Surah al Qalam (68) the Pen - Abdul Nasir Jangda in Tafsir Posted June 25 Ayah 21: Ayah 21: فَتَنَادَوْا مُصْبِحِينَ Fa taNaadaw muSbiheen.. And they called one another out loud in the morning, Then we see the next scene of the brothers waking up in the morning and not yet aware of what has happened to their garden: Fa taNaadaw muSbiheen.. TaNaadaw – Naada – Nidaa – to call out Loud. TaNaadaw = when people call out loud to each other. So you can imagine the brothers waking up in the morning, saying to each other out loud; ‘Lets go to harvest!’ Ayah 22: Ayah 22: أَنِ اغْدُوا عَلَى? حَرْثِكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَارِمِينَ Ani-ghdoo ‘alaa harthikum in kuntum Saarimeen [Saying], “Go early to cut your crop if you want to cut the fruit.” Ghadaa – al ghadwa – to go somewhere in the Morning. Harth - when you literally cut the harvest. In kuntum saarimeen – if you actually want to cut your harvest down. Go to Top^ Ayah 23: Ayah 23: فَانطَلَقُوا وَهُمْ يَتَخَافَتُونَ fanTalaqoo wa hum yata-khaafatoon So they set out, while lowering their voices, So they depart, Yatakhaafatoon – khafata – to keep your voice really light. Takhaafut – when people talk to each other quietly in a light voice in a Public place. Similar word: Najwa / muNaajaat: when people talk secretly and quietly in a Private place. So they are going to the garden and talking amongst themselves in their intent on what they’re doing. Go to Top^ Ayah 24: Ayah 24: أَن لَّا يَدْخُلَنَّهَا الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكُم مِّسْكِينٌ an-Laa yad-khulannaha-l yawma alaykum-miskeen “So absolutely no poor person (miskeen – beggar) enters upon you.” Why are they talking like this (i.e. In quiet whisper)? “So absolutely no poor person (miskeen – beggar) enters upon you.” They absolutely don’t want to go through such an experience. Go to Top^ Ayah 25: Ayah 25: وَغَدَوْا عَلَى? حَرْدٍ قَادِرِينَ wa ghadaww ‘alaa hardin Qaadireen So they went in the morning – upon [a state of] aggression/energy fueled by hatred - thinking they have everything in control. Wa ghadaw – so they did (in morning) ‘ala Hardin (upon Hardin ) Hardin = when you spring into action and aggressively pursue something, and this energy is fuelled by hatred. So these people were angry because they believed it was their garden, and that because they work on the garden – then no-one but we should benefit from it. They are sneaking aggressively at night to go to their own garden to slice off its fruits for harvest. Their anger and pride makes them look insane, simply because they do not have to do this – since it is their garden. So why do they require such an attitude? They don’t. We see their feelings and motives and energy through this main word – “Hardin”. Qaadireen (ism faa’il) – they thought they had everything in Control [Qudrah]. Normal sentence structure would be; Wa ghadaw qaadireena ‘alaa hardin = they set off in the morning thinking they are in full control, while in a state of Hard (aggression/energy/hatred etc.) However, by placing Hardin earlier in the sentence structure – it emphasises that it was the only reason they did this – their greedy motives and their intense anger against the poor who benefit from the wealth of the garden. When your motivated and angry, you’re hyped up in your intent to fulfill your mission… Go to Top^ Ayah 26: Ayah 26: فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهَا قَالُوا إِنَّا لَضَالُّونَ fa lam-maa Ra’awhaa Qaaloo in-naa laDaal-loon “But when they suddenly saw it; they said – We are surely lost!” We’re definitely Lost (Daaloon).. This could imply: 1- they think they’ve gone to the wrong place. 2 – they soon realise that they have come to the right place, but they were lost/misguided in their ideas (their ideas of being greedy and unjust to the poor). Go to Top^ Ayah 27: Ayah 27: بَلْ نَحْنُ مَحْرُومُونَ Bal nahnu maHroomoon - No, rather we are Deprived (the garden has been made Haraam/forbidden to us) by Allah. 1 – So they planned the night before to slice and cut off the harvest. 2- Something travelled around their garden at night and sliced all their harvest off and destroyed it. 3 – They rushed in the morning in anger / adrenaline (upon Hardin) and realised their garden had been destroyed by Allah as a consequence of their greed against the poor. Go to Top^ Ayah 28: Ayah 28: قَالَ أَوْسَطُهُمْ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ لَوْلَا تُسَبِّحُونَ Qaala awsaTuhum alam aQul-lakum law-laa tusab-bihoon The most middle/best of them said, “Did I not say to you, ‘Why do you not exalt [ Allah ]?’ “ Qaala (Said) aWsatuhum aWsat – Wasat – middle, best (middle/centre part is the best part). Since there were 3 brothers in the narration quoted, it is also possible that the in between one (i.e. The middle 2nd one) is being referred to as the Sensible/best one. He said; “Didn’t I tell you this would happen if you didn’t glorify/sab-bihoon – Allah. Subh – glorify / elevate something and keep it constant in elevation. Why did he say this specifically? Because glorifying Allah implies; You should have worshipped Allah, been thankful to Him, believed properly – then this wouldn’t happen to you. If he advised them earlier, he also did join them in the act. So he was still a partner in crime and therefore faced its loss. This shows that knowledge isn’t enough, but it needs to be supported by action. Go to Top^ Ayah 29: Ayah 29: قَالُوا سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ Qaaloo subhaana Rabbinaa in-naa kun-naa Dhaalimeen – they said how glorious is our Master, we were surely of the Oppressors/Wrongdoers. Innaa kunnaa dhaalimeen – we were surelly wrongdoers/oppressors. It was too late now, so their sin caused harm to them and their repentance didn’t remove the harm their sin had caused. They could only hope good from Allah in the future if they stayed good and constant in obedience to Allah. Go to Top^ Ayah 30: Ayah 30: فَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى? بَعْضٍ يَتَلَاوَمُونَ Fa aQbala ba’Duhum ‘alaa ba’Din yata Laawamoon - So they turned on each other after the other, blaming. Evils of Disobedience to Allah: Becoming Arrogant causes: Gradual Losses of: - Wealth. - Loyalty [amongst Brothers & Friends]. So you have nothing left. You lose your wealth, and you lose your loyal allies. Showing the evils of arrogance and disobedience to Allah. Similar happened to the disbelievers in the Battle of Khandaq/Ahzab. Lawm – to assign blame on someone. TaLaawum – to assign blame on each other. When the brothers fight and blame each other, they start to regret.. Realising they have nothing left. Go to Top^ Ayah 31: Ayah 31: قَالُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا طَاغِينَ qaaloo yaa Waylanaa – they said;O Curse/destruction on ourselves! Innaa kunnaa Taagheen – surely we were breaking all limits (in wrong.) They now become humble now that they have nothing left. Go to Top^ Ayah 32: Ayah 32: عَسَى? رَبُّنَا أَن يُبْدِلَنَا خَيْرًا مِّنْهَا إِنَّا إِلَى? رَبِّنَا رَاغِبُونَ ‘asaaRabbunaa – perhaps/maybe, our Master may YuBdilanaa khayran minhaa – Replace for us better than that. Innaa ilaa Rabbinaa Raaghiboon – surely we are to our Master Raaghiboon – Raghib (singular) – Raghba - literally and internally become Infatuated / in pursuit of (i.e. our Master).. We see that these people had the best garden known to all the people, which caused them to become like the evil leaders of Quraysh mentioned in earlier aayaat of this surah. But by Allah destroying their wealth; their wealth was lost, so was their honor, and brotherhood – they had lost everything. By repenting – they could hope for good from Allah in the future. Go to Top^ Ayah 33: Ayah 33: كَذَ?لِكَ الْعَذَابُ ? وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ ? لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ Kadhaalik al adhaab – just like that (what is mentioned earlier) is the punishment Wa la adhaab-ul aakhirati akbar – and surely the punishment of the next life is much greater. Law kaanoo ya’lamoon – if only they knew (in Knowledge and actual Realisation.) This is a warning to the people who think they are in control and who think their wealth and unity can cause harm upon the weak and poor believers. Since Allah can use your own strengths against you within just one night. Hadith: Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said Allah’s Messenger said; Iyyaakum wa-al ma’aasi, inna- al abda la yadhnibu dhanba fa yuhramu bihi rizqan qad kaana hayyan lahu - “Be very careful from sins against Allah, sometimes the slave commits sins, and those sins prevent him from rizq/provisions which could be easy (available) for him.“ Even when Allah warns disbelievers – He is still warning believers to not fall into such sins. Otherwise – they could face similar punishments. So we need to feed the poor, otherwise Allah could destroy our wealth. But if we gave in charity – Allah would increase our wealth and put Barakah (blessings) in it. Go to Top^ Main Qalam 5 (Ayah 34-41) [ Ayah 34: Ayah 34: إِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ Inna li-l muttaqeena ‘inda Rabbihim Jan-naatin-Na’eem Most definitely, for the Constantly God fearing, guarders against evil will be near and withtheir Lordin GardenSof Delight/Enjoyment. Inna – most definitely Li-’l muttaqeena – for the people of Taqwa. The Muttaqeen are those who have the highest levels of Emaan (certainty) and they are the exact opposite of the arrogant disbelievers mentioned at the earlier in this surah. Taqwa – guarding yourself from evil which brings Allah’s wrath. Noun [something in a Constant state]: mutTaQeen Verb [something in a Temporary state]: aladheena-atTaqaw The muttaqeen are of the highest level of believers because they are Constantly being aware of Allah and fearing to disobey him. ‘inda RabbiHim – near/with Their Lord. fee – in JannAAt = Gardens (plural) [from Jannat (Garden)] al-Na’eem – Ni’ma – commonly translated as ‘Blessing’. Why? TaNaa’um – to enjoy something. A blessing which is enjoyable. Jannaat Al-Na’eem – gardens which are always pleasurable/sweet/enjoyment/bliss/fun. “Most definitely for the Muttaqeen are Gardens of Pleasure/enjoyment/fun.” Syntax/Grammar: 1 -This is abnormal sentence structure, by placing the mention of Muttaqeen earlier in the sentence structure (instead of at the) – it implies that the gardens of pleasure are exclusively for them. Example: Ustadh Abdul Nasir mentions; a brother invited him to a meal at a restaurant, and he took him to a table which had a sign saying “RESERVED.” I.e. This table had been reserved for him and the surprise of it made him feel happy inside. Now imagine Gardens of Delight and Constant eternal Pleasure which have already been reserved for you especially by Allah Himself? 2a – The ‘people of the Garden’ (aS-haab al Jannah) was mentioned in ayah 19, when referring to the men who had the best Garden in the world. Whereas in this ayah when describing paradise, Allah mentions Plural: Jannaat. 2b – Allah did not attach any extra description to their Garden (Just said ‘Jannah). In this ayah, Allah is describing the gardens of Paradise as Gardens of pleasure and enjoyment (Jannaatun-Na’eem). Showing they are AMAZING gardenS. They will enter amazing and delightful gardens and be there with their Lord, forever. Go to Top^ Ayah 35: Ayah 35: أَفَنَجْعَلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَالْمُجْرِمِينَ AFa naj’a-lu-l muslimeena ka-l mujrimeen? - Shall we then treat the Muslims (those who submit [to Allah] like the Convicted criminals? So we’re back to the wakeup call (Indhar) again. This is very very early revelation, so highlighting good rewards should be mentioned, but there needs to be a strong wake up call for the majority of people who are unaware and to wake up and realise the reality. al Mujrim – iJraam – to be Convicted of committing a crime. When someone has been convicted and been sentenced as Guilty. “Shall We make those who submit to Allah, the same as those Criminals who have been convicted and found guilty of Crime?” This is rational proof of Judgment Day and Justice. There needs to be Accountability for peoples actions by someone in a higher authority than them, to allow Justice. This is important because even if someone is a wrongdoer, but someone wrongs them – they still want justice. So this isn’t just a religious issue, rather – all humans wants fairness and justice for themselves. Similar aayaat: - Surah Sajdah 32:18 – can a true believer be like an extremely evil doer? They are not equal. - Surah Hashr 59:20 – the people of the fire and the people of paradise cannot be equal. - Surah Saad 38:28 – the people who believe and do good deeds, are We to make them no different to /equal to those who spread cause corruption on the Earth? Are We to make the Muttaqoon like those who blatently and openly disobedient to Allah? Surah Fussilat 41:34: the good is not equal to the evil. (the Laa is repeated twice to show that there is varying degrees of good and varying degrees of evil). If people treat others differently based on what they do, then why shouldn’t Allah treat people differently according to what they do? Ayah 36: Go to Top^ Ayah 36: مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ Maa LaKum – kayfa taHkumoon? What is with you, how do you Judge? “Maa LaKum” – what is wrong with you? There is a pause in the recitation. Hukm / yaHkum (present tense). TaHkumoon – To arrive at an Authoritative Decision, through experience and knowledge (wisdom). 1- Hukm – Authoritative Decision. 2- Hikmah – Wisdom. “Shall We treat those who submit to Allah as those who are convicted criminals, what is wrong with you – How have you come to this conclusion?” This is in Present tense form (TaHkumoon) – which is implying; “What is with you – How are you still upon such a decision, on what basis are you still upon it?” Allah is leaving the door open. You still have the chance to change your decision and become a better person. This is Transision (iltifaat) – to Highlight their mindset, through which – maybe they might consider changing themselves for the better. Go to Top^ Ayah 37: Ayah 37: أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ am laKum kitaabun fee-hi ta-drusoon Or maybe you have some special Book, in that you are Learning from (your conclusions.) It is translated as ‘special book’ because of the Abnormal sentence structure. Normal sentence structure: Am Kitaabun LaKum – Or a Book you have..? Sentence structure in this Ayah: Am LaKum Kitaabun..? – Or do you have a Book? There is more emphasis placed on the word Kitab (Book) in this ayah. Which makes it seem like a ‘special Book’. “Or do you have a Special Book from which you Learn (and come to these strange Conclusions which nobody else has)?” Dars: Darasa (past tense = he Learnt) / yaDrusu (present tense = he is Learning.) – to Learn. To Study, to gain Education / Insight etc. “Do you have a special book by which you are studying with deep Insight, and finding these conclusions?” The word ‘taDrusoon’ is in Present [MuDaari'] tense, which is implying; are you Still learning from such a book? Ofcourse this is challenging the disbelievers because they do not (and did not have a book of any kind like that in the time of Prophet Muhammad.) and even if any people do – it shows inconsistent it is wih logic and human nature. Go to Top^ Ayah 38: Ayah 38: إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ Inna lakum feehi la maa taKhay-yaroon - “In that book -exclusively for you, surely – is whatever you choose for yourself?” What does this mean? The disbelievers challenged Prophet Muhammad and said that if – for arguments sake – there is an afterlife, then if we are rich in this life, then we will also be rich in the next life. I.e. Do you have a book from which you learn? (a book which tells you) that you shall have all that you choose? Where are you getting all these strange ideas from? That only you will get what you want, based on your own desires. TaKhay-yaroon – is really TaTaKhay-yaroon. (double letter Ta at the beginning of the word). But it has been omitted purposelly by Allah in recitation. Tatakhay-yara / khay-yara / Tatakhay-yaroon – khayr (good) – to try to find that which is good. (in this case – the disbelievers are being described as ‘trying to find that which is good for themselves only.’) Takhay-yur [TaFa'-'ul] – the Verb pattern implies the meaning of someone: Trying to do something but not necessarily being successful in that. 1 – So they disbelievers are trying to choose that which is better for themselves, when that which they think is good – is not really better for them. (Allah is hinting that the guidance of Allah is better for them.) The extra ‘Ta’ was dropped in recitation for; Tatakhay-yaroon has become takhay-yaroon. When the ‘Ta’ is dropped – it signals to something. I.e. In this case – it implies they have Rushed in their decision. I.e. They have not considered Islam properly, and they want only what -they Percieve – is best for themselves. They think that by rejecting Islam quickly without thinking deeply about it – they have done that which is good for them. But it is not good for them. Go to Top^ Ayah 39: Ayah 39: أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمَانٌ عَلَيْنَا بَالِغَةٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَمَا تَحْكُمُونَ am laKum aYmaanun alaynaa Baalighatun ilaa yawmi-l Qiyaamah, inna lakum la maa taHkumoon Or do you have some exclusive/special Aymaan (Special binding Oath) upon Us (Allah) – that Reaches (Baaligh) all the way till the Day of Judgment. That most definitely you will get what you Decide? Aymaan (plural) of Yameen – a special binding Oath. Go to Top^ Ayah 40: Ayah 40: سَلْهُمْ أَيُّهُم بِذَلِكَ زَعِيمٌ Salhum ayyuHum bi dhaalika Za’eem “So ask them – who amongst them is the one who is responsible and will speak on behalf of them on the choices they make?” Sal hum – Ask them, This is a Command Allah is giving to His Messenger. Allah talking to His Messenger directly instead: This is Iltifat (transision) – where Allah spoke to the disbelievers before (what an honor!), and now He will tell His Messenger to continue (an honor for the Messenger!) Also note that Allah in these instances is talking to the disbelievers because it is the one of the Earliest revelations in Makkah (when only a few people were Muslims [maybe a handful]). So the disbelievers are not totally Kuffar (firmly on disbelief). Their long term decisions are not clear. So Allah is willing to talk to them during this stage. However, once their Kufr (ungratefulness/arrogance/disbelief) is permanent, they are not spoken to, in this life, nor the next. ..ask them (O Muhammad)… AyyuHum – which (of) them Bi dhaalika – with that Za’eem – somebody who is responsible on behalf of people and speaks on their behalf. “So ask them – who amongst them is the one who is responsible and will speak on behalf of them on the choices they make?” No-one came forward from the Quraysh, and it is most probable that no-one will from other groups of people too. Since it is embarrassing for them – because; - Their arguments of treating the one who has submitted to Allah in good acts being similar to a convicted criminal does not make logical sense. - Nor can these people prove that they have taken a special binding covenant with Allah to support their claim of having the choice in deciding what should be right and what should be wrong etc. This lack of proof embarrassment causes people not to step forward, from all walks of life – except Islam. In which we can prove that we have a contract with Allah. Ayah 40: Ayah 41: أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكَائِهِمْ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ am laHum shurakaa’u fa-l ya’too bi shurakaa’ihim in kaanoo Saadiqeen. Or do they have Shurakaa‘ (partners) then let them bring these Partners forward if they are truthful. Shurakaa’ (plural) – Shareek (singular) – Partners Partners can refer to; 1 – Partners they worship as associates along with Allah (ie. their idols, false deities etc.) who are supporting them. If they have these Partners with Allah, then let them bring them forward if they are truthful. (i.e. If they are stone idols, or people who are worshipped, or ‘nature’ itself – the unpolluted mind will laugh. ‘How can such a being be an equal with Allah?’) 2 - it could be a Literal meaning: Partners in their stance on Disbelief. Are there any other Intelligent people of any Civilization, ‘great minds’ – who are willing to backup what you claim? But they did not have any people to support them – because they were on an island (Arabia) surrounded by 3 sides of water. Then bring these Associates you have; Idols etc. To support you in your claim, or bring your intelligent associates and ask them to prove your claim that you have a; - a Special Book which tells you that a Muslim (one who submits to the high moral standards set by Allah) is similar to a Convicted -founded Guilty- Criminal. - a Special Binding Oath with Allah till Judgment Day – which allows you to do whatever evil you want, and Allah will be fine with that.