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Wahdat Al-wujood. What Is It ?

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#1 Buraaq


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Posted 01 July 2006 - 10:58 PM

1). What is Wahdat al-Wujood

Wahdat al-Wajood or Wahdat ul-Wujood is a concept based upon the idea that nothing exists other than Allah, and creation is merely the manifestation of Allah. This implies that the creation is Allah, and Allah does not exist outside the creation.

Hadhrat Imadadullah Mahajir Makki, the spiritual guide of the most prominent Deobandis, explains Wahdat al-Wajood in a booklet by the same name, with an example of a seed and a tree.

He states that the seed is Allah and the creation is the tree with its stem, roots, branches and leaves. Initially, only the seed was present, and the entire huge tree was hidden in the small seed. When the plant grew into a massive tree, the seed disappeared. The seed is now manifest in this huge tree and does not have an existence outside of it.

The Sufis consider the realization of Wahdat al-Wajood to be a matter of great wisdom. According to them, Tawheed (lit. making one) is a complete denial of existence for everything other than Allah, as explained by the Deobandis in ‘Irshaadul Mulook’ and ‘Ikhmaalush Shiyaam’,

“The root of Tawheed is the negation of the non-existent and transitory things and the confirmation of the everlasting thing.”[1]
“A concept which posits true existence for any being other than Allah is Shirk in Divine Attribute of Existence (Wajood).”[2]

The Sufis consider this type of Tawheed to be suitable only for the ‘Spiritually Elite’, and claim that only those who have reached the ‘stage’ due to excessive penance and Dhikr are able to comprehend Wahdat al-Wajood.

2). The Stages of Wahdat al-Wujood

The Sufis in their circles exaggerated greatly upon the concept of fearing Allah, and subjected themselves to constant and excessive mental anxiety. They express their fear in ways that are far from the Sunnah like in the story mentioned in Fazaail-e-Aamaal of a man who never lifted his face towards the sky and when asked the reason, he said, “I am ashamed! How can I lift up this sinful face to such a Great Benefactor.”[3]

The effect of this anxiety was that they would enter a state of ecstasy or fall down unconscious or dead when hearing the Qur’aan, or music or even the singing of birds.

1. ‘One saint relates:

‘I saw Hazrat Shaikh Samnoon once swinging side from side in ecstasy while performing Tawaaf. I took his hand and asked him: “By the truth that you shall stand before Allah one day, I ask you, how did you reach Allah?” As soon as he heard the words, ‘stand before Allah’, he fell down unconscious…”[4]

2. Another incident mentioned in Irshaadul-Mulook states,

“Hazrat Hafiz (Dhaamin) Sahib was fond of doves. One day when he approached the cage to feed the birds, one of the doves sang such a rapturous rhapsody that Hazrat Hafiz Sahib fell unconscious into an ecstatic swoon”[5]

The effects of Qur’aan on those who listen with understanding have been mentioned in the Qur’aan. Listening to the Qur’aan causes the hearts to fear Allah, the faith to increase, the heart to soften and the eyes to shed tears.[6] But falling unconscious or dead, as a result of imposed anxiety is not the true fear that stems from the understanding of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and such was never reported from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) or his Companions.[7]

Another good example of misunderstanding the proper way to love and fear Allah, and subjecting oneself to extreme anxiety can be seen in the following incident mentioned in Fazaail-e-Aamaal.

It is said that Malik Ibn Deenar met a young man on his way to Hajj, walking on foot, with no provision or water. Malik Ibn Deenar offered him his shirt, but he refused saying: “…It is better to remain naked, than to acquire worldly shirts.” Later, when the Hajis (the pilgrims) put on the Ihram, read the Talbiyah, this young man kept silent and said, ‘I fear that on reciting ‘Labbaik’, a reply may be heard, “La Labbaik, La Sadaik” (Your cry is not heard and we do not return to you in Pleasure.) The young man justified his acts that were apparently opposed to the Sharee’ah by saying, “And blame me not for this love for Him, for if thou knowest the thing I see then surely will you never speak.” Later, when the pilgrims sacrificed the sheep, this young man asked Allah to accept his life as a sacrifice and then died shortly afterwards. This story also claims that a voice from the Unseen said: “This is Allah’s friend, and Allah’s martyr.” Later that night, Malik Ibn Deenar asked the young man in his dream, ‘What did Allah do to you?’ He said: ‘I have gained a reward like that of the martyrs of the battle of Badr – Nay, even more… They died at the swing of the swords of the infidels, while I died by the sword of Allah’s love.”[8]

3). Degrading oneself to the status of Dogs and Pigs

After having exaggerated and innovated in the concept of Allah’s love and fear, the Sufis began to compare their existence and stature to that of Allah, and found themselves to be completely insignificant in front of Him. Exaggerating further in the concept of humility and modesty, they felt that they should degrade themselves in order to be truly free from Riya (showing off). Following are some examples of this…

1. Moulana Zakariyah says

that among the Akhlaq of the Sufiya is ‘to regard oneself as the most inferior…’ This has also been quoted as a saying of Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi by Moulana Zakariyah in Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.255.

2. Moulana Zakariyah says:

“Hazrat Shah Ishaq Muhajiree Makki advised to Imdadullah Muhajir Makki: “Regard yourself to be most inferior in the entire creation.”[9]

3.Story is mentioned,

“A man, who used to fast throughout the year and offer Salaat throughout the night for thirty years. He was one of the regular attendants of the circle of Abu Yazeed al-Bastami (one of three mystic ‘masters’). Nevertheless, he was unable to find the kind of knowledge, which Abu Yazeed possessed! So, Abu Yazeed taught him that even if he fasts for three hundred years and offers Salaat throughout the nights of such period he would not be able to find even an ant-weight of such knowledge! When asked about the ‘cure,’ Abu Yazeed told him that he should shave his head and beard, hang a nosebag filled with nuts around his neck, gather some kids in the market around him and tell them, ‘Everyone who slaps me once, I will give him a nut!’[10]

4. Shah Abu Saeed Naumani traveled to Balkh to his Shaikh in order to learn Sufism.

His Shaikh started his training by assigning him to look after the toilets. He was given little food but was not allowed to meet his Shaikh not was any Dhikr prescribed for him. After a considerable period passed, the Shaikh ordered a cleaner to dump a basket of dirt onto Abu Saeed. The cleaner did as he was told. This angered Abu Saeed and he threatened the cleaner, which meant that he was not ready to enter Sufism. After a period of time, the Shaikh again instructed the cleaner to do as before, but this time Abu Saeed got angry but did not say anything. Now too, Abu Saeed was not ready. After a period of time, the Shaikh instructed the cleaner to throw dirt on Abu Saeed again. On this occasion his Nafs was completely docile and submissiveness. He gathered the dirt, which had fallen to ground and strew it onto himself. When the Hazrat Shaikh was informed, he commented: “Alhamdulillah! The first stage has been traversed.”[11]

Taking a step further, the Sufis began to address themselves as dogs, given that dog is generally looked down upon. The Qur’aan says, “So his description is the description of a dog: if you drive him away, he lolls his tongue out, or if you leave him alone, he (still) lolls his tongue out. Such is the description of the people who reject Our Ayah (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.).”[12]

1. Moulana Muhammad Qasim, the founder of Darul-Uloom Deoband says in a poem, which has been recorded in Fazaail-e-Aamaal,

“Because of the huge amount of sins even the dogs treat my name as an abuse, but I am proud of your name and your relationship (Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam))... and I desire that my name may be included as a dog of (the streets of) Medina… May I live with the dogs of your Haram and when I die may my corpse be eaten by the vultures of Medina.” [13]

2. Moulana Zakariyah advises a person in a letter that when he goes to the Prophet’s grave he should also say:

‘One black Indian dog (Moulana Zakariyah Kandhalvi) also sends his salaams.’[14]

3. Moulana Ilyas signs his letters addressing himself as


4). Denying the Existence of all the creation

The Sufis eventually denied their own existence and the existence of all the creation. They claimed that only Allah exists and nothing else. Having reached the pinnacle of misguidance, the Sufis took an extremely dangerous and opposite turn, whereby they explained that the existence of the creation does not negate Tawheed al-Wujoodi, because Allah is manifest in his creation. The creation is part of Allah Himself, and Allah does not exist outside his creation, as explained by Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki with the example of the seed and tree.

Now the people, who did not consider themselves worthy of being called humans and referred to themselves as dogs, now consider themselves to be Allah and Allah to be in the detestable creatures like dogs and pigs![16] And Sufis like Mansoor al-Hallaj proclaimed ‘Anal-Haqq’ (I am the Truth, i.e. Allah) and Abu Yazeed al-Bastami said: ‘Subhani ma-Aadham-shaaani’ (far removed am I from all imperfections, how great is my state) (And these descriptions are only for Allah).

From the above, we see the various stages of Wahdat al-Wajood in light of examples and quotes from the books of the Deobandis. What started with self-imposed anxiety led to degrading one’s existence to the level of dogs and pigs. Further exaggeration led to the complete denial of the existence of the creation, until finally it was claimed that all that exists is nothing but the Creator.

This evil concept is a result of the Sufi’s gross misunderstanding and distance from the clear teachings of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and arrogance in following one’s own whims and desires.

The most overt and clear refutation of Wahdat al-Wajood is the unmistakable distinction between the Creator and the created in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. “Allah created all things and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian) of all things.”[17] We are the creation and Allah is our Creator. He is the One in Whose Hands our affairs lie, and He is the One, Who truly deserves to be worshiped. His Attributes cannot be compared to ours and His Self is beyond our comprehension and imagination.

5). Wahdat ash-Shuhood

Backing down from the extreme concept of Wahdat al-Wajood was the later innovated concept of Wahdat as-Shuhood. The Majlis ul-Ulema, the Deobandi lobby of South Africa, describes the believer in Wahdat ash-Shuhood as, a high ranking Wali whose soul dwells in a lofty state of Divine Presence and Perception.[18]

From Irshaadul-Mulook,

“To the Sufiya, the true Tawheed means the abandonment of every Tawheed during the state of Tawheed because any focus of the attention of any being other than Allah is within the scope of Tashbeeh (comparison).”[19]

This concept implies that the creation exists, but due to the Sufi’s complete concentration upon Allah, the creation becomes oblivious to him. This concept just serves one purpose and that is to make excuses for the previous Sufis and their open statements of Kufr. Otherwise, this concept is too as baseless as Wahdat al-Wajood. The best and the most perfect worshiper of Allah – Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) - did not experience Wahdat al-Wajood or Wahdat ash-Shuhood.

What the Sufis experience in the form of hallucinations or imaginations is due to the excessive physical abuse of their bodies and Shaytaan’s taking advantage of their venerable state of mind weakened due to starvation, anxiety and wandering in the wilderness.

6). The Concept of Allah being everywhere

A closely related concept that has been spread among the masses is that Allah is everywhere. The people are expected to believe in this concept without questioning or pondering upon its implications. The saying, “Allah is everywhere by His Self (Dhaat)” opposes the guidance given in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. It is mentioned at seven places in the Qur’aan[20] that Allah (who calls Himself al-Alaa (the Most High), is above His Arsh (Throne). He is not within or among His creation in His Essence. However, He is all-Seer (as-Sameeh) and all-Hearer (al-Baseer), and Knows everything that the hearts conceal.

The concept of ‘Allah being everywhere’ was neither the belief of the pious predecessors (as-Salaf as-Salih) nor the pious Imams (scholars) of Islam who came after them. For instance is the belief of Imam Abu Haneefah recorded by Ibn Abil-Ezz al-Hanafee in the explanation of “Al-Aqeedah at-Tahawiyah (p. 288)”

Mutee’ al-Balakhee reported that he asked Abu Haneefah’s opinion about a person who says that he does not know whether his Lord is in the Heavens or on earth? Imam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullah) replied: “He has disbelieved, for Allah says: ‘The Most Merciful is above the Throne’[21] and His Throne is above His Seven Heavens.” Al-Balakhee then asked: “What if he said that Allah is above the Throne, but he does not know whether the Throne is in the Heavens or on earth? Imam Abu Haneefah replied: “He has disbelieved because he has denied that Allah is above the Heavens and whoever denies that He is above the Heavens, has disbelieved.”

This is an example of how a large number of Hanafee scholars adopted an important matter of Aqeedah from deviant Sufi beliefs. Imam Abu Haneefah used the word “Kufr” or ‘disbelief’ for him, who denies that Allah is above His Arsh or above the Heavens, which show the great importance, which he gave to the matters of Aqeedah. This is an example of how those who affiliate themselves with the Hanafee Madhhab, only follow the Hanafee Fiqh, but not the Aqeedah (beliefs) of Imam Abu Haneefah.

Likewise, various beliefs of Imam Abu Haneefah mentioned by Ibn Abil-Ezz al-Hanafee (in the explanation of “Al-Aqeedah at-Tahawiyah”) are contradictory with the ideas of the present day Deobandi scholars.

7). Deobandi Scholars unanimously support the theory of Wahdat al-Wajood

Following are some quotes from the books of Deobandis…

1. Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi says about his Pir (spiritual guide),

“Haji Sahib (Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) was greatly over-powered by Tawheed… As for Wahdat al-Wajood, it seemed as if he was an eyewitness to it. Once, he was listening to Soorah Ta-Ha, a condition overcame him when he heard the verse: “Allah! There is no God but He, to Him belong the Best Names (al-Asma al-Husna).” He said in the explanation (Tafseer) of this verse: “A question may be raised from the first part of this verse that since there is none other than Allah, (then) what are these Hawatith?[22] The answer is thus, (as in the next part of the verse), ‘Lahul Asma al-Husna’ meaning that all are the Madhahar[23] (manifestations) of Him (Allah). Someone has said (in a poem): “In the garden, I saw every flower. Neither does it have Your color nor Your fragrance.” Haji Sahib (Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) said: “This poet is a Dhahiri (only aware of the outward matters). If he were an Aarif[24], he would have said: “In the garden I saw every flower. They all have Your color, they all have Your fragrance.” However, expressing such sayings or relating them is not for everyone.”[25]

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Imdadullah Muhajir Makki has also written a book on Wahdat al-Wajood.

2. Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi said,

“He (Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) used to say that the human being is outwardly a slave and inwardly (Batini) the Haqq (Allah).” Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi further elaborates, “The batin is the reality which is manifest in the human, and the batin should not be considered a part of the human…”[26]

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3. Once, Moulvi Muhammad Ahsan, a resident of Mecca, expressed his skepticism on the issue of Wahdat al-Wajood to Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi. He (Moulvi Ahsan) remarked that this issue seems to oppose Eemaan. Ashraf Ali Thanvi replied:

“Someday listen to my lecture on this issue, then you will yourself say that Eemaan cannot be complete without the belief in this (i.e. Wahdat al-Wajood).” Then, Ashraf Ali Thanvi gave a speech of two hours on a Friday morning. After the lecture, Moulvi Ahsan could not help saying: “Belief in this (Wahdat al-Wajood) is so crucial that without it Eemaan cannot be understood.” The biographer of Ashraf Ali Thanvi comments, “Ashraf Ali Thanvi declared the belief of Wahdat al-Wajood as the completion of Eemaan. But Muhammad Ahsan went much further by saying that Eemaan rests on the belief in Wahdat al-Wajood.”[27]

4. Ashraf Ali Thanvi says:

“You are amazed at people who claim Prophet-hood… People have claimed Lordship. However, nobody must think that Hussain bin Mansoor (al-Hallaj) in his saying, ‘Aanal-Haqq’ [I am the Haqq (Truth meaning Allah)] claimed Lordship (i.e. claimed to be God). Because upon him was a condition, otherwise he also believed in Abdiyaah (the state of being a worshiper) and therefore he offered Salaah. Someone asked him (al-Hallaj): “Since you are Allah, to whom do you prostrate?” He (al-Hallaj) answered: “I have two states, one outward and the other inward. My outward self prostrates to my inward self.”[28]

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5. Moulana Zakariyah says:

“Hazrat Shaikhul Islam, Moulana Madani said that the same kaifiyat (spiritual state) which constrained Mansoor al-Hallaj to proclaim: “Anal Haqq (I am the Truth i.e. Allah) prevailed for six months on Hazrat Mainji (Nur Muhammad) [who was the Pir (Shaikh) of Imdadullah Muhajir Makki].”[29]

6. In Shamaaim-e-Imdadiyah, a story of a Fakir (hermit) who believed in Wahdat al-Wajood is mentioned. After approving the Aqeedah of the Faqir, the author says:

“It is Shirk to differentiate between the worshiper (Aabid) and the Worshiped (Ma'bud)… To summarize, based upon the explanations of our predecessors, we understand that this position is Haqq (true) and there is no doubt about it. However, its reality is experienced only when a disciple becomes distant from his own self by striving hard and ignoring every danger. Because when a person becomes unaware of his self, he is unaware of everything. Nothing remains in his thoughts or his sight except Allah. Therefore, all concentration of the disciple is upon Allah. When nothing distracts his attention and he meditates his mind on Allah; then when he opens his eyes, he sees nothing but Allah. (At this stage) the Dhikr of Hu Hu (He He) turns to Ana Ana (Me Me). This stage is called Fanah der Fanah … (Similarly) from the special Ummah, Ba Yazid Bastami[19] said: ‘Subhaani maa Aadhaam-Shaani (Glory be to me, Far removed am I from all imperfections, how great is my state) and Mansoor Hallaj said: ‘Anal-Haqq’ (I am the Truth).[30]

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7. From Shamaaim-e-Imdadiyah,

“In the stage of Uboodiyyah (The state of being Abd or worshiper), there are three meanings of the Kalimah – “Laa ilaha illa Allah” Laa Ma’bood (Nobody is worthy of worship) Laa Matloob (Nobody is desired) and Laa Mowjood (None exists), the last being the loftiest stage.”[31]

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8. In the book Irshaadul-Mulook, a letter written by Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi to his Pir, Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, has been mentioned in which Rasheed Ahmad Gungohi writes at the end,

“In reality I am nothing. It is only Your Shadow – only Your existence (i.e. Allah’s existence). What am I? I am nothing. Only He is. You and me are Shirk upon Shirk.”[32]

Comment: In this letter, Rasheed Ahmad Gungohi informs his Pir, Imdadullah Muhajir Makki of his well being, and then says that in reality neither he, nor his Pir exists. And to differentiate between the Creator and the created is Shirk. Creation is only the Shadow of Allah. So, then who is writing the letter to whom? Sufism is full of self-contradictions!!

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) mentions a story in relation to the theory of Wahdat al-Wajood in his book, ‘Al-Furqaan bayna Awliya ar-Rahmaa wa-Awliya ash-Shaytaan’ on page. 101, “The book, ‘Essence of Wisdom’ of Ibn Arabee was read to at-Talmasani and said: “This book of yours goes against the Qur’aan.” To which he replied: ‘The whole Qur’aan is associationism (Shirk), Tawheed is only found in our writings.” Then it was said to him: “If all existence is only one, why is a wife Halaal to a man while his sister is Haraam?” He said: “Both of them to us are Halaal, but he who is veiled says, Haraam! And so we say Haraam for you.’ The Shaikh further mentions, ‘This person, aside from his blatant belief (Kufr), has also contradicted himself! If all existence is one, who is the veiled one and who is the one who veils? Thus, one of their Shaikhs said to one of his followers: ‘Whoever tells you that there is anything other than Allah in the Universe has lied.’ The student then asked him: ‘Who then is the one who lied?’ They said to another student: ‘These are nothing but appearances.’ He said to them: ‘Are these appearances other than that, you have introduced relativity (no unity of existence!) and if they are the same, then it is as I said.’

8). Wahdat al-Wajood and Moksha

If one analyzes the Hindu concept of the relationship between God and mankind, he would be startled at the similarity between the Pagan concept of Moksha and the Aqeedah of Wahdat al-Wajood of the Deobandis and Sufis. Following are some excerpts from the book, “The Religion of the Hindus.”[33]

“The Hindu scriptures teach that the ultimate end of human life is liberation (Moksha) from that finite human consciousness, which makes humans see everything as separate from one another and not as part of a whole. When a higher consciousness dawns upon us, we see the individual parts of the Universe as deriving their true significance from the central unity of spirit. This is the beginning of the experience, which the Hindu scriptures call, ‘the second birth’, or ‘the opening of the third eye’ or ‘the eye of wisdom’. The end of this experience is more or less permanent establishment of the inspiring consciousness, which is the ultimate goal of man.

Our political and social institutions, our arts and sciences, our creeds, and rituals are not ends in themselves, but only means to this goal of ‘liberation’. When this goal is reached, man is lifted above his mortal plane and becomes one with that ocean of pure Being, Consciousness and Bliss called ‘Brahman’ in Hindu scriptures.

The ultimate aim of man is liberation. Liberation is not only from the bondage of the flesh but also from the limitations of a finite being. In other words, ‘Moksha’ means becoming a perfect spirit like the Supreme Spirit.”


[1] Irshaadul-Mulook (Eng. Trans.) p.152.
[2] Ikhmaalush-Shiyaam (Eng. Trans.) p.219.
[3] Fazaail-e-Aamaal (Hindi Trans.) Virtues of Hajj, p.256. story no.3 (First Edition 1984 - Published by Idara Ishaat-e-Diniyaat).
Fazaail-e-Aamaal (Eng. Trans.), Virtues of Hajj, Conclusion, p.233, story no. 3, (New Edition 1982, Published by Dini Book Depot - Delhi).
[4] Virtues of Charity and Hajj story no: 40, p.270 (New Edition 1982, Published by Dini Book Depot).
[5] Irshaadul-Mulook (Eng. Trans.), p.22.
[6] See Soorah al-Anfaal (8): 2, Soorah az-Zumar (39): 23, and Soorah Maryam (19): 58.
[7] For more information refer to, “The Dispraise of al-Hawaa” by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh, p.74-75.
[8] See Fazaail-e-Aamaal (Eng. Trans.) Virtues of Charity and Hajj story no: 4, p.234 (New Edition 1982, Published by Dini Book Depot - Delhi).
[9] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.220.
[10] Qut al-Quloob vol.2, p.70.
[11] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.192.
[12] Soorah a-A’raf (7): 176.
[13] Fazaail-e-Aamaal (Eng. Trans.) The Virtues of Darood, p.164, no. 46. (Edn. 1985 – Published by Dini Book Depot, Delhi).
[14] Savaneh Muhammad Yousuf, p.132. (India – Maktabaa Taalifaat Ashrafeeyah) 1304 H.
[15] Makatib Hazrat Moulana Shah Mohammad Ilyas) compiled by Moulana Sayed Abul-Hassan Ali Nadvi – Idara Ishaat al-Diniyat, Nizamuddin, New Delhi) p.54.
[16] See Al-Kashf anil-Haqeeqat as-Soofiyyah p.162.
[17] Soorah az-Zumar (39): 62.
[18] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.192.
[19] Irshaadul-Mulook (Eng. Trans.) pp. 155.
[20] This has been mentioned at seven places in the Qur’aan. Soorah al-Ar’af (7): 54, Soorah Yunus (10): 3, Soorah ar-Rad (13): 2, Soorah Ta-Ha (20): 5, Soorah al-Furqan (25): 59, Soorah as-Sajdah (32): 4 and Soorah al-Hadid (57): 4.
[21] Soorah Taahaa (20): 5.
[22] Hawatith : Things that do not exist originally, but come into existence later.
[23] Madhahar : The point of manifestation. Here it means (according to the explanation of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) that the creatures are nothing but the visible manifestations of Allaah. Just like Allaah’s Asmaa al-Husnaa (Beautiful Names) are not other than Him, similarly these Hawadith are not other than Him.
[24] Aarif: a Soofi who has reached the stage of Ma’rifah, i.e. has gained knowledge through mystical means.
[25] Malfoodhat Hakeem al-Ummat (a biography of Ashraf Ali Thanvi by Muhammed Iqbal Quraishi) vol.1, p.244
[26] Imdadul-Mushtaq ila Ashraful-akhlaq (Urdu) saying no.74, p.62.
[27] Maqtoobat wa-Malfoozaat Ashrafeeyah (Writings and Sayings of Ashraf Ali Thanvi), a biography by one of Thanvi’s Khaleefahs, Moulana Muhammed Shareef p.185-186.
[28] Malfoozat Hakim al-Ummat (a biography of Ashraf Ali Thanvi by Muhammad Iqbal Qurayshi), vol.1, p.251. The same belief is found in the poem of Ibn al-Faridh, which he entitled, Nudhum As-Suluuk.
[29] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.213.
[30] Abu Yazld bin Tayfur bin ‘Isa al-Bistami, one of the founders of Soofism hailed from Bistam, a town in the Iranian province of Khamis.
[31] Shamaaim-e-Imdaadiyah, p.35 and 36. Sai Baba used to make similar statements such as, “I am Parwardigar (Persian for God)” [The Life and Teachings of Sai Baba, p.4.]
[32] Soorah al-Hajj (22): 6.
[33] Shamaaim-e-Imdaadiyah, p.43.
[34] Irshaadul-Mulook, (Eng. Trans.) p.11.

#2 Buraaq


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Posted 01 July 2006 - 11:00 PM

Refutation of Wahdat al-Wajood in light of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah

The clear belief of Allah’s being upon his Throne is itself a refutation of Wahdat al-Wajood and those who say, ‘Allah is everywhere.’

(A) Numerous Qur’aanic verses state that Allah, the Exalted is above His Arsh (Throne) in a manner that befits His Majesty and Glory. Allah says:

“Your Rabb (Lord) is Allah, Who created the Heavens and the earth in six days and then rose above His Arsh (Throne), He manages all things.”[1]

Additional six similar verses are found in the Qur’aan. Numerous verses in every Soorah also indicate the same, from amongst them are,

“He is irresistible, above His slaves, and He is the All-Wise, Well-Acquainted with all things.”[2]
“To Him ascend (all) the good words, and the righteous deeds exalt them.”[3]

(B) Numerous Ahaadeeth of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) clearly prove that Allah, the Exalted, is above his Throne and not among His creation in essence.

1. Muawiyah Ibn al-Hakam (radhi allahu anhu) said:

“I had a servant girl, who used to tend my sheep in the area of mount Uhud.... One day, I came to see them only to find out that a wolf had made off with a sheep from her flock... (for which) ...I gave her a terrible slap in her face. When I came to Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) with the story, he considered it to be a grave thing for me to have done so. I said: “O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), couldn’t I free her?” He replied: “Bring her to me.” So I brought her. He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) then asked her: “Where is Allah?” She replied: “Above the Sky.” He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) then asked her: “Who am I?” and she replied: “You are Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam).” So, the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Free her for she is a true believer.”[4]

2. Abu Saeed al-Khudree (radhi allahu anhu) reports that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:

“Do you not trust me, and I am the trustworthy servant of Him, Who is above the sky. The news of the Heaven comes to me in the morning and in the evening.”[5]

3. Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) reported:

“The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “When Allah completed the creation, He Wrote in a Book (which He kept) with Him above His Throne: “Verily, My Mercy precedes My Anger.”[6]

4. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:

“Every night when it is the last third of the night, our Lord, the Superior, the Blessed, descends to the nearest Heaven and says: ‘Is there anyone to invoke Me so that I may respond to his invocation? Is there anyone to ask Me, so that I may grant him his request? Is there anyone asking My forgiveness, so that I may forgive him?’”[7]

5. It is mentioned in Saheeh al-Bukharee, the wife of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), Zaynab bint Jaysh (radhi allahu anha) used to boast to the other wives of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) that their families gave them away in marriage to the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), while Allah from above the Seven Heavens gave her away in marriage.”[8]

© The Fitrah (Natural Inclination)
The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:

“Every child is born in the state of Fitrah (i.e. a Muslim). Then his parents make him a Jew, Christian or a Zoroastrian.”[9]

It is against the conviction of natural pure Fitrah to believe that all creation is Allah, which also includes filth and dirty places. No sane Muslim would ever accept such corrupt and immoral belief about His Lord, except him who has lost his senses or his Fitrah has been corrupted, as the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) stated: “…Then his parents make him a Jew, Christian or a Zoroastrian.”

Even a simple-minded Hindu in India remember the Lord as, “Uper-wala” or ‘the One Who is above’. The disbelieving Pharaoh too was naturally inclined to this belief, “…The Pharaoh said, ‘O Haamaan, build a lofty place for me so that I may attain the ways of (reaching the) Heavens for me to behold the God of Moosa…”[10]

(D) Isra wal-Meraj
Another manifest proof that Allah is above the Seven Heavens is the miraculous event of Isra wal-Meraj, during which Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) was taken above the Seven Heavens to meet Allah, the Exalted. If Allah is present everywhere and in everything, (Na’oodho billah); the virtues and wisdoms behind the journey of Meraj would prove to be insignificant and worthless!

[1] Soorah Yunus (10): 3-4.
[2] Soorah al-An’aam (6): 18.
[3] Soorah Faatir (35): 10.
[4] Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.) vol. 1, p.271-272, no.1094.
[5] Saheeh al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans.) vol. 8, no: 67, and Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.) vol. 2, no: 742.
[6] Saheeh al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans.) vol.9, p.382-383, no.518) and Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.) vol.4, p.1437, no.6628)
[7] Saheeh al-Bukharee vol: 9, no: 586 and Muwatta no: 15/30. Transmitted in Sharh as-Sunnah at-Tirmidhee no: 2601.
[8] Saheeh al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans.) vol. 9, p.382, no: 517.
[9] Saheeh al-Bukharee, vol. 8, no: 597, and Saheeh Muslim, vol. 4, no: 6423.
[10] Soorah Ghaafir (40): 36-37.

#3 Buraaq


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Posted 01 July 2006 - 11:01 PM

Additional Proofs from the Sayings of our Pious Predecessors (as-Salaf as-Salih)

Abu Bakr (radhi allahu anhu): Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhi allahu anhu) reported:

“When the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) was taken (passed away). Abu Bakr (radhi allahu anhu) entered and kissed his (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) forehead and said: “May my father and mother be sacrificed on you! You were good in life and in death.” Then he remarked: “He who worshiped Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), then Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) is dead. (But) he, who worships Allah, then Allah is above the sky, He lives and does not die.”[1]

Imam Malik (d.179H): Abdullah Ibn Naafi reported that Malik Ibn Anas (rahimahullah) said:

“Allah is above the sky and His Knowledge is in every place, not being absent from anything.”[2]

Shaikh al-Islam Abdullah Ibn Mubarak (d. 181H): Alee Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Shaqeeq reports, I asked Abdullah Ibn al-Mubarak:

“How are we to know our Lord?” He replied: “He is above the seventh Heaven above His Throne. We do not say as the Jahmiyyah[3] say, He is here on the earth.” This was mentioned to Ahmad Ibn Hambal (rahimahullah), he stated: “That is how it is with us (i.e. how we believe).”[4]

Imam Muhammad Ibn Idrees ash-Shafi’ee (d. 204H): Abu Thawr and Abu Shuaib both reported that ash-Shafi’ee said:

“The saying which I found and hold regarding the Sunnah, those which I have seen Sufyan, Malik and others believing in are; ‘the testification, ‘None has the right to be worshiped but Allah and Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) is the Messenger of Allah’, Allah is above His Throne over the Heavens, He draws near to His creation as He wishes and descends to the lowest Heaven as He wishes....”[5]

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal (d. 241H): It was said to Abu Abdullah (Imam Ahmad):

“Allah is above the seventh Heaven, over His Throne, separate from His creation. His Power and Knowledge are in every place.” He said, “Yes, He is above the Throne and His Knowledge is in every place.”[6]

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah writes, ‘the early generations of Muslims and their Imams were in complete and unanimous agreement that the Lord is separate and distinct from His creation.’[7]

These are few sayings of the scholars, Adh-Dhahabee has collected more than two hundred sayings of the early scholars in this regard in his book al-’Uluw.[8]

Misconception Cleared

A number of Qur’aanic verses indicate the nearness of Allah to His creations, one among them is “He is with you, wherever you are...”[9]

The nearness of Allah to His slaves refers to His Absolute Knowledge, as is also explained by Imam Ibn Katheer (rahimahullah) in his Tafseer of the above mentioned verse. He says, “meaning, He is Watching over you and Witnessing your deeds wherever you may be, on land or on sea, during the night or the day, at home or in open areas or deserts. All of that is the same before His Knowledge and all of it is under His Sight and Hearing. He hears your speech and sees wherever you are…”

Thus, the nearness in the Qur’aanic verses is not by the Essence of Allah, but in Knowledge. Allah is As-Sameeh (the All-Hearer), Al-Baseer (the All-Seer) and al-Aleem (the All-Knower). He does not need to be among His creation to know their actions and conditions.

Imam Ibn Katheer (rahimahullah) writes in the Tafseer of the verse, “and Indeed, We have created man, and We know what his self whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.” Means, His Angels are nearer to man than his jugular vein. Those who explained ‘We’ in the verse to mean, ‘Our Knowledge,’ have done so to avoid falling into the idea of incarnation or indwelling; but these two creeds are false according to the consensus of Muslims. Allah is praised and glorified, He is far hallowed beyond what they ascribe to Him. The words of this verse do not need this explanation (that ‘We’ refers to ‘Allah’s Knowledge’), for Allah did not say, ‘and I am closer to him than his jugular vein.’ Rather, He said, “And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.’ Just as He said in the case of dying person, “But We are nearer to him than you, but you see not.”[10]


[1] Reported by ad-Daarimee in ar-Radd ‘alal Jahmiyyah, with a hasan isnaad.
[2] Reported by Abdullah Ibn Ahmad in As-Sunnah (p.5), Aboo Dawood in al-Masaa’il (p.263), Al-Aajuree in ash-Sharee’ah (p. 289) and al-Laalikaa’ee (1/92/2).
[3] Jahmiyyah are the followers of Jahm Ibn Safwan, who was the first one to publicly declare the denial of Allah’s Attributes. Before long he denied the Attributes of Allah, he was killed and crucified by Khalid Ibn Abdullah Al-Khusari, Prince of Iraq. This took place during the era of the Tabioon, (students of the Companion). All the scholars at his time called him a Kafir on account of plainly denying the Attributes of Allah.
[4] Reported by ad-Daarimee in ar-Radd ‘alal-Mareesee (p.24 and 103) and ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah (p. 50) and Abdullaah Ibn Ahmad in as-Sunnah (p.7, 25, 35 and 72).
[5] Mukhtasar al-’Uluww (l96).
[6] Reported by al-Khallaal in al-Mukhtasar.
[7] ‘Al-Furqaan bayna Awliya ar-Rahmaan wa-Awliya ash-Shaytaan’ by Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah on p.111.
[8] ‘The Ever-Merciful Istiwa Over the Throne’ by Shaikh Abdullah as-Sabt deals with this subject in details.
[9] Soorah al-Hadid (57): 4.
[10] Soorah al-Waqi’ah (56): 85.

#4 thezman


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Posted 02 July 2006 - 02:39 AM


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