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A) Karyotype According to darwinism, human has a microbe-like grandfather, It kept reproducing till we found an imaginary common ancestor for human and chimp. This tale was confronted by the fact that human has 46 chromosomes while apes have 48 ! Looks more or less similar ?! Let's have a look at creatures that have the same number of chromosomes-just like human ! - Black rat (Rattus rattus) , but not all of them have 46 - Merriam’s ground squirrel (Spermophilus canus) - Southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis) - Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) - Mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) - Muntjacs (Muntiacus reevesi) - Beach vole (Microtus breweri) - Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) - Kirk’s dik-dik (Rhynchotragus/Madoqua kirkii ) - Grey/common vole (Microtus arvalis) - Large bentwing bat (miniopterus schreibersi) - Bolivian Tuco-tuco (Ctenomys boliviensis) - Crowned Lemur (Lemur mongoz coronatus) - Red Titi (Callicebus cupreus) Sable antelope (Kafue, Zambia) http://zyxo.wordpress.com/2009/06/27/list-of-animal-species-with-46-chromosomes/ On the other hand these species also have 48 chromosomes, just like chimpanzee. - European hare/jackrabbit (Lepus europeus) potatoes tobacco It's obvious that none is a supposed relative neither for human nor chimpanzee ! In fact, the number of chromosomes doesn't hold much importance. What really counts is the genetic information itself.
Absolute truth posted a topic in Islamic DiscussionsIntroduction One of the most popular alleged evidences for evolution on the internet is Endogenous RetroViral sequences (ERVs). Evolutionists think that a type of virus called a 'retrovirus', once inserted genetic information into one of our ape ancestors' genome. So how is this evidence for evolution? Scientists have noticed that chimps and humans have ERV genetic sequences at very similar points in our DNA. And so the story goes: our common ancestor acquired these ERVs and since humans and chimps are closely related, we should have them in similar spots in our genomes. We do. If we and chimps didn't evolve from a common ancestor (which first acquired the ERVs), how is it possible that we and chimps have ERVs in almost precisely the same locations? The only plausible explanation, evolutionists say, is evolution. But this is far from the truth. If we can show that ERVs are not the product of retroviruses, this evidence for evolution would fall flat. ERVS are simply more or less similar to retrovirus genome: The first problem with this argument is that it’s hard to tell what an ERV is when you meet one. It doesn’t come with a tag attached saying: ” This is an ERV “. It could be that these genes something completely different. That is because if a virus is embedded in it’s complete form, its almost impossible to pass it down to further generations. ERVS are Functional If ERVs are found to have function, it would be highly likely that they didn't originate from retroviruses. It would be inconceivable that viral non-functional ERVs somehow became functional. Evidence has surfaced that they do have function. "We report the existence of 51,197 ERV-derived promoter sequences that initiate transcription within the human genome, including 1,743 cases where transcription is initiated from ERV sequences that are located in gene proximal promoter or 5' untranslated regions (UTRs)."(Conley, A.B., Piriyapongsa, J. and Jordan, I.K., "Retroviral promoters in the human genome," Bioinformatics 24(14):1563, 2008) The previous quote is very telling. There are many thousands of ERV sequences in our genome and in that of chimps. Does this mean that all are beneficial? "Our analysis revealed that retroviral sequences in the human genome encode tens-of-thousands of active promoters; transcribed ERV sequences correspond to 1.16% of the human genome sequence ... and PET tags that capture transcripts initiated from ERVs cover 22.4% of the genome."("Ancient Retroviruses Spurred Evolution Of Gene Regulatory Networks In Humans And Other Primates," ScienceDaily, University of California - Santa Cruz, Nov. 15, 2007.) As we can see, it has been discovered that ERVs aid transcription in one fifth of the human genome! "We report that human ERVs actively shape the p53 transcriptional network in a species-specific manner ... At least one ERV insertion likely reshaped the transcriptional landscape of its surrounding genomic area and was instrumental in creating a new gene that became part of the human-specific p53 regulatory network ... We discovered a unique distribution pattern of p53 sites within repetitive sequences of the human genome, and several ERV families emerged as being substantially enriched for p53 sites in their LTRs."("Retroviral promoters in the human genome,2008"
Hybridisation or hybridization التهجين: The process of combining different varieties of organisms to create a hybrid. Hybrid الهَجين: (molecular biology) A complex formed by joining two complementary strands of nucleic acids. In biology, hybrid has two meanings: 1- crosses between populations, breeds or cultivars within a single species. This meaning is often used in plant and animal breeding, where hybrids are commonly produced and selected because they have desirable characteristics not found or inconsistently present in the parent individuals or populations. This flow of genetic material between populations or races is often called hybridization. 2- Offspring resulting from the interbreeding between two animals or plants of different species. Intra-specific hybrids: between different subspecies within a species (such as between the Bengal tiger and Siberian tiger) Inter-specific hybrids or crosses Hybrids between different species within the same genus (such as between lions and tigers) . Inter-generic hybrids: Hybrids between different genera (such as between sheep and goats) . Extremely rare inter-familial hybrids have been known to occur (such as the guineafowl hybrids). No inter-ordinal (between different orders) animal hybrids are known. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_%28biology%29