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Assalamualaikum Rahamatullahi Wabarakathahu Let me start this article the these verses Surah: 57 Aya: 25 We have already sent Our messengers with clear evidences and sent down with them the Scripture and the balance that the people may maintain [their affairs] in justice. And We sent down iron, wherein is great military might and benefits for the people, and so that Allah may make evident those who support Him and His messengers unseen. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might. When a Mars-size object collided with Earth 4.5 billion years ago ,two events happen that changed the galaxy permanently after that.the first one ,was invasion of iron to earth other one was the most important result which made the earth habitable was creation of moon ! Peter D. Ward and Donald Brownlee, in their book, Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe, make these following conclusions As per the verse 2.189 They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the new moons. Say, “They are measurements of time for the people and for Hajj.” And it is not righteousness to enter houses from the back, but righteousness is [in] one who fears Allah. And enter houses from their doors. And fear Allah that you may succeed. Moon was made to reckon days .it is/was obvious for our ancestors as moon gives lunar month but if we think with the modern perspective of science we get few more amazing results . first let me ask a question to myself ,what would have happen if our moon was just 15000 miles away from us? .then our earth would have moved faster and we will have more days in a year ..obviously , the earth’s tilt might had been different which would have resulted in different climatic conditions and there might not be intellectual life possible on earth .actually this was the condition in the beginning of formation of moon Secondly,What would have happen if our moon was half its size as we have now? Geologists believe that an Earth day was originally five to six hours long if we have lesser size moon. Assuming life had still arisen, it would have had to contend with more frequent ice ages as well more extreme warm snaps.Large moons stabilize planets. Due to smaller moon earth would have wobbled a lot. in other words, bigger climatic swings and seasonal temperature changes than Earth what we have now. So we got moon when iron was send to us and even that moon is at right place and with the most appropriate size .In other words a perfect balance was set between the size and the distance of the moon so that earth will become habitable wait a minute! The right balance ……. I remember few verses form quran Verse 55.5 The sun and the moon by precise calculation Verse 55.6 And the stars and trees prostrate. Verse 55.7 And the heaven He raised and imposed the balance Is Allah subhanavatala is talking about these calculations and balance? To the people of 14th century the above verses would have only meant about sun light and moon light but for us these verses made a world of difference. We all know that the Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. However, most us don’t realize that is a generalization. Actually, the Sun only rises due east and sets due west on 2 days of the year — the spring and fall equinoxes! On other days, the Sun rises either north or south of “due east” and sets north or south of “due west.”Each day the rising and setting points change slightly. We never bother to notice the movement of Sun because Mr. Sun is not so important for us; however Mr. Sun was a very important person for our ancestors because he made their life bright after a prolonged darkness of night. This was the reason most of ancestors took Mr. Sun as god . they even use to trace and calculate the sun’s path very accurately .interestingly , ibn katir has given a good detail about this From Tafsir Ibn Khatir The verses are verse 70.40 So I swear by the Lord of [all] risings and settings that indeed We are able Verse 73.9 [He is] the Lord of the East and the West; there is no deity except Him, so take Him as Disposer of [your] affairs. Verse 55. 17. (He is) the Lord of the two easts (places of sunrise during early summer and early winter) and the Lord of the two wests (places of sunset during early summer and early winter). To know little more about this verses let us imagine the earth without moon. No moon means no tilt and thereby we will have one east and one west. No climate changes and their might not be any life possible on earth. Even the tilt of earth which is 23.4* is just appropriate to make the earth habitable .life might not have existed on the earth if this tilt was much bigger or smaller. So moon is must to make earth habitable .the formation of moon happen when iron came to earth .even it is said that the time and place of the impact which planet Theia made was appropriate to form the earth core and the moon . Again I am quoting the same verse here Verse 57.25. Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice. And We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power (in matters of war), as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allâh may test who it is that will help Him (His religion), and His Messengers in the unseen. Verily, Allâh is All-Strong, All-Mighty Who could have made those precise calculations? yet atheists say every thing was coincidence and it happen from nothing So moon was made exclusively for .this is mentioned in the following ayah Verse 14.33 And He subjected for you the sun and the moon, continuous [in orbit], and subjected for you the night and the day. So which of the favors of Allah subhanavatala We can deny