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Found 3 results

  1. Introduction Brothers and sisters, a few days ago, I have discovered multiple mathematical patterns in surah Baqarah. I have even unraveled the meaning of the mysterious letters at the beginning of the chapter "alm". Before continuing to read this post though, I recommend you learn about the number 19 and it's importance in the Quran if you don't know about it already. Frequency of The Letters "ALM" in Surah Baqarah The frequency of the letters "alif, lam, meem" are very important in understanding the mathematical patterns in this chapter. Alif (أ): Appears in all 286 verses Lam (ل): Appears in all 286 verses Meem (م): Appears in 283 verses The Miraclous Math If we were to add the three numbers listed above (286 + 286 + 283), we will come to a sum of 855. 855 is a multiple of 19 (19 x 45). But I'm not done. 855 / 19 = 45. The sum of all the digits (2 + 8 + 6 + 2 + 8 + 6 + 2 + 8 + 3) in 286;286;283 is... 45. Still not done. If we were to concatenate the three numbers in the order they already are, we would get 286,286,283. We need to add the number 2 to the beginning though as an identifier for surah Baqarah (second chapter in Quran). The final number is 2,286,286,283. That number, is indeed a multiple of 19 (2,286,286,283 / 19 = 120,330,857). And 120330857 is also a multiple of 19 (120330857 / 19 = 6,333,203). Conclusion The Quran is the word of God. Nobody could recite such perfection.
  2. Here is a very simple question.... In a court of law "hearsay" evidence is not allowed. That is because it is considered unreliable. Hearsay means evidence that like this: "he said that so and so said". In other words, hearsay means second hand evidence. You are telling not what you saw or heard but what someone else did. Now,imagine this: Someone says his invisible and unavailable friend called Gabriel said to him, and only him, that some other invisible and very shy friend called Allah said something. Nobody has ever seen either of there two people, and nobody has even been able to check. However, we are told that this Gabriel has 600 pairs of wings, and hates pictures, statues and even dogs, for some reason.Aged female breasts also seem to drive him away the story goes... You only have this someone's word for this chain of hearsay, and we cannot even be sure that the words have not be messed about with later, as the text you have has been written a long tome later, and variant versions have been burnt. In addition, many people who actually knew this "someone" personally described him as a "bewitched", "mad" or a "poet"? Even his own uncle thought he was a faker, and he thought himself mad and wanted to kill himself once. He also admitted freely that at least on one occasion he tranmitted a message NOT given to him by this Gabriel, but he was tricked, he claims. So we have a double hearsay account from someone described by many (and himself) as somewhat unhinged. Would you say you have a good and solid foundation to build your life on? Let's face it, whould you trust him enough to by a car of him?
  3. Introduction BACTERIAL VARIATION Any change in the genotype of a bacterium or its phenotype is known as variation. Genotypic variation can occur as a result of changes in the genes by way of mutation, loss or acquisition of new genetic elements. These variations are heritable. Phenotypic variations are seen temporarily when bacteria are grown under certain environmental conditions. These variations are not heritable. Heritable variations: Mutation: A gene will mutate spontaneously, about once in a hundred million cell divisions. Such bacteria are called mutants. Most of these mutants die, but a when a mutant can adapt itself to the environment more readily; it may emerge as a new variant. Chromosomal mutations may lead to Emergence of drug resistance in bacteria. Examples include methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Multi-drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in bacteria Transformation: Some bacteria have ability to uptake naked DNA fragment from the surrounding environment. When such a DNA confers new property to the bacterium, it is termed transformation. Change from R form of Streptococcus pneumoniae to S form as demonstrated by Griffith is due to transformation. Conjugation: Transfer of genetic material (usually plasmids) from one bacterium to another through the mediation of sex pili. Any property that is coded on a transmissible plasmid can be transferred to a recipient bacterium. Properties such drug resistance mediated by beta-lactamases, bacteriocin production etc can be transferred by conjugation. Transduction: Transfer of genetic material through mediation of bacteriophage is known as transduction. Only those strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that are infected by a beta phage are toxigenic. Change in O antigen in Salmonella (S. anatum->S. newington-> S.minneapolis) is because of lysogenic phage. Transposition: Variations in the flagellar antigens in Salmonella are due to transposons. Similar gene rearrangements may result in antigenic variations, as in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Borrelia recurrentis. Non-heritable variations: A variation in the phenotype of a microorganism, where the genetic constitution remains unchanged is a non-heritable variation. Such variations are seen due to a change in environmental conditions and such variations are neither permanent nor heritable. They may revert back to normal state when the conditions are restored. Some examples are: Loss of flagella in S.typhi when grown in phenol agar (H-O variation) Pleomorphism (variation in shape) in old cultures Lack of pigment production by S.aureus in anaerobic conditions Formation of spheroplasts and protoplasts V-W variation in Salmonella typhi that is characterized by loss of Vi antigen S-R variation in Salmonella typhi that is characterized by loss of O antigen and change in colony morphology to rough type. Production of flagella in Listeria monocytogenes occurs at temperature less than 20oC Last edited in June 2006 http://www.microrao.com/micronotes/variation.htm http://textbookofbacteriology.net/resantimicrobial_3.html