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Dr. Jawad

001 Tafsir Sura Al-fatiha

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This Surah is called Al-Fatihah, that is, the Opener of the Book, the Surah with which prayers are begun. It is also called, Umm Al-Kitab (the Mother of the Book), according to the majority of the scholars. In an authentic Hadith recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih, Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááåö ÑóÈó ÇáúÚóÇáóãöíäó Ãõãøõ ÇáúÞõÑúÂäö æóÃõãøõ ÇáúßöÊóÇÈö æóÇáÓøóÈúÚõ ÇáúãóËóÇäöí æóÇáúÞõÑúÂäõ ÇáúÚóÙöíãõ»(Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-`Alamin is the Mother of the Qur'an, the Mother of the Book, and the seven repeated Ayat of the Glorious Qur'an.)

 

It is also called Al-Hamd and As-Salah, because the Prophet said that his Lord said,

 

 

«ÞóÓóãúÊõ ÇáÕøóáóÇÉó Èóíúäöí æóÈóíúäó ÚóÈúÃöí äöÕúÃóíúäö¡ ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÇáó ÇáúÚóÈúÃõ:ÇáúÃóãúÃõÃöááå ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÇáóãöíäó¡ ÞóÇáó Çááåõ: ÃóãöÃóäöí ÚóÈúÃöí»(`The prayer (i.e., Al-Fatihah) is divided into two halves between Me and My servants.' When the servant says, `All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of existence,' Allah says, 'My servant has praised Me.')

 

Al-Fatihah was called the Salah, because reciting it is a condition for the correctness of Salah - the prayer. Al-Fatihah was also called Ash-Shifa' (the Cure).

 

It is also called Ar-Ruqyah (remedy), since in the Sahih, there is the narration of Abu Sa`id telling the the story of the Companion who used Al-Fatihah as a remedy for the tribal chief who was poisoned. Later, the Messenger of Allah said to a Companion,

 

 

«æóãóÇ íõÃúÑöíßó ÃóäøóåóÇ ÑõÞúíóÉñ»(How did you know that it is a Ruqyah)

 

Al-Fatihah was revealed in Makkah as Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and Abu Al-`Aliyah stated. Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÃÇÊóíúäóÜßó ÓóÈúÚðÇ ãøöäó ÇáúãóËóÇäöí]

(And indeed, We have bestowed upon you the seven Mathani) (seven repeatedly recited verses), (i.e. Surat Al-Fatihah) (15:87). Allah knows best.

 

 

 

 

 

The Tafsir is written by Ibn Kathir.

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How many Ayat does Al-Fatihah contain

 

There is no disagreement over the view that Al-Fatihah contains seven Ayat. According to the majority of the reciters of Al-Kufah, a group of the Companions, the Tabi`in, and a number of scholars from the successive generations, the Bismillah is a separate Ayah in its beginning. We will mention this subject again soon, if Allah wills, and in Him we trust.

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The Number of Words and Letters in Al-Fatihah

 

The scholars say that Al-Fatihah consists of twenty-five words, and that it contains one hundred and thirteen letters.

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This great surah, according to my little knowledge, was revealed to our prophet (pbuh) as ist complete surah in the process of revelation of Holy Quran.

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The Reason it is called Umm Al-Kitab

 

In the beginning of the Book of Tafsir, in his Sahih, Al-Bukhari said; "It is called Umm Al-Kitab, because the Qur'an starts with it and because the prayer is started by reciting it.'' It was also said that it is called Umm Al-Kitab, because it contains the meanings of the entire Qur'an. Ibn Jarir said, "The Arabs call every comprehensive matter that contains several specific areas an Umm. For instance, they call the skin that surrounds the brain, Umm Ar-Ra's. They also call the flag that gathers the ranks of the army an Umm.'' He also said, "Makkah was called Umm Al-Qura, (the Mother of the Villages) because it is the grandest and the leader of all villages. It was also said that the earth was made starting from Makkah.''

 

Further, Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated about Umm Al-Qur'an that the Prophet said,

 

 

«åöíó Ãõãøõ ÇáúÞõÑúÂäö æóåöíó ÇáÓøóÈúÚõ ÇáúãóËóÇäöí æóåöíó ÇáúÞõÑúÂäõ ÇáúÚóÙöíãõ»(It is Umm Al-Qur'an, the seven repeated (verses) and the Glorious Qur'an.)

 

Also, Abu Ja`far, Muhammad bin Jarir At-Tabari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Messenger of Allah said about Al-Fatihah,

 

 

«åöíó Ãõãøõ ÇáúÞõÑúÂäö æóåöíó ÃóÇÊöÃóÉõ ÇáúßöÊóÇÈö æóåöíó ÇáÓøóÈúÚõ ÇáúãóËóÇäöí»(It is Umm Al-Qur'an, Al-Fatihah of the Book (the Opener of the Qur'an) and the seven repeated (verses).)

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Virtues of Al-Fatihah

 

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded in the Musnad that Abu Sa`id bin Al-Mu`alla said, "I was praying when the Prophet called me, so I did not answer him until I finished the prayer. I then went to him and he said, (What prevented you from coming) I said, 'O Messenger of Allah ! I was praying.' He said, (`Didn't Allah say),

 

 

[íÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú ÇÓúÊóÌöíÈõæÇú áöáøóåö æóáöáÑøóÓõæáö ÅöÃóÇ ÃóÚóÇßõãú áöãóÇ íõÃúíöíßõãú](O you who believe! Answer Allah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he () calls you to that which gives you life) He then said,

 

 

«áóÃõÚóáøöãóäøóßó ÃóÚúÙóãó ÓõæÑóÉò Ãöí ÇáúÞõÑúÂäö ÞóÈúáó Ãóäú ÊóÎúÑõÌó ãöäó ÇáúãóÓúÌöÃö»(I will teach you the greatest Surah in the Qur'an before you leave the Masjid.) He held my hand and when he was about to leave the Masjid, I said, `O Messenger of Allah! You said: I will teach you the greatest Surah in the Qur'an.' He said, (Yes.)

 

 

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ]

(Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-`Alamin)''

 

 

«äóÚóãú åöíó ÇáÓøóÈúÚõ ÇáúãóËóÇäöí æóÇáúÞõÑúÂäõ ÇáúÚóÙöíãõ ÇáøóÃöí ÃõæÊöíÊõåõ»(It is the seven repeated (verses) and the Glorious Qur'an that I was given.)''

 

Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah also recorded this Hadith.

 

Also, Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah went out while Ubayy bin Ka`b was praying and said, (O Ubayy!) Ubayy did not answer him. The Prophet said, (O Ubayy!) Ubayy prayed faster then went to the Messenger of Allah saying, `Peace be unto you, O Messenger of Allah!' He said, (Peace be unto you. O Ubayy, what prevented you from answering me when I called you) He said, `O Messenger of Allah! I was praying.' He said, (Did you not read among what Allah has sent down to me,)

 

 

[ÇÓúÊóÌöíÈõæÇú áöáøóåö æóáöáÑøóÓõæáö ÅöÃóÇ ÃóÚóÇßõãú áöãóÇ íõÃúíöíßõãú]

(Answer Allah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he () calls you to that which gives you life) He said, `Yes, O Messenger of Allah! I will not do it again.' the Prophet said,

 

 

«ÃóÊõÃöÈøõ Ãóäú ÃõÚóáøöãóßó ÓõæÑóÉð áóãú ÊóäúÒöáú áóÇ Ãöí ÇáÊøóæÑóÇÉö æóáóÇ Ãöí ÇáúÅöäúÌöíáö æóáóÇ Ãöí ÇáÒøóÈõæÑö æóáóÇ Ãöí ÇáúÃõÑúÞóÇäö ãöËúáóåóÇ¿»

(Would you like me to teach you a Surah the likes of which nothing has been revealed in the Tawrah, the Injil, the Zabur (Psalms) or the Furqan (the Qur'an)) He said, `Yes, O Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah said, (I hope that I will not leave through this door until you have learned it.) He (Ka`b) said, `The Messenger of Allah held my hand while speaking to me. Meanwhile I was slowing down fearing that he might reach the door before he finished his conversation. When we came close to the door, I said: O Messenger of Allah ! What is the Surah that you have promised to teach me' He said, (What do you read in the prayer.) Ubayy said, `So I recited Umm Al-Qur'an to him.' He said,

 

 

«æóÇáøóÃöí äóÃúÓöí ÈöíóÃöåö ãóÇ ÃóäúÒóáó Çááåõ Ãöí ÇáÊøóæÑóÇÉö æóáóÇ Ãöí ÇáúÅöäúÌöíáö æóáóÇ Ãöí ÇáÒøóÈõæÑö æóáóÇ Ãöí ÇáúÃõÑúÞóÇäö ãöËúáóåóÇ ÅöäøóåóÇ ÇáÓøóÈúÚõ ÇáúãóËóÇäöí»

(By Him in Whose Hand is my soul! Allah has never revealed in the Tawrah, the Injil, the Zabur or the Furqan a Surah like it. It is the seven repeated verses that I was given.)''

 

Also, At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith and in his narration, the Prophet said,

 

 

«ÅöäøóåóÇ ãöäó ÇáÓøóÈúÚö ÇáúãóËóÇäöí æóÇáúÞõÑúÂäö ÇáúÚóÙöíãö ÇáøóÃöí ÃõÚúØöíÊõåõ»

(It is the seven repeated verses and the Glorious Qur'an that I was given.) At-Tirmidhi then commented that this Hadith is Hasan Sahih.

 

There is a similar Hadith on this subject narrated from Anas bin Malik Further, `Abdullah, the son of Imam Ahmad, recorded this Hadith from Abu Hurayrah from Ubayy bin Ka`b, and he mentioned a longer but similar wording for the above Hadith. In addition, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i recorded this Hadith from Abu Hurayrah from Ubayy bin Ka`b who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ãóÇ ÃóäúÒóá Çááåõ Ãöí ÇáÊøóæÑóÇÉö æóáóÇ Ãöí ÇáúÅöäúÌöíáö ãöËúáó Ãõãøö ÇáúÞõÑúÂäö æóåöíó ÇáÓøóÈúÚõ ÇáúãóËóÇäöí æóåöíó ãóÞúÓõæãóÉñ Èóíúäöí æóÈóíúäó ÚóÈúÃöí äöÕúÃóíúäö»

(Allah has never revealed in the Tawrah or the Injil anything similar to Umm Al-Qur'an.

 

It is the seven repeated verses and it is divided into two halves between Allah and His servant.)

 

This is the wording reported by An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said that this Hadith is Hasan Gharib.

 

Also, Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Jabir said, "I went to the Messenger of Allah after he had poured water (for purification) and said, `Peace be unto you, O Messenger of Allah!' He did not answer me. So I said again, `Peace be unto you, O Messenger of Allah!' Again, he did not answer me, so I said again, `Peace be unto you, O Messenger of Allah!' Still he did not answer me. The Messenger of Allah went while I was following him, until he arrived at his residence. I went to the Masjid and sat there sad and depressed. The Messenger of Allah came out after he performed his purification and said, (Peace and Allah's mercy be unto you, peace and Allah's mercy be unto you, peace and Allah's mercy be unto you.) He then said, (O `Abdullah bin Jabir! Should I inform you of the best Surah in the Qur'an) I said, `Yes, O Messenger of Allah!' He said, (Read, `All praise be to Allah, the Lord of the existence,' until you finish it.)'' This Hadith has a good chain of narrators.

 

Some scholars relied on this Hadith as evidence that some Ayat and Surahs have more virtues than others.

 

Furthermore, in the chapter about the virtues of the Qur'an, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, "Once, we were on a journey when a female servant came and said, `The leader of this area has been poisoned and our people are away. Is there a healer among you' Then a man whose healing expertise did not interest us stood for her, he read a Ruqyah for him, and he was healed. The chief gave him thirty sheep as a gift and some milk. When he came back to us we said to him, `You know of a (new) Ruqyah, or did you do this before' He said, `I only used Umm Al-Kitab as Ruqyah.' We said, `Do not do anything further until we ask the Messenger of Allah.' When we went back to Al-Madinah we mentioned what had happened to the Prophet . The Prophet said,

 

 

«æóãóÇ ßóÇäó íõÃúÑöíåö ÃóäøóåóÇ ÑõÞúíóÉñ ÇÞúÓöãõæÇ æóÇÖúÑöÈõæÇ áöí ÈöÓóåúãò»

(Who told him that it is a Ruqyah Divide (the sheep) and reserve a share for me.)''

 

Also, Muslim recorded in his Sahih, and An-Nasa'i in his Sunan that Ibn `Abbas said, "While Jibril (Gabriel) was with the Messenger of Allah , he heard a noise from above. Jibril lifted his sight to the sky and said, `This is a door in heaven being open, and it has never been opened before now.' An angel descended from that door and came to the Prophet and said, `Receive the glad tidings of two lights that you have been given, which no other Prophet before you was given: the Opening of the Book and the last (three) Ayat of Surat Al-Baqarah. You will not read a letter of them, but will gain its benefit.''' This is the wording collected by An-Nasa'i (Al-Kubra 5:12) and Muslim recorded similar wording (1:554).

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Al-Fatihah and the Prayer

 

Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

 

 

«ãóäú Õóáóì ÕóáóÇÉð áóãú íóÞúÑóÃú ÃöíåóÇ Ãõãøó ÇáúÞõÑúÂäö Ãóåöíó ÎöÃóÇÌñ ËóáóÇËðÇ ÛóíúÑõ ÊóãóÇãò»(Whoever performs any prayer in which he did not read Umm Al-Qur'an, then his prayer is incomplete.) He said it thrice.

 

Abu Hurayrah was asked, "[When] we stand behind the Imam'' He said, "Read it to yourself, for I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

 

 

« ÞóÇáó Çááøóåõ ÚóÒøó æóÌóáøó: ÞóÓóãúÊõ ÇáÕøáóÇÉó Èóíúäöí æóÈóíúäó ÚóÈúÃöí äöÕúÃóíúäö æóáöÚóÈúÃöí ãóÇ ÓóÃóáó ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÇáó:

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ]¡ ÞóÇáó Çááåõ: ÃóãöÃóäöí ÚóÈúÃöí æóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÇáó:

[ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÇáÑøóÃöíãö ]¡ ÞóÇáó Çááåõ: ÃóËúäì Úóáóíøó ÚóÈúÃöí¡ ÃóÅÃóÇ ÞóÇáó:

[ãóÜáößö íóæúãö ÇáÃøöíäö ]¡ ÞóÇáó Çááåõ: ãóÌøóÃóäöí ÚóÈúÃöí æóÞóÇáó ãóÑøóÉð: ÃóæøóÖó Åöáóíøó ÚóÈúÃöí ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÇáó:

[ÅöíøóÇßó äóÚúÈõÃõ æóÅöíøóÇßó äóÓúÊóÚöíäõ ]¡ ÞóÇáó: Ã¥ÃóÇ Èóíúäöí æóÈóíúäó ÚóÈúÃöí æóáöÚóÈúÃöí ãóÇ ÓóÃóáó¡ ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÇáó:

[ÇåúÃöäóÇ ÇáÕøöÑóÇØó ÇáúãõÓúÊóÞöíãó - ÕöÑóÇØó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóäúÚóãúÊó Úóáóíúåöãú ÛóíúÑö ÇáúãóÛúÖõæÈö Úóáóíúåöãú æóáÇó ÇáÖøóÂáøöíäó ]¡ ÞóÇáó Çááåõ: Ã¥ÃóÇ áöÚóÈúÃöí æóáöÚóÈúÃöí ãóÇ ÓóÃóáó»

(Allah, the Exalted, said, `I have divided the prayer (Al-Fatihah) into two halves between Myself and My servant, and My servant shall have what he asks for.' If he says,

 

 

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ]

(All praise and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of existence.)

 

Allah says, `My servant has praised Me.' When the servant says,

 

 

[ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÇáÑøóÃöíãö ]

(The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.)

 

Allah says, `My servant has glorified Me.' When he says,

 

 

[ãóÜáößö íóæúãö ÇáÃøöíäö ]

(The Owner of the Day of Recompense.) Allah says, `My servant has glorified Me,' or `My servant has related all matters to Me.' When he says,

 

 

[ÅöíøóÇßó äóÚúÈõÃõ æóÅöíøóÇßó äóÓúÊóÚöíäõ ]

(You (alone) we worship, and You (alone) we ask for help.) Allah says, `This is between Me and My servant, and My servant shall acquire what he sought.' When he says,

 

 

[ÇåúÃöäóÇ ÇáÕøöÑóÇØó ÇáúãõÓúÊóÞöíãó - ÕöÑóÇØó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóäúÚóãúÊó Úóáóíúåöãú ÛóíúÑö ÇáúãóÛúÖõæÈö Úóáóíúåöãú æóáÇó ÇáÖøóÂáøöíäó ]

(Guide us to the straight path. The way of those on whom You have granted Your grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your anger, nor of those who went astray), Allah says, `This is for My servant, and My servant shall acquire what he asked for.').''

 

These are the words of An-Nasa'i, while both Muslim and An-Nasa'i collected the following wording, "A half of it is for Me and a half for My servant, and My servant shall acquire what he asked for.''

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Explaining this Hadith

 

The last Hadith used the word [salah] `prayer' in reference to reciting the Qur'an, (Al-Fatihah in this case) just as Allah said in another Ayah,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóÌúåóÑú ÈöÕóáÇÊößó æóáÇó ÊõÎóÇÃöÊú ÈöåóÇ æóÇÈúÊóÛö Èóíúäó Ãóáößó ÓóÈöíáÇð]

(And offer your Salah (prayer) neither aloud nor in a low voice, but follow a way between.) meaning, with your recitation of the Qur'an, as the Sahih related from Ibn `Abbas. Also, in the last Hadith, Allah said, "I have divided the prayer between Myself and My servant into two halves, a half for Me and a half for My servant. My servant shall have what he asked for.'' Allah next explained the division that involves reciting Al-Fatihah, demonstrating the importance of reciting the Qur'an during the prayer, which is one of the prayer's greatest pillars. Hence, the word `prayer' was used here although only a part of it was actually being referred to, that is, reciting the Qur'an. Similarly, the word `recite' was used where prayer is meant, as demonstrated by Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÞõÑúÃóÇäó ÇáúÃóÌúÑö Åöäøó ÞõÑúÃóÇäó ÇáúÃóÌúÑö ßóÇäó ãóÔúåõæÃðÇ]

(And recite the Qur'an in the early dawn.Verily, the recitation of the Qur'an in the early dawn is ever witnessed.) in reference to the Fajr prayer. The Two Sahihs recorded that the angels of the night and the day attend this prayer.

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Reciting Al-Fatihah is required in Every Rak`ah of the Prayer

 

 

All of these facts testify to the requirement that reciting the Qur'an (Al-Fatihah) in the prayer is required, and there is a consensus between the scholars on this ruling. The Hadith that we mentioned also testifies to this fact, for the Prophet said,

 

 

«ãóäú Õóáøóì ÕóáóÇÉð áóãú íóÞúÑóÃú ÃöíåóÇ ÈöÃõãøö ÇáúÞõÑúÂäö Ãóåöíó ÎöÃóÇÌñ»(Whoever performs any prayer in which he did not recite Umm Al-Qur'an, his prayer is incomplete.)

 

Also, the Two Sahihs recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«áóÇ ÕóáóÇÉó áöãóäú áóãú íóÞúÑóÃú ÈöÃóÇÊöÃóÉö ÇáúßöÊóÇÈö»

(There is no prayer for whoever does not recite the Opening of the Book.)

 

Also, the Sahihs of Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«áóÇ ÊõÌúÒöÆõ ÕóáóÇÉñ áóÇ íõÞúÑóÃõ ÃöíåóÇ ÈöÃõãøö ÇáúÞõÑÂäö»(The prayer during which Umm Al-Qur'an is not recited is invalid.)

 

There are many other Hadiths on this subject. Therefore, reciting the Opening of the Book, during the prayer by the Imam and those praying behind him, is required in every prayer, and in every Rak`ah.

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The Tafsir of Isti`adhah (seeking Refuge)

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ÎõÃö ÇáúÚóÃúæó æóÃúãõÑú ÈöÇáúÚõÑúÃö æóÃóÚúÑöÖ Úóäö ÇáúÌóÜåöáöíäó - æóÅöãøóÇ íóäóÒóÛóäøóßó ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäö äóÒúÛñ ÃóÇÓúÊóÚöÃú ÈöÇááøóåö Åöäøóåõ ÓóãöíÚñ Úóáöíãñ ]

(Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and stay away from the foolish (i.e. don't punish them). And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaytan (Satan), then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is Hearing, Knowing) (7:199-200),

 

 

[ÇÃúÃóÚú ÈöÇáøóÊöì åöìó ÃóÃúÓóäõ ÇáÓøóíøöÆóÉó äóÃúäõ ÃóÚúáóãõ ÈöãóÇ íóÕöÃõæäó - æóÞõáú ÑøóÈøö ÃóÚõæÃõ Èößó ãöäú åóãóÒóÇÊö ÇáÔøóíÜØöíäö - æóÃóÚõæÃõ Èößó ÑóÈøö Ãóä íóÃúÖõÑõæäö ]

(Repel evil with that which is better. We are Best-Acquainted with things they utter. And say: "My Lord! I seek refuge with You from the whisperings (suggestions) of the Shayatin (devils). And I seek refuge with You, My Lord! lest they should come near me.'') (23:96-98) and,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóÓúÊóæöì ÇáúÃóÓóäóÉõ æóáÇó ÇáÓøóíøöÆóÉõ ÇÃúÃóÚú ÈöÇáøóÊöì åöìó ÃóÃúÓóäõ ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÇáøóÃöì Èóíúäóßó æóÈóíúäóåõ ÚóÃóÇæóÉñ ßóÃóäøóåõ æóáöìøñ Ãóãöíãñ - æóãóÇ íõáóÞøóÇåóÇ ÅöáÇøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÕóÈóÑõæÇú æóãóÇ íõáóÞøóÇåó ÅöáÇøó Ãõæ ÃóÙøö ÚóÙöíãò - æóÅöãøóÇ íóäÒóÛóäøóßó ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäö äóÒúÛñ ÃóÇÓúÊóÚöÃú ÈöÇááøóåö Åöäøóåõ åõæó ÇáÓøóãöíÚõ ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ]

(Repel (an evil) with one which is better, then verily he with whom there was enmity between you, (will become) as though he was a close friend. But none is granted it except those who are patient Ü and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion (of happiness in the Hereafter, i.e. Paradise and of a high moral character) in this world. And if an evil whisper from Shaytan tries to turn you away (O Muhammad ) (from doing good), then seek refuge in Allah. Verily, He is the Hearing, the Knowing.) (41:34-36) These are the only three Ayat that carry this meaning. Allah commanded that we be lenient human enemy, so that his soft nature might make him an ally and a supporter. He also commanded that we seek refuge from the satanic enemy, because the devil does not relent in his enmity if we treat him with kindness and leniency. The devil only seeks the destruction of the Son of Adam due to the vicious enmity and hatred he has always had towards man's father, Adam. Allah said,

 

 

[íóÜÈóäöì ÂÃóãó áÇó íóÃúÊöäóäøóßõãõ ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäõ ßóãó ÃóÎúÑóÌó ÃóÈóæóíúßõã ãøöäó ÇáúÌóäøóÉö]

(O Children of Adam! Let not Shaytan deceive you, as he got your parents [Adam and Hawwa' (Eve)] out of Paradise) (7:27),

 

 

[Åöäøó ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäó áóßõãú ÚóÃõæøñ ÃóÇÊøóÎöÃõæåõ ÚóÃõæøÇð ÅöäøóãóÇ íóÃúÚõæ ÃöÒúÈóåõ áöíóßõæäõæÇú ãöäú ÃóÕúÃóÜÈö ÇáÓøóÚöíÑö ]

(Surely, Shaytan is an enemy to you, so take (treat) him as an enemy. He only invites his Hizb (followers) that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire) (35:6) and,

 

 

[ÃóÃóÊóÊøóÎöÃõæäóåõ æóÃõÑøöíøóÊóåõ ÃóæúáöíóÂÃó ãöä Ãõæäöì æóåõãú áóßõãú ÚóÃõæøñ ÈöÆúÓó áöáÙøóÜáöãöíäó ÈóÃóáÇð]

(Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the Zalimun (polytheists, and wrongdoers, etc)) (18:50).

 

The devil assured Adam that he wanted to advise him, but he was lying. Hence, how would he treat us after he had vowed,

 

 

[ÃóÈöÚöÒøóÊößó áÃÛúæöíóäøóåõãú ÃóÌúãóÚöíäóÅöáÇøó ÚöÈóÇÃóßó ãöäúåõãõ ÇáúãõÎúáóÕöíäó ]

("By Your might, then I will surely, mislead them all. Except Your chosen servants among them (i.e. faithful, obedient, true believers of Islamic Monotheism).'') (38:82-83)

 

Also, Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÑóÃúÊó ÇáúÞõÑúÃóÇäó ÃóÇÓúÊóÚöÃú ÈöÇááøóåö ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäö ÇáÑøóÌöíãö ]

[Åöäøóåõ áóíúÓó áóåõ ÓõáúØóÇäñ Úóáóì ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æóÚóáóì ÑóÈøöåöãú íóÊóæóßøóáõæäó - ÅöäøóãóÇ ÓõáúØóÜäõåõ Úóáóì ÇáøóÃöíäó íóÊóæóáøóæúäóåõ æóÇáøóÃöíäó åõã Èöåö ãõÔúÑößõæäó ]

(So when you [want to] recite the Qur'an, seek refuge with Allah from Shaytan, the outcast (the cursed one). Verily, he has no power over those who believe and put their trust only in their Lord (Allah). His power is only over those who obey and follow him (Satan), and those who join partners with Him.) (16:98-100).

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Seeking Refuge before reciting the Qur'an

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÑóÃúÊó ÇáúÞõÑúÃóÇäó ÃóÇÓúÊóÚöÃú ÈöÇááøóåö ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäö ÇáÑøóÌöíãö ]

(So when you [want to] recite the Qur'an, seek refuge with Allah from Shaytan, the outcast (the cursed one).) meaning, before you recite the Qur'an. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[ÅöÃóÇ ÞõãúÊõãú Åöáóì ÇáÕøóáæÉö ÃÇÛúÓöáõæÇú æõÌõæåóßõãú æóÃóíúÃöíóßõãú]

(When you intend to offer As-Salah (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms)) (5:6) meaning, before you stand in prayer, as evident by the Hadiths that we mentioned. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, "When the Messenger of Allah would stand up in prayer at night, he would start his prayer with the Takbir (saying "Allahu Akbar''; Allah is Greater) and would then supplicate,

 

 

«ÓõÈúÃóÇäóßó Çááøóåõãøó æóÈöÃóãúÃößó¡ æóÊóÈóÇÑóßó ÇÓúãõßó¡ æóÊóÚóÇáóì ÌóÃøõßó¡ æóáóÇ Åöáóåó ÛóíúÑõßó»(All praise is due to You, O Allah, and also the thanks. Blessed be Your Name, Exalted be Your sovereignty, and there is no deity worthy of worship except You.)

 

He would then say thrice,

 

«áóÇ Åöáóåó ÅöáøóÇ Çááåõ»

ËóáóÇËðÇ

 

(There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah,).

 

He would then say,

 

 

«ÃóÚõæÃõ ÈöÇááåö ÇáÓøóãöíÚö ÇáúÚóáöíãö ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö ÇáÑøóÌöíãö ãöäú åóãúÒóåö æóäóÃúÎöåö æóäóÃúËöåö»(I seek refuge with Allah, the Hearing, the Knowing, from the cursed Satan, from his coercion, lures to arrogance and poems.).''

 

The four collectors of the Sunan recorded this Hadith, which At-Tirmidhi considered the most famous Hadith on this subject.

 

Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im said that his father said, "When the Messenger of Allah started the prayer, he said,

 

 

«Çááåõ ÃóßúÈóÑõ ßóÈöíÑðÇ ËóáóÇËðÇ ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááåö ßóËöíÑðÇ ËóáóÇËðÇ ÓõÈúÃóÇäó Çááåö ÈõßúÑóÉð æóÃóÕöíáðÇ ËóáóÇËðÇ Çááøóåõãøó Åöäøöí ÃóÚõæÃõ Èößó ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö ÇáÑøóÌöíãö ãöäú åóãúÒöåö æóäóÃúÎöåö æóäóÃúËöåö»(Allah is the Greater, truly the Greatest (thrice); all praise is due to Allah always (thrice); and all praise is due to Allah day and night (thrice). O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the cursed Satan, from his Hamz, Nafkh and Nafth.).'' `Amr said, "The Hamz means asphyxiation, the Nafkh means arrogance, and the Nafth means poetry.'' Also, Ibn Majah recorded that `Ali bin Al-Mundhir said that Ibn Fudayl narrated that `Ata' bin As-Sa'ib said that Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami said that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Prophet said,

 

 

«Çááøóåõãøó Åöäøöí ÃóÚõæÃõ Èößó ãöäó ÇáÔøóíØóÇäö ÇáÑóÌöíãö æóåóãúÒöåö æóäóÃúÎöåö æóäóÃúËöåö»(O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the cursed devil, from his Hamz, Nafkh and Nafth.)

 

He said, "The Hamz means death, the Nafkh means arrogance, and the Nafth means poetry.''

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Seeking Refuge with Allah when One is Angry

In his Musnad, Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la Ahmad bin `Ali bin Al-Muthanna Al-Mawsili reported that Ubayy bin Ka`b said, "Two men disputed with each other in the presence of the Messenger of Allah and the nose of one of them became swollen because of extreme anger. The Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«Åöäøöí áóÃóÚúáóãõ ÔóíúÆðÇ áóæú ÞóÇáóåõ áóÃóåóÈó Úóäúåõ ãóÇ íóÌöÃõ: ÃóÚõæÃõ ÈöÇááåö ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö ÇáÑøóÌöíãö»(I know of some words that if he said them, what he feels will go away, 'I seek refuge with Allah from the cursed Satan.')''

 

An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith in his book, Al-Yawm wal-Laylah.

 

Al-Bukhari recorded that Sulayman bin Surad said, "Two men disputed in the presence of the Prophet while we were sitting with him. One of them was cursing the other fellow and his face turned red due to anger. The Prophet said,

 

 

«Åöäøöí áóÃóÚúáóãõ ßóáöãóÉð áóæú ÞóÇáóåóÇ áóÃóåóÈó Úóäúåõ ãóÇ íóÌöÃõ¡ áóæú ÞóÇáó: ÃóÚõæÃõ ÈöÇááåö ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö ÇáÑøóÌöíãö»(I know of a statement which if he said it, will make what he feels disappear, `I seek refuge with Allah from the cursed Satan.') They said to the man, `Do you not hear what the Messenger of Allah is saying' He said, `I am not insane.''' Also, Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i recorded this Hadith.

 

There are many other Hadiths about seeking refuge with Allah. One can find this subject in the books on supplication and the virtues of righteous, good deeds.

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Is the Isti`adhah (seeking Refuge) required

 

The majority of the scholars state that reciting the Isti`adhah (in the prayer and when reciting the Qur'an) is recommended and not required, and therefore, not reciting it does not constitute a sin. However, Ar-Razi recorded that `Ata' bin Abi Rabah said that the Isti`adhah is required in the prayer and when one reads the Qur'an. In support of `Ata's statement, Ar-Razi relied upon the apparent meaning of the Ayah,

 

 

[ÃóÇÓúÊóÚöÃú]

(Then seek refuge.) He said that the Ayah contains a command that requires implementation. Also, the Prophet always said the Isti`adhah. In addition, the Isti`adhah wards off the evil of Satan, which is neccessary, the rule is that the means needed to implement a requirement of the religion is itself also required. And when one says, "I seek refuge with Allah from the cursed devil.'' Then this will suffice.

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Virtues of the Isti`adhah

The Isti`adhah cleanses the mouth from the foul speech that it has indulged in. It also purifies the mouth and prepares it to recite the speech of Allah. Further, the Isti`adhah entails seeking Allah's help and acknowledging His ability to do everything. The Isti`adhah also affirms the servant's meekness, weakness and inability to face the enemy of his inner evil, whom Allah alone, Who created this enemy, is able to repel and defeat. This enemy does not accept kindness, unlike the human enemy. There are three Ayat in the Qur'an that affirm this fact. Also, Allah said,

 

 

[Åöäøó ÚöÈóÇÃöì áóíúÓó áóßó Úóáóíúåöãú ÓõáúØóÜäñ æóßóÃóì ÈöÑóÈøößó æóßöíáÇð ]

(Verily, My servants (i.e. the true believers of Islamic Monotheism) Ü you have no authority over them. And sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.) (17:65).

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What does Isti`adhah mean

 

Isti`adhah means, "I seek refuge with Allah from the cursed Satan so that he is prevented from affecting my religious or worldly affairs, or hindering me from adhering to what I was commanded, or luring me into what I was prohibited from.'' Indeed, only Allah is able to prevent the evil of Satan from touching the son of Adam. This is why Allah allowed us to be lenient and kind with the human devil, so that his soft nature might cause him to refrain from the evil he is indulging in. However, Allah required us to seek refuge with Him from the evil of Satan, because he neither accepts bribes nor does kindness affect him, for he is pure evil. Thus, only He Who created Satan is able to stop his evil. This meaning is reiterated in only three Ayat in the Qur'an. Allah said in Surat Al-A`raf,

 

 

[ÎõÃö ÇáúÚóÃúæó æóÃúãõÑú ÈöÇáúÚõÑúÃö æóÃóÚúÑöÖ Úóäö ÇáúÌóÜåöáöíäó ]

(Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the foolish (i.e. don't punish them).) (7:199)

 

This is about dealing with human beings. He then said in the same Surah,

 

 

[æóÅöãøóÇ íóäóÒóÛóäøóßó ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäö äóÒúÛñ ÃóÇÓúÊóÚöÃú ÈöÇááøóåö Åöäøóåõ ÓóãöíÚñ Úóáöíãñ ]

(And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaytan, then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is Hearing, Knowing (7: 200).)

 

Allah also said in Surat Al-Mu'minun,

 

 

[ÇÃúÃóÚú ÈöÇáøóÊöì åöìó ÃóÃúÓóäõ ÇáÓøóíøöÆóÉó äóÃúäõ ÃóÚúáóãõ ÈöãóÇ íóÕöÃõæäó - æóÞõáú ÑøóÈøö ÃóÚõæÃõ Èößó ãöäú åóãóÒóÇÊö ÇáÔøóíÜØöíäö - æóÃóÚõæÃõ Èößó ÑóÈøö Ãóä íóÃúÖõÑõæäö ]

(Repel evil with that which is better. We are Best-Acquainted with the things they utter. And say: "My Lord! I seek refuge with You from the whisperings (suggestions) of the Shayatin (devils). And I seek refuge with You, My Lord! lest they should come near me.'' (23:96-98).)

 

Further, Allah said in Surat As-Sajdah,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóÓúÊóæöì ÇáúÃóÓóäóÉõ æóáÇó ÇáÓøóíøöÆóÉõ ÇÃúÃóÚú ÈöÇáøóÊöì åöìó ÃóÃúÓóäõ ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÇáøóÃöì Èóíúäóßó æóÈóíúäóåõ ÚóÃóÇæóÉñ ßóÃóäøóåõ æóáöìøñ Ãóãöíãñ - æóãóÇ íõáóÞøóÇåóÇ ÅöáÇøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÕóÈóÑõæÇú æóãóÇ íõáóÞøóÇåó ÅöáÇøó Ãõæ ÃóÙøö ÚóÙöíãò - æóÅöãøóÇ íóäÒóÛóäøóßó ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäö äóÒúÛñ ÃóÇÓúÊóÚöÃú ÈöÇááøóåö Åöäøóåõ åõæó ÇáÓøóãöíÚõ ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ]

(The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal. Repel (the evil) with one which is better, then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend. But none is granted it (the above quality) except those who are patient Ü and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion (of happiness in the Hereafter, i.e. Paradise and of a high moral character) in this world. And if an evil whisper from Shaytan tries to turn you away (from doing good), then seek refuge in Allah. Verily, He is the Hearing, the Knowing) (41:34-36).

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The Meaning of Ar-Rajim

 

Ar-Rajim means, being expelled from all types of righteousness. Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÒóíøóäøóÇ ÇáÓøóãóÂÃó ÇáÃøõäúíóÇ ÈöãóÕóÜÈöíÃó æóÌóÚóáúäóÜåóÇ ÑõÌõæãÇð áøöáÔøóíóÜØöíäö](And indeed We have adorned the nearest heaven with lamps, and We have made such lamps Rujuman (as missiles) to drive away the Shayatin (devils)) (67:5).

 

Allah also said,

 

 

[ÅöäøóÇ ÒóíøóäøóÇ ÇáÓøóãóÂÃó ÇáÃøõäúíóÇ ÈöÒöíäóÉò ÇáúßóæóßöÈö - æóÃöÃúÙÇð ãøöä ßõáøö ÔóíúØóÜäò ãøóÇÑöÃò - áÇøó íóÓøóãøóÚõæäó Åöáóì ÇáúãóáÅö ÇáÇøñÚúáóì æóíõÞúÃóÃõæäó ãöä ßõáøö ÌóÇäöÈò - ÃõÃõæÑÇð æóáóåõãú ÚóÃÇÈñ æóÇÕöÈñ - ÅöáÇøó ãóäú ÎóØöÃó ÇáúÎóØúÃóÉó ÃóÃóÊúÈóÚóåõ ÔöåóÇÈñ ËóÇÞöÈñ ]

(Verily, We have adorned the near heaven with the stars (for beauty). And to guard against every rebellious devil. They cannot listen to the higher group (angels) for they are pelted from every side. Outcast, and theirs is a constant (or painful) torment. Except such as snatch away something by stealing, and they are pursued by a flaming fire of piercing brightness) (37:6-10).

 

Further, Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÌóÚóáúäóÇ Ãöì ÇáÓøóãóÇÃö ÈõÑõæÌðÇ æóÒóíøóäøóÜåóÇ áöáäøóÜÙöÑöíäó - æóÃóÃöÙúäóÜåóÇ ãöä ßõáøö ÔóíúØóÜäò ÑøóÌöíãò - ÅöáÇøó ãóäö ÇÓúÊóÑóÞó ÇáÓøóãúÚó ÃóÃóÊúÈóÚóåõ ÔöåóÇÈñ ãøõÈöíäñ ]

(And indeed, We have put the big stars in the heaven and We beautified it for the beholders. And We have guarded it (near heaven) from every Shaytan Rajim (outcast Shaytan). Except him (devil) who steals the hearing then he is pursued by a clear flaming fire.) (15:16-18).

 

There are several similar Ayat. It was also said that Rajim means, the person who throws or bombards things, because the devil throws doubts and evil thoughts in people's hearts. The first meaning is more popular and accurate.

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Bismillah is the First Ayah of Al-Fatihah

 

The Companions started the Book of Allah with Bismillah:

 

 

[ÈöÓúãö Çááøóåö ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÇáÑøóÃöíãö ]

(1. In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.)

 

The scholars also agree that Bismillah is a part of an Ayah in Surat An-Naml (chapter 27). They disagree over whether it is a separate Ayah before every Surah, or if it is an Ayah, or a part of an Ayah, included in every Surah where the Bismillah appears in its beginning. Ad-Daraqutni also recorded a Hadith from Abu Hurayrah from the Prophet that supports this Hadith by Ibn Khuzaymah. Also, similar statements were attributed to `Ali, Ibn `Abbas and others.

 

The opinion that Bismillah is an Ayah of every Surah, except Al-Bara'ah (chapter 9), was attributed to (the Companions) Ibn `Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Ibn Az-Zubayr, Abu Hurayrah and `Ali. This opinion was also attributed to the Tabi`in: `Ata', Tawus, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Makhul and Az-Zuhri. This is also the view of `Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak, Ash-Shafi`i, Ahmad bin Hanbal, (in one report from him) Ishaq bin Rahwayh and Abu `Ubayd Al-Qasim bin Salam. On the other hand, Malik, Abu Hanifah and their followers said that Bismillah is not an Ayah in Al-Fatihah or any other Surah. Dawud said that it is a separate Ayah in the beginning of every Surah, not part of the Surah itself, and this opinion was also attributed to Ahmad bin Hanbal.

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Basmalah aloud in the Prayer

 

As for Basmalah aloud during the prayer, those who did not agree that it is a part of Al-Fatihah, state that the Basmalah should not be aloud. The scholars who stated that Bismillah is a part of every Surah (except chapter 9) had different opinions; some of them, such as Ash-Shafi`i, said that one should recite Bismillah with Al-Fatihah aloud. This is also the opinion of many among the Companions, the Tabi`in and the Imams of Muslims from the Salaf and the later generations. For instance, this is the opinion of Abu Hurayrah, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Mu`awiyah, `Umar and `Ali - according to Ibn `Abdul-Barr and Al-Bayhaqi. Also, the Four Khalifahs - as Al-Khatib reported - were said to have held this view although the report from them is contradicted. The Tabi`in scholars who gave this Tafsir include Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Abu Qilabah, Az-Zuhri, `Ali bin Al-Hasan, his son Muhammad, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, `Ata', Tawus, Mujahid, Salim, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Abu Bakr bin Muhammad bin `Amr bin Hazm, Abu Wa'il, Ibn Sirin, Muhammad bin Al-Munkadir, `Ali bin `Abdullah bin `Abbas, his son Muhammad, Nafi` the freed slave of Ibn `Umar, Zayd bin Aslam, `Umar bin `Abdul-Aziz, Al-Azraq bin Qays, Habib bin Abi Thabit, Abu Ash-Sha`tha', Makhul and `Abdullah bin Ma`qil bin Muqarrin. Also, Al-Bayhaqi added `Abdullah bin Safwan, and Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah to this list. In addition, Ibn `Abdul-Barr added `Amr bin Dinar.

 

The proof that these scholars relied on is that, since Bismillah is a part of Al-Fatihah, it should be recited aloud like the rest of Al-Fatihah. Also, An-Nasa'i recorded in his Sunan, Ibn Hibban and Ibn Khuzaymah in their Sahihs and Al-Hakim in the Mustadrak, that Abu Hurayrah once performed the prayer and recited Bismillah aloud. After he finished the prayer, he said, "Among you, I perform the prayer that is the closest to the prayer of the Messenger of Allah .'' Ad-Daraqutni, Al-Khatib and Al-Bayhaqi graded this Hadith Sahih Furthermore, in Sahih Al-Bukhari it is recorded that Anas bin Malik was asked about the recitation of the Prophet . He said, "His recitation was unhurried.'' He then demonstrated that and recited, while lengthening the recitation of Bismillah Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim, Also, in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad, the Sunan of Abu Dawud, the Sahih of Ibn Hibban and the Mustadrak of Al-Hakim - it is recorded that Umm Salamah said, "The Messenger of Allah used to distinguish each Ayah during his recitation,

 

 

[ÈöÓúãö Çááøóåö ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÇáÑøóÃöíãö - ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó - ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÇáÑøóÃöíãö - ãóÜáößö íóæúãö ÇáÃøöíäö ]

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All praise and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. The Owner of the Day of Recompense.)''

 

Ad-Daraqutni graded the chain of narration for this Hadith Sahih Furthermore, Imam Abu `Abdullah Ash-Shafi`i and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, recorded that Mu`awiyah led the prayer in Al-Madinah and did not recite the Bismillah. The Muhajirin who were present at that prayer criticized that. When Mu`awiyah led the following prayer, he recited the Bismillah aloud.

 

The Hadiths mentioned above provide sufficient proof for the opinion that the Bismillah is recited aloud. As for the opposing evidences and the scientific analysis of the narrations mentioned their weaknesses or otherwise it is not our desire to discuss this subject at this time.

 

Other scholars stated that the Bismillah should not be recited aloud in the prayer, and this is the established practice of the Four Khalifahs, as well as `Abdullah bin Mughaffal and several scholars among the Tabi`in and later generations. It is also the Madhhab (view) of Abu Hanifah, Ath-Thawri and Ahmad bin Hanbal.

 

Imam Malik stated that the Bismillah is not recited aloud or silently. This group based their view upon what Imam Muslim recorded that `A'ishah said that the Messenger of Allah used to start the prayer by reciting the Takbir (Allahu Akbar; Allah is Greater) and then recite,

 

 

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ](All praise and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.) (Ibn Abi Hatim 1:12).

 

Also, the Two Sahihs recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "I prayed behind the Prophet , Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman and they used to start their prayer with,

 

 

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ]

(All praise and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.)

 

Muslim added, "And they did not mention,

 

 

[ÈöÓúãö Çááøóåö ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÇáÑøóÃöíãö ]

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful) whether in the beginning or the end of the recitation.'' Similar is recorded in the Sunan books from `Abdullah bin Mughaffal, may Allah be pleased with him.

 

These are the opinions held by the respected Imams, and their statements are similar in that they agree that the prayer of those who recite Al-Fatihah aloud or in secret is correct. All the favor is from Allah.

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The Virtue of Al-Fatihah

 

 

Imam Ahmad recorded in his Musnad, that a person who was riding behind the Prophet said, "The Prophet's animal tripped, so I said, `Cursed Shaytan.' The Prophet said,

 

 

«áóÇ ÊóÞõáú: ÊóÚöÓó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäõ¡ ÃóÅöäøóßó ÅöÃóÇ ÞõáúÊó: ÊóÚöÓó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäõ¡ ÊóÚóÇÙóãó æóÞóÇáó: ÈöÞõæøóÊöí ÕóÑóÚúÊõåõ¡ æóÅöÃóÇ ÞõáúÊó: ÈöÇÓúãö Çááåö ÊóÕóÇÛóÑó ÃóÊì íóÕöíÑó ãöËúáó ÇáÃõÈóÇÈö»(Do not say, 'Cursed Shaytan,' for if you say these words, Satan becomes arrogant and says, 'With my strength I made him fall.' When you say, 'Bismillah,' Satan will become as small as a fly.)

 

Further, An-Nasa'i recorded in his book Al-Yawm wal-Laylah, and also Ibn Marduwyah in his Tafsir that Usamah bin `Umayr said, "I was riding behind the Prophet...'' and he mentioned the rest of the above Hadith. The Prophet said in this narration,

 

 

«áóÇ ÊóÞõáú åßóÃóÇ ÃóÅöäøóåõ íóÊóÚóÇÙóãõ ÃóÊøóì íóßõæäó ßóÇáúÈóíúÊö¡ æóáßöäú Þõáú: ÈöÓúãö Çááåö¡ ÃóÅäøóåõ íóÕúÛóÑõ ÃóÊøóì íóßõæäó ßóÇáÃõÈóÇÈóÉö»(Do not say these words, because then Satan becomes larger; as large as a house. Rather, say, 'Bismillah,' because Satan then becomes as small as a fly.)

 

This is the blessing of reciting Bismillah.

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Basmalah is recommended before performing any Deed

 

Basmalah (reciting Bismillah) is recommended before starting any action or deed. For instance, Basmalah is recommended before starting a Khutbah (speech).

 

The Basmalah is also recommended before one enters the place where he wants to relieve himself, there is a Hadith concerning this practice. Further, Basmalah is recommended at the beginning of ablution, for Imam Ahmad and the Sunan compilers recorded that Abu Hurayrah, Sa`id bin Zayd and Abu Sa`id narrated from the Prophet ,

 

 

«áóÇ æõÖõæÃó áöãóäú áóãú íóÃúßõÑö ÇÓúãó Çááåö Úóáóíúåö»

(There is no valid ablution for he who did not mention Allah's Name in it.)

 

This Hadith is Hasan (good). Also, the Basmalah is recommended before eating, for Muslim recorded in his Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said to `Umar bin Abi Salamah while he was a child under his care,

 

 

«Þõáú ÈöÓúãö Çááåö æóßõáú Èöíóãöíäößó æóßõáú ãöãøóÇ íóáöíßó»(Say Bismillah, eat with your right hand and eat from whatever is next to you.)

 

Some of the scholars stated that Basmalah before eating is obligatory. Basmalah before having sexual intercourse is also recommended. The Two Sahihs recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«áóæú Ãóäøó ÃóÃóÃóßõãú ÅöÃóÇ ÃóÑóÇÃó Ãóäú íóÃúÊöíó Ãóåúáóåõ ÞóÇáó: ÈöÓúãö Çááåö Çááóåõãøó ÌóäøöÈúäóÇ ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäó æóÌóäøöÈö ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäó ãóÇ ÑóÒóÞúÊóäóÇ¡ÃóÅäøóåõ Åöäú íõÞóÃøóÑú ÈóíúäóåõãóÇ æóáóÃñ áóãú íóÖõÑøóåõ ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäõ ÃóÈóÃðÇ»(If anyone of you before having sexual relations with his wife says, 'In the Name of Allah. O Allah! Protect us from Satan and also protect what you grant us (meaning the coming offspring) from Satan,' and if it is destined that they should have a child then, Satan will never be able to harm that child.)

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The Meaning of "Allah"

 

 

Allah is the Name of the Lord, the Exalted. It is said that Allah is the Greatest Name of Allah, because it is referred to when describing Allah by the various attributes. For instance, Allah said,

 

 

[åõæó Çááøóåõ ÇáøóÃöì áÇó ÅöáóÜåó ÅöáÇøó åõæó ÚóÇáöãõ ÇáúÛóíúÈö æóÇáÔøóåóÜÃóÉö åõæó ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäõ ÇáÑøóÃöíãõ - åõæó Çááøóåõ ÇáøóÃöì áÇó ÅöáóÜåó ÅöáÇøó åõæó Çáúãóáößõ ÇáúÞõÃøõæÓõ ÇáÓøóáóÜãõ ÇáúãõÄúãöäõ Çáúãõåóíúãöäõ ÇáúÚóÒöíÒõ ÇáúÌóÈøóÇÑõ ÇáúãõÊóßóÈøöÑõ ÓõÈúÃóÜäó Çááøóåö ÚóãøóÇ íõÔúÑößõæäó - åõæó Çááøóåõ ÇáúÎóÜáöÞõ ÇáúÈóÇÑöìÃõ ÇáúãõÕóæøöÑõ áóåõ ÇáÇøñÓúãóÂÃõ ÇáúÃõÓúäóì íõÓóÈøöÃõ áóåõ ãóÇ Ãöì ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö æóåõæó ÇáúÚóÒöíÒõ ÇáúÃóßöíãõ ]

(He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, the King, the Holy, the One free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the Almighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the Best Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the Almighty, the Wise) (59:22-24).

 

Hence, Allah mentioned several of His Names as Attributes for His Name Allah. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóááøóåö ÇáÃóÓúãóÂÃõ ÇáúÃõÓúäóì ÃóÇÃúÚõæåõ ÈöåóÇ](And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them) (7:180), and,

 

 

[Þõáö ÇÃúÚõæÇú Çááøóåó Ãóæö ÇÃúÚõæÇú ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäó ÃóíøðÇ ãøóÇ ÊóÃúÚõæÇú Ãóáóåõ ÇáÇøñÓúãóÂÃó ÇáúÃõÓúäóì]

(Say (O Muhammad : "Invoke Allah or invoke the Most Gracious (Allah), by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names.'') (17:110)

 

Also, the Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«Åöäøó ááåö ÊöÓúÚóÉð æóÊöÓúÚöíäó ÇÓúãðÇ¡ ãöÇÆóÉð ÅöáóÇ æóÇÃöÃðÇ¡ ãóäú ÃóÃúÕóÇåóÇ ÃóÎóáó ÇáúÌóäøóÉó»(Allah has ninety-nine Names, one hundred minus one, whoever counts (and preserves) them, will enter Paradise.)

 

These Names were mentioned in a Hadith recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and there are several differences between these two narrations.

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The Meaning of Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim - the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim are two names derived from Ar-Rahmah (the mercy), but Rahman has more meanings that pertain to mercy than Ar-Rahim. There is a statement by Ibn Jarir that indicates that there is a consensus on this meaning. Further, Al-Qurtubi said, "The proof that these names are derived (from Ar-Rahmah), is what At-Tirmidhi recorded - and graded Sahih from `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

 

 

«ÞóÇáó Çááåõ ÊóÚóÇáì: ÃóäóÇ ÇáÑøóÃúãäõ ÎóáóÞúÊõ ÇáÑøóÃöãó æóÔóÞóÞúÊõ áóåóÇ ÇÓúãðÇ ãöäö ÇÓúãöí¡ Ãóãóäú æóÕóáóåóÇ æóÕóáúÊõåõ æóãóäú ÞóØóÚóåÇ ÞóØóÚúÊõåõ»(Allah the Exalted said, 'I Am Ar-Rahman. I created the Raham (womb, i.e. family relations) and derived a name for it from My Name. Hence, whoever keeps it, I will keep ties to him, and whoever severs it, I will sever ties with him.') He then said, "This is a text that indicates the derivation.'' He then said, "The Arabs denied the name Ar-Rahman, because of their ignorance about Allah and His attributes.''

 

Al-Qurtubi said, "It was said that both Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim have the same meaning, such as the words Nadman and Nadim, as Abu `Ubayd has stated. Abu `Ali Al-Farisi said, `Ar-Rahman, which is exclusively for Allah, is a name that encompasses every type of mercy that Allah has. Ar-Rahim is what effects the believers, for Allah said,

 

 

[æóßóÇäó ÈöÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó ÑóÃöíãÇð]

(And He is ever Rahim (merciful) to the believers.)' (33:43) Also, Ibn `Abbas said - about Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim, `They are two soft names, one of them is softer than the other (meaning it carries more implications of mercy).'''

 

Ibn Jarir said; As-Surri bin Yahya At-Tamimi narrated to me that `Uthman bin Zufar related that Al-`Azrami said about Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim, "He is Ar-Rahman with all creation and Ar-Rahim with the believers.'' Hence. Allah's statements,

 

 

[Ëõãøó ÇÓúÊóæóì Úóáóì ÇáúÚóÑúÔö ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäõ]

(Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne (in a manner that suits His majesty), Ar-Rahman) (25:59),) and,

 

 

[ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäõ Úóáóì ÇáúÚóÑúÔö ÇÓúÊóæóì ]

(Ar-Rahman (Allah) rose over (Istawa) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His majesty).) (20:5)

 

Allah thus mentioned the Istawa - rising over the Throne - along with His Name Ar-Rahman, to indicate that His mercy encompasses all of His creation. Allah also said,

 

 

[æóßóÇäó ÈöÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó ÑóÃöíãÇð]

(And He is ever Rahim (merciful) to the believers), thus encompassing the believers with His Name Ar-Rahim. They said, "This testifies to the fact that Ar-Rahman carries a broader scope of meanings pertaining to the mercy of Allah with His creation in both lives. Meanwhile, Ar-Rahim is exclusively for the believers.'' Yet, we should mention that there is a supplication that reads,

 

 

«ÑóÃúãäó ÇáÃøõäúíóÇ æóÇáúÂÎöÑóÉö æóÑóÃöíãóåõãóÇ»(The Rahman and the Rahim of this life and the Hereafter)

 

Allah's Name Ar-Rahman is exclusively His. For instance, Allah said,

 

 

[Þõáö ÇÃúÚõæÇú Çááøóåó Ãóæö ÇÃúÚõæÇú ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäó ÃóíøðÇ ãøóÇ ÊóÃúÚõæÇú Ãóáóåõ ÇáÇøñÓúãóÂÃó ÇáúÃõÓúäóì]

(Say (O Muhammad ): "Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman (Allah), by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names) (17:110),) and,

 

 

[æóÇÓúÆáú ãóäú ÃóÑúÓóáúäóÇ ãöä ÞóÈúáößó ãöä ÑøõÓõáöäó ÃóÌóÚóáúäóÇ ãöä Ãõæäö ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÃóÇáöåóÉð íõÚúÈóÃõæäó ]

(And ask (O Muhammad ) those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: "Did We ever appoint alihah (gods) to be worshipped besides Ar-Rahman (Most Gracious, Allah)'') (43:45).

 

Further, when Musaylimah the Liar called himself the Rahman of Yamamah, Allah made him known by the name `Liar' and exposed him. Hence, whenever Musaylimah is mentioned, he is described as `the Liar'. He became an example for lying among the residents of the cities and villages and the residents of the deserts, the bedouins.

 

Therefore, Allah first mentioned His Name - Allah - that is exclusively His and described this Name by Ar-Rahman, which no one else is allowed to use, just as Allah said,

 

 

[Þõáö ÇÃúÚõæÇú Çááøóåó Ãóæö ÇÃúÚõæÇú ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäó ÃóíøðÇ ãøóÇ ÊóÃúÚõæÇú Ãóáóåõ ÇáÇøñÓúãóÂÃó ÇáúÃõÓúäóì]

(Say (O Muhammad ): "Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman (Allah), by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names.'') (17:110)

 

Only Musaylimah and those who followed his misguided ways described Musaylimah by Ar-Rahman.

 

As for Allah's Name Ar-Rahim, Allah has described others by it. For instance, Allah said,

 

 

[áóÞóÃú ÌóÂÃóßõãú ÑóÓõæáñ ãøöäú ÃóäÃõÓößõãú ÚóÒöíÒñ Úóáóíúåö ãóÇ ÚóäöÊøõãú ÃóÑöíÕñ Úóáóíúßõãú ÈöÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó ÑóÃõæÃñ ÑøóÃöíãñ ]

(Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad ) from amongst yourselves (i.e. whom you know well). It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He (Muhammad ) is anxious over you (to be rightly guided) for the believers (he is) kind (full of pity), and Rahim (merciful)) (9:128).

 

Allah has also described some of His creation using some of His other Names. For instance, Allah said,

 

 

[ÅöäøóÇ ÎóáóÞúäóÇ ÇáÅöäÓóÜäó ãöä äøõØúÃóÉò ÃóãúÔóÇÌò äøóÈúÊóáöíåö ÃóÌóÚóáúäóÜåõ ÓóãöíÚÇð ÈóÕöíÑÇð ]

(Verily, We have created man from Nutfah (drops) of mixed semen (sexual discharge of man and woman), in order to try him, so We made him hearer (Sami`) and seer (Basir) (76:2).

 

In conclusion, there are several of Allah's Names that are used as names for others besides Allah. Further, some of Allah's Names are exclusive for Allah alone, such as Allah, Ar-Rahman, Al-Khaliq (the Creator), Ar-Raziq (the Sustainer), and so forth.

 

Hence, Allah started the Tasmiyah (meaning, `In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious Most Merciful') with His Name, Allah, and described Himself as Ar-Rahman, (Most Gracious) which is softer and more general than Ar-Rahim. The most honorable Names are mentioned first, just as Allah did here.

 

A Hadith narrated by Umm Salamah stated that the recitation of the Messenger of Allah was slow and clear, letter by letter,

 

 

[ÈöÓúãö Çááøóåö ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÇáÑøóÃöíãö - ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó - ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÇáÑøóÃöíãö - ãóÜáößö íóæúãö ÇáÃøöíäö ]

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists. The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. The Owner of the Day of Recompense) (1:1-4).

 

And this is how a group of scholars recite it. Others connected the recitation of the Tasmiyah to Al-Hamd.

 

 

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö ÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ]

(2. Al-Hamd be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.)

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The Meaning of Al-Hamd

 

Abu Ja`far bin Jarir said, "The meaning of

 

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö]

(Al-Hamdu Lillah) (all praise and thanks be to Allah) is: all thanks are due purely to Allah, alone, not any of the objects that are being worshipped instead of Him, nor any of His creation. These thanks are due to Allah's innumerable favors and bounties, that only He knows the amount of. Allah's bounties include creating the tools that help the creation worship Him, the physical bodies with which they are able to implement His commands, the sustenance that He provides them in this life, and the comfortable life He has granted them, without anything or anyone compelling Him to do so. Allah also warned His creation and alerted them about the means and methods with which they can earn eternal dwelling in the residence of everlasting happiness. All thanks and praise are due to Allah for these favors from beginning to end.''

 

Further, Ibn Jarir commented on the Ayah,

 

 

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö]

(Al-Hamdu Lillah), that it means, "A praise that Allah praised Himself with, indicating to His servants that they too should praise Him, as if Allah had said, `Say: All thanks and praise is due to Allah.' It was said that the statement,

 

 

[ÇáúÃóãúÃõ ááøóåö]

(All praise and thanks be to Allah), entails praising Allah by mentioning His most beautiful Names and most honorable Attributes. When one proclaims, `All thanks are due to Allah,' he will be thanking Him for His favors and bounties.''

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The Difference between Praise and Thanks

 

 

Hamd is more general, in that it is a statement of praise for one's characteristics, or for what he has done. Thanks are given for what was done, not merely for characteristics

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The Statements of the Salaf about Al-Hamd

 

Hafs mentioned that `Umar said to `Ali, "We know La ilaha illallah, Subhan Allah and Allahu Akbar. What about Al-Hamdu Lillah'' `Ali said, "A statement that Allah liked for Himself, was pleased with for Himself and He likes that it be repeated.'' Also, Ibn `Abbas said, "Al-Hamdu Lillah is the statement of appreciation. When the servant says Al-Hamdu Lillah, Allah says, `My servant has praised Me.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this Hadith.

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