Jump to content
Islamic Forum
Sign in to follow this  
shiningstar

Umar Ibn Al Khattab (Second Caliph)

Recommended Posts

asalaamua'alikum

 

Umar Ibn Al Khattab

 

The Second Caliph, Umar (634-644 A.C.)

 

"God has placed truth upon Umar's tongue and heart. (Hadith)"

 

'Umar's Life

 

During his last illness Abu Bakr had conferred with his people, particularly the more eminent among them. After this meeting they chose 'Umar as his successor. 'Umar was born into a respected Quraish family thirteen years after the birth of Muhammad (peace be on him). Umar's family was known for its extensive knowledge of genealogy. When he grew up, 'Umar was proficient in this branch of knowledge as well as in swordsmanship, wrestling and the art of speaking. He also learned to read and write while still a child, a very rare thing in Mecca at that time. 'Umar earned his living as a merchant. His trade took him to many foreign lands and he met all kinds of people. This experience gave him an insight into the affairs and problems of men. 'Umar's personality was dynamic, self-assertive, frank and straight forward. He always spoke whatever was in his mind even if it displeased others.

 

'Umar was twenty-seven when the Prophet (peace be on him) proclaimed his mission. The ideas Muhammad was preaching enraged him as much as they did the other notables of Mecca. He was just as bitter against anyone accepting Islam as others among the Quraish. When his slave-girl accepted Islam he beat her until he himself was exhausted and told her, "I have stopped because I am tired, not out of pity for you." The story of his embracing Islam is an interesting one. One day, full of anger against the Prophet, he drew his sword and set out to kill him. A friend met him on the way. When 'Umar told him what he planned to do, his friend informed him that 'Umar's own sister, Fatima, and her husband had also accepted Islam. 'Umar went straight to his sister's house where he found her reading from pages of the Qur'an. He fell upon her and beat her mercilessly. Bruised and bleeding, she told her brother, "Umar, you can do what you like, but you cannot turn our hearts away from Islam." These words produced a strange effect upon 'Umar. What was this faith that made even weak women so strong of heart? He asked his sister to show him what she had been reading; he was at once moved to the core by the words of the Qur'an and immediately grasped their truth. He went straight to the house where the Prophet was staying and vowed allegiance to him.

 

Umar made no secret of his acceptance of Islam. He gathered the Muslims and offered prayers at the Ka'aba. This boldness and devotion of an influential citizen of Mecca raised the morale of the small community of Muslims. Nonetheless 'Umar was also subjected to privations, and when permission for emigration to Medina came, he also left Mecca. The soundness of 'Umar's judgment, his devotion to the Prophet (peace be on him), his outspokenness and uprightness won for him a trust and confidence from the Prophet which was second only to that given to Abu Bakr. The Prophet gave him the title 'Farooq' which means the 'Separator of Truth from False hood.' During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, 'Umar was his closest assistant and adviser. When Abu Bakr died, all the people of Medina swore allegiance to 'Umar, and on 23 Jamadi-al-Akhir, 13 A.H., he was proclaimed Caliph.

 

 

'Umar's Caliphate

 

After taking charge of his office, 'Umar spoke to the Muslims of Medina:

"...O people, you have some rights on me which you can always claim. One of your rights is that if anyone of you comes to me with a claim, he should leave satisfied. Another of your rights is that you can demand that I take nothing unjustly from the revenues of the State. You can also demand that... I fortify your frontiers and do not put you into danger. It is also your right that if you go to battle I should look after your families as a father would while you are away. "O people, remain conscious of God, forgive me my faults and help me in my task. Assist me in enforcing what is good and forbidding what is evil. Advise me regarding the obligations that have been imposed upon me by God..."

The most notable feature of 'Umar's caliphate was the vast expansion of Islam. Apart from Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Palestine and Iran also came under the protection of the Islamic government. But the greatness of 'Umar himself lies in the quality of his rule. He gave a practical meaning to the Qur'anic injunction:

 

 

"O you who believe, stand out firmly for justice as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it concerns rich or poor, for God can best protect both." [4:135]

Once a woman brought a claim against the Caliph 'Umar. When 'Umar appeared on trial before the judge, the judge stood up as a sign of respect toward him. 'Umar reprimanded him, saying, "This is the first act of injustice you did to this woman!"

 

He insisted that his appointed governors live simple lives, keep no guard at their doors and be accessible to the people at all times, and he himself set the example for them. Many times foreign envoys and messengers sent to him by his generals found him resting under a palm tree or praying in the Masjid among the people, and it was difficult for them to distinguish which man was the Caliph. He spent many a watchful night going about the streets of Medina to see whether anyone needed help or assistance. The general social and moral tone of the Muslim society at that time is well-illustrated by the words of an Egyptian who was sent to spy on the Muslims during their Egyptian campaign. He reported:

 

"I have seen a people, every one of whom loves death more than he loves life. They cultivate humility rather than pride. None is given to material ambitions. Their mode of living is simple... Their commander is their equal. They make no distinction between superior and inferior, between master and slave. When the time of prayer approaches, none remains behind..."

 

'Umar gave his government an administrative structure. Departments of treasury, army and public revenues were established. Regular salaries were set up for soldiers. A popuation census was held. Elaborate land surveys were conducted to assess equitable taxes. New cities were founded. The areas which came under his rule were divided into provinces and governors were appointed. New roads were laid, canals were lug and wayside hotels were built. Provision was made for he support of the poor and the needy from public funds. He defined, by precept and by example, the rights and privileges of non-Muslims, an example of which is the following contract with the Christians of Jerusalem:

 

"This is the protection which the servant of God, 'Umar, the Ruler of the Believers has granted to the people of Eiliya [Jerusalem]. The protection is for their lives and properties, their churches and crosses, their sick and healthy and for all their coreligionists. Their churches shall not be used for habitation, nor shall they be demolished, nor shall any injury be done to them or to their compounds, or to their crosses, nor shall their properties be injured in any way. There shall be no compulsion for these people in the matter of religion, nor shall any of them suffer any injury on account of religion... Whatever is written herein is under the covenant of God and the responsibility of His Messenger, of the Caliphs and of the believers, and shall hold good as long as they pay Jizya [the tax for their defense] imposed on them."

 

Those non-Muslims who took part in defense together with the Muslims were exempted from paying Jizya, and when the Muslims had to retreat from a city whose non-Muslim citizens had paid this tax for their defense, the tax was returned to the non-Muslims. The old, the poor and the disabled of Muslims and non-Muslims alike were provided for from the public treasury and from the Zakat funds.

 

 

'Umar's Death

 

In 23 A.H., when Umar returned to Medina from Hajj;, he raised his hands and prayed,

 

"O God! I am advanced in years, my bones are weary, my powers are declining, and the people for whom I am responsible have spread far and wide. Summon me back to Thyself, my lord!" Some time later, when 'Umar went to the Masjid to lead a prayer, a Magian named Abu Lulu Feroze, who had a grudge against 'Umar on a personal matter, attacked him with a dagger and stabbed him several times. Umar reeled and fell to the ground. When he learned that the assassin was a Magian, he sid, "Thank God he is not a Muslim."

 

'Umar died in the first week of Muharram, 24 A.H., and was buried by the side of the Holy Prophet (peace be on him).

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
PropellerAds

salaam alaikum,

 

a new muslim friend of mine, from egypt, always talks about Umar & encouraged me to read about him. thanks for posting.

 

may the peace & blessings of Allah be upon the Prophet Muhammad and all his companions, including Umar. may they also be made amongst those who will prosper in the hereafter.

 

wassalaam

AS

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Assalamualaikum

 

Umar Ibn Al Khattab is my idol after Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

 

As a prefect at my school, i took him as my role model. Each time I read about his story, surely it will touches me...

 

Well... Umar Abdel Aziz also a good caliph.. Yeah... because of they two, I love whoever named or called Umar..

 

My younger brother named Umar.. I wish he could be like Umar Al Khattab. A very pro leader..

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Assalaam Alaykum

 

I have found "you can't post links until you reach 50 posts_www.witness-pioneer(contact admin if its a beneficial link)/vil/Articles/companion/00_umar_bin_al_khattab.htm"]Biography of Second Caliph[/url] may Allah be pleased with him on internet...

 

I haven't read the whole thing yet....... trying to

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Asalaamua'alikum

 

JazakAllah for sharing .. the more i read about him the more ilove him... !!!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

GLIMPSES FROM THE LIFE OF UMAR BIN KHATAB(May Allah be pleased with him)

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Umar(May Allah be pleased with him) is one of the few leaders of Islamic Civilization that is unique other than the career of the Prophet Muhammad(Peace Be Upon Him) with whom this whole cycle of events started. From his early days he had shown signs of greatness and the future to come.

 

It was Abdullah ibn Masood (Mat Allah be pleased with him) who said of him, "We are still noble since Omar’s Submission to Islam" He also said "Omar(May Allah be pleased with him)’s Submission to Islam was a conquest, His Migration was a victory, His Imamate [period of rule] was a blessing, I have seen when we were unable to pray at "the house" [Kaba] until Umar (May Allah Be pleased with Him) submitted, when he Submitted to Islam he fought them [the antagonistic idolaters] until they left us alone and we prayed."

 

 

 

There are many traditions that speak of the high regard that the companions of Muhammad (Peace Be upon Him) had for Umar (May Allah be pleased with him). He was the one of the two main counselors of the Messenger (May peace be upon him), the other being Abu Bakr. (May Allah be pleased with him) There are many reasons for the greatness of this man. He(May Allah be pleased with him) was of paramount importance in the early formation of the Islamic State.

 

During his time many new innovations were adopted. The state was expanding at a unprecedented rate and swift action needed to be taken which he did not hesitate to take or adopt. His(May Allah be pleased with them) bravery and simple life were trademarks of his era. His(May Allah be pleased with him) genius for leadership clearly is shown in his many accomplishments. The great prose writer Abas Mahmoud al-Aqad, at the turn of the century had written a volume dedicated to him called, Abqaryat Umar [The Genius of Umar.]

 

There is quite number of good works on Umar in Arabic. There also seems to be quite a number of books just about him either popular or scholarly. Al-Aqad’s book is one of the popluar works so is Ali Tantanwi, the famous Muslim TV personality, book about Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå).

 

 

 

The Fiqh Council of (al-Majmah al-Fiqhi li Jamat al-Imam Muhammad bin Saud) Muhammad bin Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had published a 3 volume book on the Fiqh of Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) . There is also a Ph.D. thesis that is only dedicated to the Innovations of Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) in Administration and Judicial Affairs

 

 

 

 

The turning points during Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s life are in his Submission to Islam and in his rule after the death of Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) the Caliph of the Messenger(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) in 13 A.H./634 AD. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ruled for ten years and was assassinated by a Magian named Abu Lulu Feroze, who had a attacked him during prayer with a dagger and stabbed him several times.

 

 

 

 

HIS EARLY YEARS:

 

 

 

Umar(May Allah be pleased with him) was born in Mecca 13 years after the incident of the Elephant, In 583 A.D. Of his early years there are not many recorded details save that he grazed camels for his father who was very harsh with him. In his reign he would recall his father’s harshness to him when he passed the field which caused him pains early in his life.

 

We later see him as wrestler who used to attend the famed Ukaz (the annual fair.) Also due to his family’s position in the Meccan Hierarchy he would receive an above average education and would travel throughout Arabia and Greater Syria.

 

 

Umar(May Allah be pleased with him) ’s personality was dynamic, self-assertive, frank and straight forward. He always spoke whatever was on his mind even if it displeased others.

CLAN, FAMILY AND TRIBE OF UMAR(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå):

 

Umar(May Allah be pleased with him) belonged to the Adi clan from the Tribe of Quraish. His full name is: Umar ibn al-Khattab ibn Nufail Ibn Abdul-Uzza Ibn Riyah Ibn Qart Ibn Razah Ibn Adi Ibn Ka’b Ibn Lu’ayy ibn Fihr ibn Malik. Ameer al Muminin, abu Hafs, al-Qurashi, al-Adwai, al-Farooq.

 

Umar’s family was considered among the families that served as arbitrators that would settle the tribal disputes and disagreements. Also ambassadors were chosen from his family as well.

 

 

 

UMAR(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’S SUBMISSION TO Islam:

 

There are three versions of Omar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s conversion, the story Anas bin Malik (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) relates is this version: One day, full of anger against the Prophet(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) , he drew his sword and set out to kill him. A man from Bani Zuhrah (perhaps an acquaintance, who secretly professed Islam) met him on the way. When Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) told him what he planned to do, he informed him that Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s own sister, Fatimah, and her husband had also accepted Islam and abandoned your faith.

 

 

 

Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) went straight to his sister’s house where he found her reading from pages of the Qur’an. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) fell upon her and beat her mercilessly. Bruised and bleeding, she told her brother, "Umar, you can do what you like, but you cannot turn our hearts away from Islam." These words produced a strange effect upon Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) .

 

 

 

What was this faith that made even weak women so strong of heart? He asked his sister to show him what she had been reading; he was at once moved to the core by the words of the Qur’an and immediately grasped their truth.

Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) went straight to the house where the Prophet(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) was staying and vowed allegiance to him. It is also mentioned in more than one version that before he spoke the formula the Messenger took him by the shirt and shook him up.

 

 

Shortly after the conversion Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) and Hamza (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) had led the Muslims in a March on the Kabaa to worship there. Later on he would openly proclaim his emigration to Medina and in one version he would dare the Meccans to harm him.

 

 

 

 

THE MESSENGER(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã)’S MAIN COUNSELORS AND ADVISORS

 

There are many narrations that the Messenger (Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) was hoping that Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) would accept Islam and when Uma(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) r because of the bright future that the Messenger(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) was hoping. It is as if he was recruiting the right people for the future of the Islamic State. In one of the traditions that is mentioned by as-Suyuti we see the Messenger(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) praying that Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) accept Islam.

 

 

 

 

There are other traditions that point to the excellent qualities of Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) in matters of advice. One such tradition is: "Ibn Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) related that the Prophet, (Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Allah has put the truth upon Umar’s tongue and in his heart." And another is "If there were to be a prophet after me it would be Umar ibn al-Khatab" narrated by: Uqbah bin Amir.

As-Suyuti further states that Abu Abdullah ash-Shaybani in his book Fada’il al-Imamayn (the Merits of the two Imams [Abu Bakr and Umar]) had listed 20 different points in which Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s Opinions matched the later revelations of the Qur’an.

 

 

For the above mentioned reasons that the Messenger(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) always sought the advice of Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) . It was not that the Messenger always followed Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s Consultation but he still utilized him on many occasions.

 

 

 

THE PROPHET(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) ’S DEMISE AND ABU BAKR(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’S KHILAFAH [RULE.]

 

 

 

When the Prophet (Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) died Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) was in denial and refused to believe that he died. Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) promised to strike the head of any man who would say that he died. Abu Bakr kept(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) his cool about him and reminded the people that the Messenger (Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) was human. Then the Medinaites namely the Awas and Khazraj tribe were in dispute as to who would take charge after the Messenger, it was then that Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) gave biyah (oath of Allegiance) to Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) .

 

 

 

Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) had convinced them that Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) was the ideal choice to be the successor of the Messenger(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) . He spoke about the excellent qualities of Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) and how the Messenger(Õáøì Çááå Úáíå æÂáå æÓáøã) had left some clues at to whom to lead after his demise.

MAIN ADVISOR TO ABU BAKR(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) :

 

 

 

Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) had high regard for Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) who said: "There is not on the face of the earth a man more beloved to me than Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ." Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) was also highly regard among the companions of the Messenger. Aisha(ÑÖøì Çááå ÚäåÇ)

has said: "He was, by Allah, skillful in managing affairs, absolutely unique." And Muawiyah(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) has said: "…Umar, the world wanted him and he did not want it…"

 

 

 

Further Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) had asked Usmah bin Zaid(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) permission to use Uma(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) r because at the time of the death of the Messenger, Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) was part of an Invasion force that was led by Usamah(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) .

 

 

 

Although Abu Bakr (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) did not take every advice that was given to him by Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) , namely the affairs of the Ridda Wars and when the Arabs refused to pay the Zakah (Alms, poor due, tax) in which Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) acted correctly and successfully. Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) had said: "By Allah, I will fight whoever makes a distinction between the prayer and the Zakah…" It was at this point that Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) saw the error of his way, retracted and joined Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) in the wars.

THE KHILAFAH [RULE] OF UMAR(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) :

 

 

 

The appointment of Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) to office of Khalifah is a well recorded event. It is not as troublesome as any of the others. His was perhaps one of the smoothest transitions to power from one authority to another in the Muslim lands. When Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) was dying he only appointed Umar as his successor and no other.

 

 

Umar succeed Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) the day after his death. Abu Bakr(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) was well aware of Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s powers and of his ability to succeed him. When he was dying he consulted with Abdur-Rahman bin Awaf(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) and Uthman bin Affan(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) who regarded him quite highly.

 

 

 

Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) rule was to last ten years which are full of accomplishments. In this paper I will deal with some of them in detail. His most apparent achievements are in two major categories namely, the conquests and the innovations in ruling.

His Government

SOME OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND INNOVATIONS OF UMAR(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) :

 

In this area Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) would excel as no other for many reasons some of which are that in his time the state would be stable. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) dealt with many matters quickly and before they would rise to cause. It was also the sharpness of his personality and austerity that quelled many of the troubles that would appear to his successors. Here is some of his major achievements in list form.

 

Establishment of Public Treasury .

Establishments of courts of Justice and appointment of Judges.

Placing the reserve army on the state’s Payroll and organization of the War department.

Establishment of Postal service.

Establishment of the Land Revenue department.

Survey and assessment of lands.

Public census.

Punishment of those who practice Monopoly by exile to different lands.

Establishment of and use of Jails.

Building of Canals and Bridges.

Establishment of Public Rest Areas, hostels and Wudu (Ablution) Stations.

Fixing the date to the Start of the Migration of the Messenger.

Dividing the state and the conquered territories into provinces.

Founding of new cities (al-Amsar) such as Kufah , Basarah and Fustat.

Zakat on Produce of the sea, such as fish, Lobster, shrimp etc., and appointment of a responsible official.

Use of secret reports and specially designated emissaries to provide first reports as what is really going on in different provinces.

Salary for Imams, Muadhans (Callers to prayer) teachers and public lectures.

Stipends for the poor among the Jews and Christians who lived in conquered lands.

Punishment for drunkenness, written satires and lampoon.

Establishment of Guilds for certain trades.

Prohibition of the mention of women’s names in poetry.

Holding tarawih (Ramadan night prayers) in congregation, before his time it was done individually.

Providing lighting in the Masjids at night.

Persuading Abu Bakr (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) to collect the Qur’an in one book.

Establishment of Military bases at strategic points in the different provinces.

Establishment of the Police department.

Personally making nightly rounds to check on the condition of the people first hand.

Formulation of the Principal of Qiyas (Analogical Reasoning.) for determining rulings on newly encountered matters in Fiqh (Jurisprudence.)

Establishment of a more exact system of calculation of the inheritance.

Limiting the relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims.

Establishing a stable for the lost camels.

State intervention to control the price of merchandise.

First to enlarge the al-Haram (the Sacred Masjid) at Mecca. First to place a cover on the Kaaba.

Discovered the place of Isra, Ascension of the Messenger to heavens at Jerusalem.

 

UMAR(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) AS A LEADER :

 

 

 

 

As was mentioned Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) had the respect and sometimes fear of many of his contemporaries. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) personally involved himself in many of the states affairs. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) was the hands on type and if he saw anything that did not please him he made no secret of it. He would constantly write letters of advice and guidance to his generals.

 

 

 

Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) had the welfare of the Muslims in his mind at all times. Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s food was simple which consisted of bread and olive oil. Rarely would he eat anything else, at times it is recorded that he eat meat, vegetables milk and vinegar. His dress was also simple such as a shirt only which was known to have a number of patches in it. He also wore a cap and sandals.

 

 

UMAR(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’S CONQUESTS

 

 

 

…the immense power which the Caliphate had achieved during the reign of ‘Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) . His armies tore from the Roman empire some of its fairest provinces in the East, annexed the fertile land of Egypt, and pushed their way westward along the coast of North Africa; they overran Palestine and Syria, and after crushing the armies of the Persian King, established Arab rule over practically the whole of the old Persian empire, until they reached the banks of the Oxus in the extreme north east.

 

 

 

The conquests during Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s time are not to be taken lightly the state was expanding at an exceedingly fast rate during Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) ’s ten year rule like at no other time in the history of the Muslim Civilization.As to the reasons for the high success rate of the conquests at this time period Prof. Donner states:

 

 

 

The Muslims succeeded, then primarily because they were able to organize an effective conquest movement, and in this context the impact of the new religion of Islam, which provided the ideological underpinnings for this remarkable breakthrough in social organization, can be more fully appreciated. In this sense, the conquests were truly an Islamic movement.

 

 

For it was Islam- the set of ramifications- that ultimately sparked the whole integration process and hence was the ultimate cause of the conquests’ success.

Further Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) had an excellent organizational skills and a very good knowledge of people. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) would not only choose who are his Army generals but also would give them very detailed orders. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) divided up the Empire into states and placed governors in each state that he would personally assign. He would keep in constant communication with all his generals and Governors.

 

 

 

Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) would also make good use of agents to keep watch over the performance of the governors. He would also periodically ask the residents of different cities of the performance of the governors. In al-Kufa he would recall Saad bin Abi Waqas (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) due to complaints about him. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) would than look into the matter and explain to the people.

The City of Hims (Emas) was also a city that complained about its governor. Umar (ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) also took appropriate action to remedy the situation.

 

In his lifetime the following conquests were completed :

 

Fall of Damasucus

Fall of Fahl

Fall of Hims

Fall of Balbak and Basrah

Fall Ublah and the bridge of Abi Ubydiah in Najran

Fall of Yarmouk

Fall of all of the Jordan except of Tabarias

The Battle of Yarmouk

The Battle of Qadisyah

Battle of Jaljulah and Qansreen

Fall of Ahoz

Fall of Madain

Fall of Jerusalem

Fall of Jazirah

Fall of Hims again in

Fall of Hurmuz in

The City of Kufah is built

The great Plague of Amwas, Abu Ubydaih bin al-Jarah

Fall of Qaisariah

Battle of Sohab

Fall of Takrit

An Army is sent Aremina

Fall of Egypt

Fall of North Africa

Fall of Alexandria in

Fall of Nahwind

Fall of Khorasan

Fall of Antioch and Qalqalyia Pecefuly.

Fall of Adharbaijan

Fall of Masbithan

Fall of Hamathan

Fall of Tabaristan

Fall of Armenia

Fall of Jarjan

Fall of Koos and Raiy

Fall of Tripoli (North Africa)

Fall of Fars

Fall of Kirman

Fall of Sajastan

Fall of Makran

Fall of Khurasan (including Khawarazm, Farghanah, Takharistan)

Martyrdom:

 

 

In the year 23/644 Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) was assassinated by Abu Lua’Lua the Magian, who had a personal grudge against Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå). The assassin stabbed Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) in the back and in his side below the belt with a poisoned dagger during the morning prayers. He also had stabbed thirteen others seven of which died. Abd ar-Rahman bin Awaf(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) finished the prayers quickly as soon as Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) fell. They rushed to the fallen Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) and knew that he was dying and that there was no hope of recovery. Abdallah bin Abbas(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) came to comfort him.

 

 

 

Umar(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) appointed the office of Khalifah to one of six ( Uthman, Ali, Talha bin Ubiduallah, Zubair bin al-Awam, Abd ar-Rahman bin Awaf, and Saad bin Abi Waqas) to be chosen in three days. He(ÑÖøì Çááå Úäå) commanded that Suhaib (the Roman) to lead the prayers. He made sure that his son would not get the office but made him one of the consultants. His Khalifah was for a total of 10 years, six months and four days.

 

 

 

Conclusion:

 

 

 

I n simple we can say for this soldier of Islam.The world wanted him but He never wanted the world.

 

What a great person he was,may Allah be pleased with him.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Assalamu Alaykum wa Rahmatullahee wa Barakatu

 

I want to take on example from each Sahabi who received the glad tidings of Jannah while in Dunya:

 

1. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq: I wish to be an initiator of good deeds like Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

2. Umar ibn Al Khattab: I wish to have the generosity of Umar ibn al Khattab and I wish to follow his motto: "Others first"

3. Uthmaan ibn Affaan: I wish to adopt the shyness and haya of Uthmaan ibn Affaan

4. Zubeer ibn Awwaam: I wish to have the confidence of Zubeer ibn Awwaam

5. Sahaba with no name: I wish to clear my heart from any hatred toward any Muslim before going to sleep.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Assalm Alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barkatuhu

 

MAshAllah Bro Muhsin

 

May Allah SWT grant us all these qualities and all those qualities that pleases HIm and may He take away from us all those qualities that Dospleases Him - Allahumma aameen

 

was salam

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now

Sign in to follow this  

×