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The person who withholds Zakah is the one who withholds Zakah either by denying its obligation[ Denying: i.e. by refuting its obligation] or by being stingy: 1- A person withholding Zakah through denial Anybody who denies the obligation of Zakah has disbelieved in the totality of Islam according to the consensus of the Ummah, if he has been informed about its obligation: this is because he/she has belied Allah and His Messenger. 2- A person withholding Zakah through stinginess Who withholds his Zakah due to stinginess, but not due to a denial of its obligation, Zakah should be taken from him by force, and he is not considered as having become an unbeliever, although he has committed one of the great sins and a tremendous (very grave) act. This is in accordance with the Prophet’s statement ﷺ concerning the person withholding Zakah: “Every owner of either gold or silver who does not pay his due will be called to account on the Day of Ressurection and plates of fire will be prepared for him. These plates are then heated over the raging flames of Hell Fire (Jahannam)...., whenever they become cold, the process is repeated all over again. This happens on a day that measures fifty thousand (50,000) years, until all the servants have been judged. Afterward, he will be shown his fate – either Heaven or Hell.” [ Source: Muslim] Furthermore while still alive, if one refuses point blank to pay Zakah, he has to be fought until he succumbs to the order of Allah Almighty and pays Zakah. Allah Almighty says: “However if they repent and perform as-Salat and give Zakah, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (At-Taubah: 5) The Prophet ﷺ said: “ I have been ordered to wage war against men until they bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and observe as-Salat, and pay Zakah; when they have done these, then their blood and property are safe from me (i.e. not to be touched), except if the right of Islam is at stake, and their judgment lies only with Allah.”[ Agreed Upon] Abu Bakr indeed waged war against those who withheld Zakah, saying: “By Allah, I would definitely fight against him who makes a difference between prayer and Zakat, for it is the obligation upon the rich; and by Allah, if they were to withhold a camel-cord which they used to pay (as Zakah) to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, I will fight them for withholding it.” [ Source: Muslim] source: islamkingdom
People to whom Zakat is paid are those that are entitled to it, and these are the eight groups of people that Allah Almighty mentioned exclusively in His statement: “As-Sadaqah (Zakah) are only for the Fuqara’(poor), and Al-Masakeen (the needy), and those employed to collect (the Zakah), and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined towards Islam, and to free captives, and for those in debt, and for Allah’s cause (i.e. for those fighting in holy battles), and for the wayfarer (a traveller who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allah. Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.” (At-Taubah: 60) source:Islamkingdom alms