl| Word Analysis
    In the Qur’aan, Allaah tells us the story about Adam ‘alayhi as-salaam and Iblis. When Allaah created Adam ‘alayhi as-salaam He commanded the angels to make sujud to him, but Iblis refused. He was arrogant, arguing with Allaah, denying, refusing, and disobeying. So Allaah casted him off, sent him away from His mercy.
    Iblis requests time until the Day of Judgment to lead all of these human beings astray. These human beings to whom he had been commanded to prostrate, he commits his life to taking them astray. Coming at them from in front, behind, left, right, doing whatever it takes to lead them astray and You will say the majority of the will not be grateful. He swore by Allaah’s power (wa bi izzatihim) that he would lead them astray. Look at the arrogance (38, 82)!

    قال فبعزتك لأغوينهم أجمعين

    [Iblis] said, “By Your might, I will surely mislead them all,
    Allaah ended up cursing Iblis and saying the reality (38, 84-85)

    قال فالحق والحق أقول

    [Allaah] said, ‘The truth [is My oath], and the truth I say -

    لأملأن جهنم منك وممن تبعك منهم أجمعين

    [that] I will surely fill the Hellfire with you and those of them that follow you all together.
    Anyone that chooses to follow Iblis and not the path outlined by Allaah will be cast into the Hellfire.
    The story of Adam and Iblis occurs in seven places in the Qur’aan, Baqarah (2), A’araaf (7), Hijr (15), Israa (17), Kahf (18), Ta-Ha (20), Sad (38). Even at the end of Ya-Sin (36, 70) Allaah says that the punished has been decided and decreed upon those people who are ungrateful and disbelieve in Allaah.

    لينذر من كان حيّا ويحق القول على الكافرين

    To warn whoever is alive and justify the word against the disbelievers.
    Al-Qawl is thus Allaah’s decision to punish these people, His decision to cast them into the Hellfire. That decision has been confirmed upon the majority of these people to whom the Messenger of Allaah s is giving da’wah therefore these people will not believe (it includes the future tense as in “don’t expect them to believe”).
    In Conclusion
    When Allaah al-Aziz ar-Rahim is telling His Messenger s that He has sent down the Qur’aan for him to warn these people, then why would Allaah mention that the punishment for the majority these people has been confirmed and he shouldn’t expect them to believe?
    These aayaat are a consolation to the Messenger of Allaah s. In Makkah, a lot of difficulty was experienced. The second they’d take a few steps ahead, the people would become more stubborn, arrogant, aggressive, and violent. It was difficult to keep up the morale of the Muslims. This was to let him know that Allaah is watching these people and has made the decision for them.
    The reason for telling the Messenger of Allaah s not to expect these people to believe was because the Messenger of Allaah embodied and amazing quality. To blame himself for what goes wrong. Some people automatically look to others when matters go wrong. A special person, however, blames himself in this selfless way. It is empathetic, sympathetic, and compassionate to blame one’s own self. He s embodied this quality like no other person. Allaah had to tell him (18, 6) to take it easy!

    فلعلك باخع نفسك على آثارهم إن لم يؤمنوا بهذا الحديث أسفا

    Then perhaps you would kill yourself through grief over them, [O Muhammad], if they do not believe in this message, [and] out of sorrow.
    At the jarring and powerful moment in the situation of Ta’if, the Messenger of Allaah s after being ridiculed, stoned, humiliated, made to bleed from his body to the point of falling unconscious, he was given a moment of rest and made du’aa to Allaah. His s supplication is unbelievable!
    O Allaah I complain to you of my own weakness, and my lack of effort, and I complain to you of my lack of respect in the eyes of people.
    As if saying that these people didn’t reject the message because of Allaah or of what it contains or even because of themselves. Their rejection was associated with my own weaknesses and faults. Please forgive me.
    Allaah would have to console the Messenger of Allaah s because of this quality. To prevent him s from destroying himself for the sake of people.
    Aayaat 8-10 elaborate upon aayah 7
    Ayah 8:

     

    إنا جعلنا في أعناقهم أغلالا فهي إلى الأذقان فهم مقمحون

    Indeed, We have put shackles on their necks, and they are to their chins, so they are with heads [kept] aloft.
    {Most definitely we have placed in their necks collars (or shackles) and it is all the way up to their chins so their heads are slightly raised (stuck in that one position)}
    Word Analysis
    Here Allaah is attributing the action to Himself inna ja’alnaa. There is repetition of the first person plural subject to say that it is definitely Allaah, and only Allaah. There is exclusivity.
    A’anaaq is the plural of unuq (neck). In their necks.
    Aghlaal is the plural of ghul (shackle e.g. like shackline a prisoner). It is a very general term so it could be shackles put on any area (handcuffs, ankles, neck), but here it is specified to around their necks.
    Ilaa al-adhqaan up to their chins so that it is elongating their necks. In this position, one no longer has any room to move. They have no ability to move, they are frozen in this position.
    The result is fahum muqmaHun. MuqmaHun comes from the root qamaHa refers to when a camel comes to drink water. The camel then raises its head, just standing before the water, gazing at it. This would be called aqmaHal ba’i that the camel drank the water and has its head raised to stand over the water, perhaps gazing down at it. Another explanation in the lexicon is that the neck of the camel was sometimes tied to its back in such a way that its neck would stay erect to keep it alert. They would do this when they did not want the camel to walk or stand in a particular position and not have flexibility to move from the position.
    So muqmaHun means the people have been tied into such a position that their head can neither be further up nor further down – especially lowering the head.
    Why would their heads be raised?
    1. It is in reference to their arrogance. They were provided the message, a messenger, the Qur’aan was recited to them. They were rude, they were extremely arrogant. It is as if Allaah set this curse of arrogance upon them: they wanted to be arrogant, so they not must deal with it. They were allowed to further indulge in their arrogance.
    The Qur’aan defines to us very clearly (especially in Surat’l-Baqarah) that arrogance is the number one obstacle to guidance. The leaders of Quraysh could not speak ill of the Messenger of Allaah s, the Qur’aan was so attractive to them that they would go to hear it. Yet, they still did not accept.
    Abu Jahl was asked why he didn’t believe.
    Is Muhammad a liar? No.
    What about the Qur’aan. It’s amazing.
    Then why won’t you believe? We are Banu Makhzum and they are Banu Haashim. We have a rivalry, when they do something we do better than them. If we accept it, we cannot duplicate it. We cannot beat them at this, so we’ll just refuse and resist. Arrogance.
    Allaah has fixed them in their own arrogance.
    2. It is for their denial of the signs around them. As we’ll see later in Ya-Sin and have seen in Fussilat (41, 53),

    سنريهم آياتنا في الآفاق وفي أنفسهم حتى يتبين لهم أنه الحق أولم يكف بربك أنه على كل شيء شهيد

    We will show them Our signs in the horizons and within themselves
    until it becomes clear to them that it is the truth. But is it not sufficient concerning your Lord that He is, over all things, a Witness?
    and in Nabaa and in Mulk which speak of the miracles of Allaah in our surroundings, in these miraculous things are signs for people of intelligence, people who think. If these people looked around them, it would humble them. If their necks are in such a position, they can’t gaze around at the wonders. They can never see the beauty of the magnificence of Allaah’s signs. It is further drowning themselves in their own arrogance. They’ve made a choice and must not live with it.
    Tense
    All of this has been said in the past tense. Inna ja’alnaa = We have already put.
    1. Some scholars are of the opinion that this is giving a metaphor for their spiritual condition in the dunya.
    2. Other scholars say it will transpire with these people on the Day of Judgment. They will no longer be able to prostrate themselves, humble themselves. It is in the past tense because it is confirmed. There is such assurity in its occurrence that its as if it has already happened, thus the past tense is being used.
    The coming verses, however, support the first opinion and make it clear that this is with reference to their arrogance in this world. It is a metaphor for their spiritual situation.
    Ayah 9:

     

    وجعلنا من بين أيديهم سدّا ومن خلفهم سدّا فأغشيناهم فهم لا يبصرون

    And We have put before them a barrier and behind them a barrier and covered them, so they do not see.
    {And We have made all the way from in front of them a barrier and all the way from behind them a barrier and we have covered them and they can no longer see.}
    Allaah is further continuing that analogy of how pitiful their situation is and how cursed these people are. There is repetition of the word ja’alnaa in verses 8 and 9. The scholars say that this is because it is now discussing a different barrier. The first was their internal obstacle to seeing the truth – their arrogance which trapped them in a position. Now, it’s discussing the internal barrier. So even if they were able to overcome the internal barrier, they would not be able to believe because there is an external barrier.
    Sad is a barrier between two things. Something preventing two things from coming together – between them and guidance, them and imaan. Allaah further says min bayni meaning that it is all the way from them, it is touching them. They are squeezed between two walls so tightly that they cannot move. There is such powerful imagery here. Imagine the suffocation. This is not a comfortable lifestyle they lead. Behind them there is another wall that is locking them in, trapping them.
    Fa-aghshaynaahum there is even something on top covering them completely so that they cannot even see daylight. They are completely trapped that they cannot even see.
    Ayah 10:

     

    وسواء عليهم أأنذرتهم أم لم تنذرهم لا يؤمنون

    And it is all the same for them whether you warn them or do not warn them – will not believe.
    {And it is equal, absolutely the same, whether you warn them or you do not warn them – they will not believe.}
    Remember, andhar is to warn some of imminent danger out of care and concern for them. It doesn’t matter how much concern you warn them with or not.
    What’s the point of giving da’wah then?
    Allaah addresses this question in (7, 164)

    وإذ قالت أمة منهم لم تعظون قوما الله مهلكهم أو معذبهم عذابا شديدا قالوا معذرة إلى ربكم ولعلهم يتقون

    And when a community among them said, “Why do you advise [or warn] a people whom Allaah is [about] to destroy or to punish with a severe punishment?” they [the advisors] said, “To be absolved before your Lord and perhaps they may fear Him.”
    So that when they stand before Allaah on the Day of Judgment, they have no excuses. The messenger will be able to stand before them and say that they did preach to them as best as possible. It completes the argument. Yet, at the same time to never give up because they may possibly becomes conscious of Allaah. We never know. Abu Sufyan accepted Islaam 20 years after it was revealed, after engaging in campaigns and battles against the message.
    Why is Allaah attributing this to Himself?
    This horrible situation that they are in, trapped and suffocating, Allaah is saying that “We have put them in it”. Why is Allaah doing it to them? Doesn’t Allaah want them to believe?
    When you study the Qur’aan and its themes overall, and its discussion on guidance you understand this.
    1. Allaah has sent guidance clear as day, mercy, messengers, prophets, signs around us. He has put indicators to lead us back to Him all around us and even within ourselves. It is very clear and accessible.
    2. If these signs were all around us, but we didn’t have the faculties to access them it would be pointless. So Allaah has given us the faculties (76, 2)

    إنا خلقنا الإنسان من نطفة أمشاج نبتليه فجعلناه سميعا بصيرا

    Indeed, We created human from a sperm-drop mixture so that We may test him and We made him hearing and seeing.
    In order to test the human being, We gave him the ability to hear and see. In other places we are told we were given intelligence, ability to comprehend, ponder, think, walk around, feel, understand. We were given all the faculties we would need.
    3. Allaah gave the human being a clear choice (76, 3)

    إنا هديناه السبيل إما شاكرا وإما كفورا

    Indeed, We guided him to the way, be he grateful or be he ungrateful.
    We were given a clear choice whether we choose to believe or disbelieve. Everything was made clear, we were given faculties to comprehend the signs, and then we have the choice.
    Once someone makes the choice to not be grateful, to disbelieve, after being given all of these signs and opportunities, now Allaah says that He has put them into this situation. They walked until here and are now asking for the result. It’s like a person walking to the edge of a cliff and asking to suffer the consequences.
    Then, who will the message benefit?
    Ayah 11:

     

     

    إنما تنذر من اتبع الذكر وخشي الرحمن بالغيب فبشره بمغفرة وأجر كريم

    You can only warn one who follows the message and fears the Most Merciful unseen. So give him good tidings of forgiveness and noble reward.
    One very profound message here is that da’wah is a responsibility from Allaah and it must be discharged. It is not just to benefit the person being invited (mad’u), but also for the inviter (da’i) regardless if someone is listening or not. We do not slacken in our efforts and accept failure. We strive because we are benefiting from this struggle. At the end of the day, the Messenger of Allaah s wanted to see some results, to see some validation, some vindication, to see that what he’s doing means something and it brings some change.
    Innamaa in this form serves the purpose of restriction and specification, “in actuality, you are only”.
    Attaba’a adh-dhikr | Word Analysis
    Adh-dhikr points to the Qur’aan as time and time again it has been described as that (54, 40)

    ولقد يسرنا القرآن للذكر فهل من مدكر

    And We have indeed made the Qur’aan easy to understand and remember…
    The fact that it’s in its proper form adh-dhikr is even more evidence of the fact that it points specifically to the Qur’aan.
    So the one who will ittaba’ (literally meaning “to follow”) the Qur’aan. What does it mean to follow the Qur’aan?
    In other places, we are told (39, 18)

    الذين يستمعون القول فيتبعون أحسنه أولئك الذين هداهم الله وأولئك هم أولو الألباب

    Who listen to speech (very attentively, carefully) and follow it (in its most excellent fashion). Those are the ones Allaah has guided and those are people of understanding.
    Thus, following the Qur’aan means to listen, understand it, internalize it, act upon it, and even spend themselves in further spreading it. This is the real following of the Qur’aan. That is the one whom the Messenger of Allaah s is warning.
    Khashiya ar-Rahman | Word Analysis
    But that’s not all. This person has a second quality as well. Khashiya he fears, is overwhelmed by ar-Rahman. This is an interesting combination, to fear the Most Merciful.
    Why not say Allaah? By saying Ar-Rahman the reader or listener thinks of all the blessings in his life and feels a sense of obligation to turn to and worship Allaah. The title, relationship, status is mentioned to make one feel a sense of obligation. He ta’aala has blessed you with everything you have.
    Also, by mentioning Ar-Rahman it’s His right upon us to be worshipped and for us to fear disappointing Him. There is no contradiction.
    Ghayb meaning in absence. When they are away from everyone, in the privacy of their homes. This person would have truly internalized the meaning of the Qur’aan. He is never heedless of Allaah, the One Who has given him everything, is watching him.
    The Result
    Give these people the good news of maghfirah. Maghfirah is the larger form of the word, meaning “complete forgiveness”.
    And give them news of a ajrin karim – a most generous, noble word.
    So these people had two qualities and were guaranteed two promises.
    1. For living a life following the Qur’aan they receive maghfirah. When we lead such a life we are cleansing and washing away all the sins we have committed in this life.
    2. For being fearful of Ar-Rahman even in private they receive a noble, generous reward (the life of Paradise).
    Ayah 12:

     

    إنا نحن نحيي الموتى ونكتب ما قدموا وآثارهم وكل شيء أحصيناه في إمام مبين

    Indeed, it is We who bring the dead to life and record what they have put forth and what they left behind, and all things We have enumerated in a clear register.
    As in verses 8 and 9, there is exclusivity here by repetition of the first person plural subject (most definitely We and only We).
    NuHyi al-mawtaa| Reviving the dead
    This may be referring to either
    1. Reaffirming the life of the hereafter. On the Day of Judgment these people will be resurrected. This was the number one objection of the mushrikeen from the believers.
    2. The life of imaan (6, 122)

    أومن كان ميتا فأحييناه وجعلنا له نورا يمشي به في الناس كمن مثله في الظلمات ليس بخارج منها

    And is one who was dead and We gave him life and made for him light with which to walk among the people like one who is in darkness, never to emerge therefrom? …
    {The one who remembers Allaah and the one who does not, their example is like the living and the dead. [Tirmidhi]}
    Allaah brings people to life by blessing them with imaan. Previously, there was reference to people who would not believe. Now He ta’aala is speaking of those who will accept it. Again, we continue to put forth our da’wah because we do not know whom Allaah will bless to come forward from death into life. Look to the examples of Abu Sufyan, Khaalid b. Walid, Ikrimah b. Abi Jahl.
    Naktubu| The Recording
    This focuses upon accountability. This was another objection of the disbelievers. They could not fathom how anyone could take everyone to account for what they have done. We are writing that which they have sent forward or invested for themselves.
    Aathaarahum| Word Analysis
    And their lasting effects or their remaining effects. But what does that mean?
    1. maa qaddamu (= that which they have sent forward) is referring to the good intention that one sends forward.
    When a believer makes the intention to do a good deed. Allaah tells the Angel to write.
    The Angel responds that the person has not done anything yet.
    Allaah says that the person has made the intent to do some good so it should be written for him as a reward.
    Then, when the person acts upon the good deed, Allaah again commands the Angel to write it.
    In comparison: when the person intends for sin, the Angel asks Allaah if it should be written. Allaah says no do not write it. Then when the person commits the sin, Allaah tells the Angel to write it once. If the person does not commit it, though, Allaah tells the Angel to write down a good deed for the person because he fought his intention and resisted.

    من كان يريد حرث الآخرة نزد له في حرثه ومن كان يريد حرث الدنيا نؤته منها وما له في الآخرة من نصيب

    Whoever desires the harvest of the Hereafter – We increase for him in his harvest. And whoever desires the harvest of this world – We give him thereof, but there is not for him in the Hereafter any share. (42, 20)
    Allaah did not say man kaana ‘amila, but He said man kaana yuridu. The one who would intend, not actually did. Iradah. Just a good intention is a profound good deed upon the believer.
    The intention of the believer is better than his action.
    Then the aathaar are the actual good deeds upon those intentions.
    2. maa qaddamu are the actual good deeds the person does and aathaar are what it encouraged others to do
    Whosoever starts a good practice, he will get the reward of it and the reward of anyone who continues to act upon it.
    When the human being dies, his actions are cut off except for three things (1) perpetual charity (2) knowledge the people continue to benefit from (3) a righteous child who continues to make du’aa for the deceased parent.
    So they not only get credit of that which they themselves have done, but the after effects of what they have done.
    3. maa qaddamu are the good deeds being written and aathaar are everything that goes into making the deeds reality and comes about because of it
    The scholars quote an incident from the life of the Messenger of Allaah s. There were a people living on the outskirts of Madinah, Banu Salimah, who accepted Islaam when teh message first arrived and supported Islaam.
    Their neighbourhood was some distance from the masjid so they made intentions to move into the plot near it (today it is jannat’l-baqi’). He s heard this and went to them. He s said, “Ya Bani Salimah, diyaarakum (stay where you are now). Tubtabu aathaarakum (every little footstep you take to the masjid are written as reward for you).
    When a person walks to the masjid, for every step he takes he gets a reward and one sin is wiped away from his slate.
    This is like guarding the boundaries of the land of Islaam. Meaning the farther you live from the masjid and yet you still go, it is like preserving the Islaamic state.
    Give good news to the people who walk, but walk frequently to the masjid in the darkness of night. They will have the most complete light on the Day of Judgment.
    The principle is that when you do a good deed, the effort, time, investment, and intention, everything that goes into making the deed a reality are written for you.
    Final Confirmation
    Each and every single thing (abnormal sentence structure) (iHsaan) is already taken into account and has been preserved. There are books with the proof, with confirmation.
    Imaam here means (according to Ibn Abbaas) the book of deeds, your record. This is because it will be presented before people and people will follow it (e.g. right hand to Paradise, left hand to Hellfire). This again creates that sense of accountability. What we do in this life will determine what happens to us in the Hereafter.
    This life is an allusion, but it is significant because our result in the Hereafer depends upon what we’ve done here. What we do in this life will be our imaam in the Hereafter.
    This ends passage one of Ya-Sin.
    We’ve now discussed the validity of the Qur’aan, of the Messenger of Allaah s, and of the concept of their being messengers sent by Allaah to deliver His message to the people.
    Then there are two groups people divide into when they are delivered this message. One choose to denounce it and Allaah discusses their situation and condition. The other choose to accepts it and Allaah discusses the reward set aside for them.
    Ayah 13:

     

    This begins the second passage of Ya-Sin. We need to understand the historical context for its revelation before proceeding further.
    This was revealed to the Messenger of Allaah s during the Makkan period and at the height of the opposition from the Makkans. A lot of time in the city had passed, so this was nearing his final days in Makkah. He s has deliverd the message to the people in several ways like Nuh ‘alayhi as-salaam to his people (71, 5-15) publicly, privately, individually, giving them incentives. Yet, even with all of these efforts (71, 6)

    فلم يزدهم دعائي إلا فرارا

    But my invitation increased them not except in flight.
    They would put their fingers in their ears, cover their faces when he would come to them, they would be insistent and arrogant and brush off Nuh ‘alayhi as-salaam. This situation was similar to that of the Messenger of Allaah s when these verses was to be revealed. The Makkans wanted nothing to do with him s and his message. They had complete apathy and became engaged in anti-da’wah; they were violent and aggressive towards those who were giving heed to the message. It was like Allaah tell us (41, 26)

    وقال الذين كفروا لا تسمعوا لهذا القرآن والغوا فيه لعلكم تغلبون

    And those who disbelieve say, “Do not listen to this Qur’aan and speak noisily during [the recitation of] it that perhaps you will overcome.”
    They’ve made it personal to defeat the Messenger of Allaah s in his message.
    At this point, Allaah is giving them a powerful reminder. To make someone realize the errors of their ways when they have been numbed by the warnings and advice, direct them to the situations of real examples. The horrific consequences that others have faced when they did not pay heed. Give these people the example of a people of a town that came before. The same thing may happen to these people as well if they do not correct their corrupt ways.

    واضرب لهم مثلا أصحاب القرية إذ جاءها المرسلون

    And present to them an example: the people of the city, when the mesengers came to it -
    Strike for them an example – give an example for them (the Quraysh). Lahum means make this story of a people of a town previously relevant to these people. This is an implicit evidence that even when Allaah speak of disbelievers in the Qur’aan, even the Muslims should take heed. Ibn Abbaas said that in the aayaat directed to the disbelievers there is relevance for the believers. They ought to recognize these traits and tendencies and search for them within themselves. If they find them, it is a sign of disbelief and a sign to correct their ways.
    Of the people of a town when messengers have come to them. There’s much discussion in tafasir about this “town”. Many mention the town of Intaqiyyah. It was an ancient city. These messengers, in their opinion, were not prophets but the disciples of ‘Isa ‘alayhi as-salaam. Ibn Kathir has a detailed discussion about the authenticity of these narrations. We don’t really need to get into this discussion. It is more important to see what message we can draw from these aayaat.
    Ayah 14:

     

    إذ أرسلنا إليهم اثنين فكذبوهما فعززنا بثالث فقالوا إنا إليكم مرسلون

    When we sent to them two but they denied them, so We strengthened them with a third, and they said, “Indeed, we are messengers to you.”
    Idh is like saying “remember way back when”. First, Allaah sent two messengers to them. They rejected them. Takdhib means they called them liars. Everything they were given was called bogus.
    Ta’ziz literally means to strengthen, to firm. Allaah says He reaffirmed the messengers with a third to reaffirm and strenghten their confidence and the message being delivered.
    Their primary message was that most definitely we have been sent specifically to you. There is abnormal sentence structure here indicating that there is exclusivity.
    Ayah 15:

     

    قالوا ما أنتم إلا بشر مثلنا وما أنزل الرحمن من شيء إن أنتم إلا تكذبون

    They said, “You are not but human beings like us, and the Most Merciful has not revealed a thing. You are only tellings lies.”
    You people are nothing but people just like us. This has always been the primary criticism of all messengers throughout time when they’ve come to deliver the message to people. Like the Quraysh when they said (25, 7)

    وقالوا مال هذا الرسول يأكل الطعام ويمشي في الأسواق لولا أنزل إليه ملك فيكون معه نذيرا

    And they say, “What is this messenger that eats food and walks in the markets? Why was there not sent down to him an angel so he would be with him a warner?
    This is the natural pride, ego of the human being: the aversion to authority. Even if Allaah would have sent an Angel down with the message, they would not have believed. According to them, the Angel would be a supernatural being unable to understand the situation of the human being. That is there situation.
    There very first objection was: the messengers are people just like us.
    And this Ar-Rahman you speak of (remember the name was mentioned in verse 11), He has not sent down anything. You (all three of you) are nothing but lying to us.
    Ayah 16:

     

    قالوا ربنا يعلم إنا إليكم لمرسلون

    They said, “Our Lord knows that we are messengers to you,
    The messengers now speak in response to the people of the town: Our Lord, He knows that most definitely we have been sent specifically for you people.
    Their statement here is very profound. What did they use as evidence?
    We know that messengers would receive miracles as evidence as well. They, however, did not respond with miracles. Just like how the Messenger of Allaah s did not respond to people with miracles. Remember when ‘Utbah bin Walid came to the Messenger of Allaah and asked him what he wanted (wealth? fame? women?). In response the Messenger of Allaah s recited the verses of Surat’l-Fussilat. Until he reached the point of sajdah performed it and then walked away from ‘Utbah who was left gobsmacked. The people saw him when he returned and said that he is not coming back with the face he left with. He advised them to leave the way because this would be a powerful storm.
    We shouldn’t rely upon supernatural things to prove our point. Our message is enough evidence for us.
    Ayah 17:

     

    وما علينا إلا البلاغ المبين

    And we are not responsible except for clear notification.”
    Now, there is the situation with the people. It is becoming difficult because they are being rude, abrasive, offensive. What’s the point to continue speaking with them? They know they are not obligated to do anything except balagh.
    Balaagh is literally “to reach from one place to another”. The Qur’aan has been described as balaagh (14, 52)

    هذا بلاغ للناس ولينذروا به وليعلموا أنما هو إله واحد وليذكر أولو الألباب

    This [Qur’aan] is balaagh for the people that they may be warned thereby and that they may know that He is but one God and that those of understanding will be reminded.
    At the same time the Messenger of Allaah has been commanded in the Qur’aan “balligh = convey, make it reach” (5, 67)

    يا أيها الرسول بلغ ما أنزل إليك من ربك وإن لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته والله يعصمك من الناس إن الله لا يهدي القوم الكافرين

    O Messenger, balligh that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allaah will protect you from the people. Indeed, Allaah does not guide the disbelieving people.
    The Qur’aan is that which needs to reach people. Nothing affects people in da’wah like the Qur’aan. It needs to be the main vehicle of our da’wah.
    Mubin means so clear that it is self-clarifying. So deliver a very clear, precise, pristine, understandable message to people. That is our task. It is not just to deliver the message, but to make sure the way of delivery is clear and pristine. For this purpose, we do not need to create any means – we have it in the Qur’aan itself.
    In summary of verses 13-17, we see two things.
    First, the beauty in the language
    1. At the end of aayah 14 the first time these messengers introduce themselves to these people as inna ilaykum mursalun – most definitely we have been sent to you people as messengers.
    2. At the end of aayah 16 they respond to the peoples accusations as rabbuna inna ilaykum lamursalun. There is an extra laam. Why? When they first introduced themselves, there was no exchange, argument, or refutation. It was just an introduction. When they rejected and placed accusations, the response is with emphasis.
    Second, the biggest purpose of these aayaat was to be consolation to the Messenger of Allaah s and the believers as well. The Quraysh may be becoming more aggressive and offensive, but you are not the first (people or messenger) to experience this. Not one, but three messengers standing side-by-side were refused in this way by people. It is also consolation of the accountability (the task) of the Messenger of Allaah s. It is only upon him to deliver it clearly. He s delivered the message rightfully, above and beyond what was required for him.

  8. 2 Peter 3:16
    ".. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction."

    rest of
    λοιπὰς (loipas)
    Strong's Greek 3062: Left, left behind, the remainder, the rest, the others. Masculine plural of a derivative of leipo; remaining ones.

    [the] Scriptures,
    γραφὰς (graphas)
    Strong's Greek 1124: (a) a writing, (b) a passage of scripture; plur: the scriptures. A document, i.e. Holy Writ.

     

    Pulpit Commentary

    By "the other Scriptures" St. Peter means the Old Testament, and also, perhaps, some of the earlier writings of the New, as the first three Gospels and the Epistle of St. James.

    Gill's exposition:

    as they do also the other Scriptures; the writings of Moses, and the prophets of the Old Testament, the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and the other epistles of the apostles of the New Testament

    Expositor's Greek testament:

    ὡς καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς γραφάς. (1) There has been much discussion among commentators as to the meaning of γραφάς. Spitta takes γραφάς in sense of “writings,” and concludes that these were by companions of the Apostle Paul; but this is a very unusual sense of γραφή unless the name of an author is given. Mayor and others interpret as the O.T. Scriptures; while some who are prepared to assign a late date in the second century to the epistle, think that both Old and New Testament Scriptures are meant. On every ground the hypothesis of γραφάς = O.T. Scriptures is to be preferred. (2) The difficulty in connexion with the meaning of γραφάς is largely occasioned by the phrase τὰς λοιπὰς γρ. Does this mean that the Epistles of St. Paul are regarded as Scripture? Attempts have been made (e.g., by Dr. Bigg) to cite classical and other parallels that would justify the sense for τὰς λοιπὰς, “the Scriptures as well”. In these, certain idiomatic uses of ἄλλος and other words are referred to, but no real parallel to this sense of λοιπός can be found, and the connexion implied in λοιπός is closer than ἄλλος. The result of the whole discussion is practically to compel us to take τὰς λοιπὰς γραφάς in the obvious sense “the rest of the Scriptures,” and we cannot escape the conclusion that the Epistles of Paul are classed with these. The intention of the author of 2 Peter seems to be to regard the Pauline Epistles, or those of them that he knew, as γραφαὶ because they were read in the churches along with the lessons from the O.T.


  9. Opening Egypt

    Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said:

    "You would soon conquer Egypt and that is a land which is known (as the land of al-qirat).

    So when you conquer it, treat its inhabitants well.

    For there lies upon you the responsibility because of blood-tie or relationship of marriage (with them). "

    "‏ إِنَّكُمْ سَتَفْتَحُونَ مِصْرَ وَهِيَ أَرْضٌ يُسَمَّى فِيهَا الْقِيرَاطُ فَإِذَا فَتَحْتُمُوهَا فَأَحْسِنُوا إِلَى أَهْلِهَا فَإِنَّ لَهُمْ ذِمَّةً وَرَحِمًا ‏"

     

    The blood-tie: Hagar, the Mother of Ismael, and Maryia, the mother of Ibrahem (The son of Prophet Muhammad),both were Egyptians.

    http://sunnah.com/muslim/44/323


  10. Matthew 15:7-9

    You hypocrites! Isaiah was right when he prophesied about you:“‘These people honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me.

    They worship me in vain; Their teachings are merely human rules.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    15:1-9 Additions to God's laws reflect upon his wisdom, as if he had left out something which was needed, and which man could supply; in one way or other they always lead men to disobey God. How thankful ought we to be for the written word of God! Never let us think that the religion of the Bible can be improved by any human addition, either in doctrine or practice. Our blessed Lord spoke of their traditions as inventions of their own, and pointed out one instance in which this was very clear, that of their transgressing the fifth commandment.... The doom of hypocrites is put in a little compass; In vain do they worship me. It will neither please God, nor profit themselves; they trust in vanity, and vanity will be their recompence.

    Barnes' Notes on the Bible

    In vain do they worship me - That is, their attempts to worship are "vain," or are not real worship - they are mere "forms."

    Teaching for doctrines ... - The word "doctrines," here, means the requirements of religion - things to be believed and practiced in religion.

    God only has a right to declare what shall be done in his service; but they held their traditions to be superior to the written word of God, and taught them as doctrines binding the conscience.

    Isaiah 29:13

    The Lord says: "These people come near to me with their mouth and honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. Their worship of me is based on merely human rules they have been taught.
     

     

  11. Forms of governance the Muslim nation would experience

    Ḥudhayfa b. al-Yamān (rA) reported that the Prophet ﷺ said,

    Prophethood will remain amongst you for as long as Allah wishes. Then Allah will remove it whenever He wishes to remove it,

    Then there will be a caliphate upon the prophetic methodology. It will last for as long as Allah wishes it to last, then Allah will remove it whenever He wishes to remove it.

    Then there will be an abiding dynasty, and it will remain for as long as Allah wishes it to remain. Then Allah will remove it whenever He wishes to remove it.

    Then there will be tyrannical (forceful) kingship, and it will remain for as long as Allah wishes it to remain.

    Then He will remove it whenever He wishes to remove it, and then there will be a caliphate upon the prophetic methodology.”

     

    تَكُونُ النُّبُوَّةُ فِيكُمْ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تَكُونَ ، ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا،

    ثُمَّ تَكُونُ خِلَافَةٌ عَلَى مِنْهَاجِ النُّبُوَّةِ ، فَتَكُونُ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تَكُونَ، ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا،

    ثُمَّ تَكُونُ مُلْكًا عَاضًّا، فَيَكُونُ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ ، ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ الله ُأَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا ،

    ثُمَّ تَكُونُ مُلْكًا جَبْرِيّاً ، فَتَكُونُ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تَكُونَ ، ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا ،

    ثُمَّ تَكُونُ خِلَافَةٌ عَلَى مِنْهَاجِ النُّبُوَّةِ ، ُثمَّ سَكَتَ:

     

    Aḥmad (18406); deemed ḥasan by al-Arna’ūṭ, and “at least ḥasan” by al-Albāni in as-Silsila aṣ-Ṣaḥīḥa -مشكاة المصابيح


  12. Psalm 56:4-5 NIV

        In God, whose word I praise— in God I trust and am not afraid.  What can mere mortals do to me?All day long they twist my words all their schemes are for my ruin.

     

    New American Standard Bible

    All day long they distort my words;

     

    King James Bible

    Every day they wrest my words:

     

    יְעַצֵּ֑בוּ (yə·‘aṣ·ṣê·ḇū)

    Strong's Hebrew 6087: To carve, fabricate, fashion, to worry, pain, anger

    Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

    Every day they wrest my words,.... Form, fashion, and shape them at their pleasure; construe them, and put what sense upon them they think fit. The word (u) is used of the formation of the human body, in Job 10:8; They put his words upon the rack, and made them speak what he never intended; as some men wrest the Scriptures to their own destruction, 2 Peter 3:16; and as the Jews wrested the words of Christ, John 2:19.

     

    Clarke's Commentary

    Every day they wrest my words - They have been spies on my conduct continually; they collected all my sayings, and wrested my words out of their proper sense and meaning, to make them, by inuendos, speak treason against Saul. They are full of evil purposes against me.


  13. Jeremiah 23:36

    "But you must not mention 'a message from the LORD' again, because each one's word becomes their own message. So you distort the words of the living God, the LORD Almighty, our God."
     

    so that you pervert
    וַהֲפַכְתֶּ֗ם (wa·hă·p̄aḵ·tem)
    Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - second person masculine plural
    Strong's Hebrew 2015: To turn about, over, to change, overturn, return, pervert

    Benson Commentary:
    For every man’s word shall be his burden — You shall be made severely to account for your loose and profane speeches, wherewith you deride and pervert the words and messages of God himself. Or, “Every man shall have most reason to regard his own word as hurtful and prejudicial to him. For the words of God were delivered with a salutary tendency, to warn sinners of the danger of their situation, and to call them to repentance. Those, therefore, who made a right use of them would have no cause to complain. But those who despised and rejected them perverted that which should have been for their wealth into an occasion of falling.” — Blaney.

  14. The bible confirms its own corruption !

     

    Jeremiah 8:8

    " 'How can you say, "We are wise, for we have the law of the LORD," when actually the lying pen of the scribes has handled it falsely"

     

    Clarke's Commentary on the Bible:

    The deceitful pen of the scribes. They have written falsely, though they had the truth before them. It is too bold an assertion to say that “the Jews have never falsified the Sacred Oracles;” they have done it again and again. They have written falsities when they knew they were such.”

    Many of modern Christian scholars will agree with Dr. Clarke’s statement. It is a historical fact that the Old Testament has been corrupted in its earliest stage, and it was exhaustively proved more than 250 years ago by Dr. Benjamin Kennicott, a prominent Hebrew scholar who was able to trace the process of the Hebrew text transmission till the times of Ezra (ca. 450-420 B.C.).

    Here are some excerpts from his latin work Dissertatio Generalis which till today is of great importance for Biblical scholarship:

    e4be36300d519021.png

    Reference: J. C. Nott & G. R. Gliddon, Types of Mankind: Or Ethnological Researches, Based Upon the Ancient Monuments, Paintings, Sculptures, and Crania of Races, and Upon Their Natural, Geographical, Philological, and Biblical History. (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1854), pp. 627-628.
     


  15. Rabbi Allen Maller

    I neither believe nor disbelieve in the Qur’an. If I believed in the Qur’an, I would be a member of the Muslim ummah (community). But I cannot disbelieve in the Qur’an because I believe that Muhammad was a prophet and I respect the Qur’an as a kindred revelation, first revealed to a kindred people, in a kindred language.

    Ignác/Ignaz (Yitzhaq Yehuda) Goldziher (June 22, 1850 – November 13, 1921), was a Hungarian scholar of Islam and is considered one of the three founders of modern Islamic studies in Europe. He was educated at the universities of Budapest, Berlin, Leipzig, and Leiden, and became a privatdozent in Budapest in 1872. In the next year, under the auspices of the Hungarian government, he began a journey through Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. In the personal journal he kept he wrote:

    In those weeks, I truly entered into the spirit of Islam to such an extent that ultimately I became inwardly convinced that I myself was a Muslim, and judiciously discovered that this was the only religion which, even in its doctrinal and official formulation, can satisfy philosophic minds. My ideal was to elevate Judaism to a similar rational level.

    His admiration for Islam did not prevent Goldziher from remaining a devout Jew all his life. Indeed, Goldziher was appointed the secretary of the Jewish community in Budapest. This bond to Judaism and the Jewish people was unusual for a man seeking an academic career in Europe in the late 19th century. This in part was why Goldziher saw Islam through the eyes of someone who refused to assimilate into the contemporary Christian European culture. He had little admiration for European Christianity.

    Goldziher was denied a teaching post at Budapest University until he was 44. As a Christian convert, he would easily have received a university appointment as a full professor but he always refused to convert.

    In Edward Said’s critical attacks on western academic scholars of Islam in his book Orientalism, Said himself reproved them for failing to pay sufficient attention to scholars like Goldziher. Of the five major German orientalists, Said remarked that four of them, despite their profound erudition, were hostile to Islam. Goldziher’s work was an exception in that he appreciated ‘Islam’s tolerance towards other religions’.

    Dr. Yitzhaq Yehuda Goldziher was a 19th-century example of the famous Jew Rabbi Mukhayriq, who was one of many Jews who supported the Prophet Muhammad when he first arrived in Medina. Rabbi Mukhayriq, a learned leader of the tribe of Tha’labah, was part of a tribe that was made up of Jews from the land of Israel who had settled in Medina several centuries earlier, which included a large number of local Arabs who had converted to Judaism over the ensuing generations.

    According to Ibn Ishaq, the first major biographer of Prophet Muhammad, Rabbi Mukhayriq had “announced to his congregation that he would fight to protect Prophet Muhammad from his many enemies among the pagan Arabs of Makkah; stating that if he died in the battle (as he did) he wanted his estate to go to Prophet Muhammed to be distributed as charity.”

    When the Prophet Muhammed, who was seriously injured in that battle, was informed about the death of Rabbi Mukhayriq, Muhammed said about the Rabbi: “مُخَيْرِيقُ سَابِقُ يَهُودَ, or Mukhayriq is the foremost among the Jews (Ibn Shabbah, Ta’reekh Al-Madinah 467)”. In another narration, the Prophet said: “مُخَيْرِيقٌ خَيْرُ يَهُودَ, or Mukhayri