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Dr. Jawad

002 Tafsir Of Sura Al-baqarah(the Cow)

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The Meaning of `Disease' in this Ayah

 

As-Suddi narrated from Abu Malik and (also) from Abu Salih, from Ibn `Abbas, and (also) Murrah Al-Hamdani from Ibn Mas`ud and other Companions that this Ayah,

 

 

[Ãöì ÞõáõæÈöåöãú ãøóÑóÖñ]

(In their hearts is a disease) means, `doubt', and,

 

 

[ÃóÒóÇÃóåõãõ Çááøóåõ ãóÑóÖðÇ]

(And Allah has increased their disease) also means `doubt'. Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah also said similarly. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on,

 

 

[Ãöì ÞõáõæÈöåöãú ãøóÑóÖñ]

(In their hearts is a disease), "A disease in the religion, not a physical disease. They are the hypocrites and the disease is the doubt that they brought to Islam.

 

 

[ÃóÒóÇÃóåõãõ Çááøóåõ ãóÑóÖðÇ]

(And Allah has increased their disease) meaning, increased them in shameful behavior.'' He also recited,

 

 

[ÃóÃóãøóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃÇãóäõæÇú ÃóÒóÇÃóÊúåõãú ÅöíãóÜäÇð æóåõãú íóÓúÊóÈúÔöÑõæäóæóÃóãøóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó Ãöì ÞõáõæÈöåöã ãøóÑóÖñ ÃóÒóÇÃóÊúåõãú ÑöÌúÓðÇ Åöáóì ÑöÌúÓöåöãú]

(As for those who believe, it has increased their faith, and they rejoice. But as for those in whose hearts is a disease, it will add disgrace to their disgrace.) (9:124-125) and commented, "Evil to their evil and deviation to their deviation.'' This statement by `Abdur-Rahman is true, and it constitutes a punishment that is compatible to the sin, just as the earlier scholars stated. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóÇáøóÃöíäó ÇåúÊóÃóæúÇú ÒóÇÃóåõãú åõÃðì æóÃóÇÊóÜåõãú ÊóÞõæóÇåõãú ]

(While as for those who accept guidance, He increases their guidance and grants them their piety) (47:17).

 

Allah said next,

 

[ÈöãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú íóßúÃöÈõæäó]

(Because they used to tell lies). The hypocrites have two characteristics, they lie and they deny the Unseen.

 

The scholars who stated that the Prophet knew the hypocrites of his time have only the Hadith of Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman as evidence. In it the Prophet gave him the names of fourteen hypocrites during the battle of Tabuk. These hypocrites plotted to assassinate the Prophet during the night on a hill in that area. They planned to excite the Prophet's camel, so that she would throw him down the hill. Allah informed the Prophet about their plot, and the Prophet told Hudhayfah their names.

 

As for the other hypocrites, Allah said about them,

 

[æóãöãøóäú Ãóæúáóßõã ãøöäó ÇáÇøñÚúÑóÇÈö ãõäóÜÃöÞõæäó æóãöäú Ãóåúáö ÇáúãóÃöíäóÉö ãóÑóÃõæÇú Úóáóì ÇáäøóÃóÇÞö áÇó ÊóÚúáóãõåõãú äóÃúäõ äóÚúáóãõåõãú]

(And among the bedouins around you, some are hypocrites, and so are some among the people of Al-Madinah who persist in hypocrisy; you (O Muhammad ) know them not, We know them) (9:101), and,

 

[áøóÆöä áøóãú íóäÊóåö ÇáúãõäóÜÃöÞõæäó æóÇáøóÃöíäó Ãöì ÞõáõæÈöåöãú ãøóÑóÖñ æóÇáúãõÑúÌöÃõæäó Ãöì ÇáúãóÃöíäóÉö áóäõÛúÑöíóäøóßó Èöåöãú Ëõãøó áÇó íõÌóÇæöÑõæäóßó Ãöíåó ÅöáÇøó ÞóáöíáÇð - ãøóáúÚõæäöíäó ÃóíúäóãóÇ ËõÞöÃõæÇú ÃõÎöÃõæÇú æóÞõÊøöáõæÇú ÊóÞúÊöíáÇð ]

(If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah do not cease, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbors but a little while. Accursed, they shall be seized wherever found, and killed with a (terrible) slaughter) (33:60-61).

 

These Ayat prove that the Prophet was not informed about each and everyone among the hypocrites of his time. Rather, the Prophet was only informed about their characteristics, and he used to assume that some people possessed these characteristics. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóæú äóÔóÂÃõ áÃóÑóíúäóÜßóåõãú ÃóáóÚóÑóÃúÊóåõã ÈöÓöíãóÜåõãú æóáóÊóÚúÑöÃóäøóåõãú Ãöì áóÃúäö ÇáúÞóæúáö]

(Had We willed, We could have shown them to you, and you should have known them by their marks; but surely, you will know them by the tone of their speech!) (47:30).

 

The most notorious hypocrite at that time was `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul; Zayd bin Arqam - the Companion - gave truthful testimony to that effect. In addition, `Umar bin Al-Khattab once mentioned the matter of Ibn Salul to the Prophet , who said,

 

 

«Åöäøöí ÃóßúÑóåõ Ãóäú ÊóÊóÃóÃøóËó ÇáúÚóÑóÈõ Ãóäøó ãõÃóãøóÃðÇ íóÞúÊõáõ ÃóÕúÃóÇÈóå»(I would not like the Arabs to say to each other that Muhammad is killing his Companions.)

 

Yet, when Ibn Salul died, the Prophet performed the funeral prayer for him and attended his funeral just as he used to do with other Muslims. It was recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

 

 

«Åöäøöí ÎõíøöÑúÊõ ÃóÇÎúÊóÑúÊ»(I was given the choice (to pray for him or not), so I chose.)

 

In another narration, the Prophet said,

 

 

«áóæú ÃóÚúáóãõ Ãóäøöí áóæú ÒöÃúÊõ Úóáóì ÇáÓøóÈúÚöíäó íõÛúÃóÑõ áóåõ áóÒöÃúÊ»(If I knew that by asking (Allah to forgive Ibn Salul) more than seventy times that He would forgive him, then I would do that.)

 

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ Þöíáó áóåõãú áÇó ÊõÃúÓöÃõæÇú Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö ÞóÇáõæÇú ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ãõÕúáöÃõæäó - ÃóáÇ Åöäøóåõãú åõãõ ÇáúãõÃúÓöÃõæäó æóáóÜßöä áÇøó íóÔúÚõÑõæäó ]

(11. And when it is said to them: "Do not make mischief on the earth,'' they say: "We are only peacemakers.'') (12. Verily, they are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not.)

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PropellerAds

Meaning of Mischief

 

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi said that Ibn `Abbas and Ibn Mas`ud commented,

 

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ Þöíáó áóåõãú áÇó ÊõÃúÓöÃõæÇú Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö ÞóÇáõæÇú ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ãõÕúáöÃõæäó ]

(And when it is said to them: "Do not make mischief on the earth,'' they say: "We are only peacemakers.'') "They are the hypocrites. As for,

 

 

[áÇó ÊõÃúÓöÃõæÇú Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö]

("Do not make mischief on the earth''), that is disbelief and acts of disobedience.'' Abu Ja`far said that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that Abu Al-`Aliyah said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ Þöíáó áóåõãú áÇó ÊõÃúÓöÃõæÇú Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö]

(And when it is said to them: "Do not make mischief on the earth,''), means, "Do not commit acts of disobedience on the earth. Their mischief is disobeying Allah, because whoever disobeys Allah on the earth, or commands that Allah be disobeyed, he has committed mischief on the earth. Peace on both the earth and in the heavens is ensured (and earned) through obedience (to Allah).'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah said similarly.

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Types of Mischief that the Hypocrites commit

 

Ibn Jarir said, "The hypocrites commit mischief on earth by disobeying their Lord on it and continuing in the prohibited acts. They also abandon what Allah made obligatory and doubt His religion, even though He does not accept a deed from anyone except with faith in His religion and certainty of its truth. The hypocrites also lie to the believers by saying contrary to the doubt and hesitation their hearts harbor. They give as much aid as they can, against Allah's loyal friends, and support those who deny Allah, His Books and His Messengers. This is how the hypocrites commit mischief on earth, while thinking that they are doing righteous work on earth.''

 

The statement by Ibn Jarir is true, taking the disbelievers as friends is one of the categories of mischief on the earth. Allah said,

 

 

[æóÇáøóÃíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ÈóÚúÖõåõãú ÃóæúáöíóÂÃõ ÈóÚúÖò ÅöáÇøó ÊóÃúÚóáõæåõ Êóßõäú ÃöÊúäóÉñ Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö æóÃóÓóÇÃñ ßóÈöíÑñ ]

(And those who disbelieve are allies of one another, if you do not do this (help each other), there will be turmoil and oppression on the earth, and great mischief.) (8:73), In this way Allah severed the loyalty between the believers and the disbelievers. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[íóÜÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú áÇó ÊóÊøóÎöÃõæÇú ÇáúßóÜÃöÑöíäó ÃóæúáöíóÂÃó ãöä Ãõæäö ÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó ÃóÊõÑöíÃõæäó Ãóä ÊóÌúÚóáõæÇú ááøóåö Úóáóíúßõãú ÓõáúØóÇäÇð ãøõÈöíäÇð ]

(O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as Awliya' (protectors or helpers or friends) instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest proof against yourselves) (4: 144).

 

Allah then said,

 

 

[Åöäøó ÇáúãõäóÜÃöÞöíäó Ãöì ÇáÃøóÑúßö ÇáÇøñÓúÃóáö ãöäó ÇáäøóÇÑö æóáóä ÊóÌöÃó áóåõãú äóÕöíÑÇð ]

(Verily, the hyprocrites will be in the lowest depth of the Fire; no helper will you find for them) (4:145).

 

Since the outward appearance of the hypocrite displays belief, he confuses the true believers. Hence, the deceitful behavior of the hypocrites is an act of mischief, because they deceive the believers by claiming what they do not believe in, and because they give support and loyalty to the disbelievers against the believers.

 

If the hypocrite remains a disbeliever (rather than pretending to be Muslim), the evil that results from him would be less. Even better, if the hypocrite becomes sincere with Allah and makes the statements that he utters conform to his deeds, he will gain success. Allah said,

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ Þöíáó áóåõãú áÇó ÊõÃúÓöÃõæÇú Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö ÞóÇáõæÇú ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ãõÕúáöÃõæäó ]

(And when it is said to them: "Do not make mischief on the earth,'' they say: "We are only peacemakers.'') meaning, "We seek to be friends with both parties, the believers and the disbelievers, and to have peace with both parties.'' Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

 

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ Þöíáó áóåõãú áÇó ÊõÃúÓöÃõæÇú Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö ÞóÇáõæÇú ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ãõÕúáöÃõæäó ]

(And when it is said to them: "Do not make mischief on the earth,'' they say: "We are only peacemakers.'') means, "We seek to make amends between the believers and the People of the Book. '' Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóáÇ Åöäøóåõãú åõãõ ÇáúãõÃúÓöÃõæäó æóáóÜßöä áÇøó íóÔúÚõÑõæäó ]

(Verily, they are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not.). This Ayah means that the hypocrites' behavior, and their claim that it is for peace, is itself mischief, although in their ignorance, they do not see it to be mischief.

 

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ Þöíáó áóåõãú ÃóÇãöäõæÇú ßóãó ÃóÇãóäó ÇáäøóÇÓõ ÞóÇáõæÇú ÃóäõÄúãöäõ ßóãó Âãóäó ÇáÓøõÃóåóÂÃõ ÃóáÇó Åöäøóåõãú åõãõ ÇáÓøõÃóåóÂÃõ æóáóÜßöä áÇøó íóÚúáóãõæäó ]

(13. And when it is said to them: Believe as the people believe,'' They say: "Shall we believe as the fools have believed'' Verily, they are the fools, but they do not know.)

 

Allah said that if the hypocrites are told,

 

 

[ÃóÇãöäõæÇú ßóãó ÃóÇãóäó ÇáäøóÇÓõ]

("Believe as the people believe,''), meaning, `Believe just as the believers believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, Resurrection after death, Paradise and Hellfire, etc. And obey Allah and His Messenger by heeding the commandments and avoiding the prohibitions.' Yet the hypocrites answer by saying,

 

 

[ÞóÇáõæÇú ÃóäõÄúãöäõ ßóãó Âãóäó ÇáÓøõÃóåóÂÃõ]

("Shall we believe as the fools have believed'') they meant (may Allah curse the hypocrites) the Companions of the Messenger of Allah . This is the same Tafsir given by Abu Al-`Aliyah and As-Suddi in his Tafsir, with a chain of narration to Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud and other Companions. This is also the Tafsir of Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. The hypocrites said, "Us and them having the same status, following the same path, while they are fools!'' `The fool' is the ignorant, simple-minded person who has little knowledge in areas of benefit and harm. This is why, according to the majority of the scholars, Allah used the term foolish to include children, when He said,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊõÄúÊõæÇú ÇáÓøõÃóåóÂÃó Ãóãúæóáóßõãõ ÇáøóÊöì ÌóÚóáó Çááøóåõ áóßõãú ÞöíóÜãÇð]

(And do not give your property, which Allah has made a means of support for you, to the foolish) (4:5).

 

Allah answered the hypocrites in all of these instances. For instance, Allah said here,

 

 

[ÃóáÇó Åöäøóåõãú åõãõ ÇáÓøõÃóåóÂÃõ]

(Verily, they are the fools). Allah thus affirmed that the hypocrites are indeed the fools, yet,

 

 

[æóáóÜßöä áÇøó íóÚúáóãõæäó]

(But they know not). Since they are so thoroughly ignorant, the hypocrites are unaware of their degree of deviation and ignorance, and such situation is more dangerous, a severer case of blindness, and further from the truth than one who is aware.

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ áóÞõæÇú ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú ÞóÇáõæÇ ÃóÇãóäøóÇ æóÅöÃóÇ ÎóáóæúÇú Åöáóì ÔóíóÜØöíäöåöãú ÞóÇáõæÇú ÅöäøóÇ ãóÚóßõãú ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ãõÓúÊóåúÒöÃõæäó - Çááøóåõ íóÓúÊóåúÒöìÃõ Èöåöãú æóíóãõÃøõåõãú Ãöí ØõÛúíóÜäöåöãú íóÚúãóåõæäó ]

(14. And when they meet those who believe, they say: "We believe,'' but when they are alone with their Shayatin (devils), they say: "Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking.'') (15. Allah mocks at them and leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly.)

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The Hypocrites' Cunning and Deceit

 

Allah said that when the hypocrites meet the believers, they proclaim their faith and pretend to be believers, loyalists and friends. They do this to misdirect, mislead and deceive the believers. The hypocrites also want to have a share of the benefits and gains that the believers might possibly acquire. Yet,

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ ÎóáóæúÇú Åöáóì ÔóíóÜØöíäöåöãú]

(But when they are alone with their Shayatin), meaning, if they are alone with their devils, such as their leaders and masters among the rabbis of the Jews, hypocrites and idolators.

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Human and Jinn Devils

 

Ibn Jarir said, "The devils of every creation are the mischievous among them. There are both human devils and Jinn devils. Allah said,

 

 

[æóßóÃóáößó ÌóÚóáúäóÇ áößõáøö äöÈöìøò ÚóÃõæøÇð ÔóíóÜØöíäó ÇáÅöäúÓö æóÇáúÌöäøö íõæÃöì ÈóÚúÖõåõãú Åöáóì ÈóÚúÖò ÒõÎúÑõÃó ÇáúÞóæúáö ÛõÑõæÑÇð]

(And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies Ü Shayatin (devils) among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of deception)) (6:112).

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The Meaning of `Mocking

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ÞóÇáõæÇú ÅöäøóÇ ãóÚóßõãú]

(They say: "Truly, we are with you''). Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means, "We are with you,

 

 

[ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ãõÓúÊóåúÒöÃõæäó]

(Verily, we were but mocking), meaning, we only mock people (the believers) and deceive them.'' Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

 

 

[ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ãõÓúÊóåúÒöÃõæäó]

(Verily, we were but mocking), means, "We (meaning the hypocrites) were mocking the Companions of Muhammad.'' Also, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah said similarly. Allah's statement,

 

 

[Çááøóåõ íóÓúÊóåúÒöìÃõ Èöåöãú æóíóãõÃøõåõãú Ãöí ØõÛúíóÜäöåöãú íóÚúãóåõæäó ]

(Allah mocks at them and leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly) answers the hypocrites and punishes them for their behavior. Ibn Jarir commented, "Allah mentioned what He will do to them on the Day of Resurrection, when He said,

 

 

[íóæúãó íóÞõæáõ ÇáúãõäóÜÃöÞõæäó æóÇáúãõäóÜÃöÞóÜÊõ áöáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú ÇäÙõÑõæäóÇ äóÞúÊóÈöÓú ãöä äøõæÑößõãú Þöíáó ÇÑúÌöÚõæÇú æóÑóÂÃóßõãú ÃóÇáúÊóãöÓõæÇú äõæÑÇð ÃóÖõÑöÈó Èóíúäóåõã ÈöÓõæÑò áøóåõ ÈóÇÈñ ÈóÇØöäõåõ Ãöíåö ÇáÑøóÃúãóÉõ æóÙóÜåöÑõåõ ãöä ÞöÈóáöåö ÇáúÚóÃóÇÈõ ]

(On the Day when the hypocrites Ü men and women Ü will say to the believers: "Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!'' It will be said: "Go back to your rear! Then seek a light!'' So a wall will be put up between them, with a gate therein. Inside it will be mercy, and outside it will be torment.) (57:13), and,

 

 

[æóáÇó íóÃúÓóÈóäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ÃóäøóãóÇ äõãúáöì áóåõãú ÎóíúÑñ áÇøðäÃõÓöåöãú ÅöäøóãóÇ äõãúáöì áóåõãú áöíóÒúÃóÇÃõæÇú ÅöËúãóÇð](And let not the disbelievers think that Our postponing of their punishment is good for them. We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness.) (3:178).''

 

He then said, "This, and its like, is Allah's mockery of the hypocrites and the people of Shirk.''

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The Hypocrites suffering for their Plots

 

Allah stated that He will punish the hypocrites for their mockery, using the same terms to describe both the deed and its punishment, although the meaning is different. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóÌóÒóÂÃõ ÓóíøöÆóÉò ÓóíøöÆóÉñ ãøöËúáõåóÇ Ãóãóäú ÚóÃóÇ æóÃóÕúáóÃó ÃóÃóÌúÑõåõ Úóáóì Çááøóåö]

(The recompense for an offense is an offense equal to it; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah) (42:40), and,

 

 

[Ãóãóäö ÇÚúÊóÃóì Úóáóíúßõãú ÃóÇÚúÊóÃõæÇú Úóáóíúåö]

(Then whoever transgresses (the prohibition) against you, transgress likewise against him) (2:194).

 

The first act is an act of injustice, while the second act is an act of justice. So both actions carry the same name, while being different in reality. This is how the scholars explain deceit, cunning and mocking when attributed to Allah in the Qur'an. Surely, Allah exacts revenge for certain evil acts with a punishment that is similar in nature to the act itself. We should affirm here that Allah does not do these things out of joyful play, according to the consensus of the scholars, but as a just form of punishment for certain evil acts.

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Meaning of `Leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóíóãõÃøõåõãú Ãöí ØõÛúíóÜäöåöãú íóÚúãóåõæäó]

(Allah mocks at them and leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly). As-Suddi reported that Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud and several other Companions of the Messenger of Allah said that,

 

[æóíóãõÃøõåõãú]

(and leaves them increasing) means, He gives them respite. Also, Mujahid said, "He (causes their deviation) to increase.'' Allah said;

 

 

[ÃóíóÃúÓóÈõæäó ÃóäøóãóÇ äõãöÃøõåõãú Èöåö ãöä ãøóÇáò æóÈóäöíäó - äõÓóÇÑöÚõ áóåõãú Ãöì ÇáúÎóíúÑóÊö Èóá áÇøó íóÔúÚõÑõæäó ]

(Do they think that by the wealth and the children with which We augment them. (That) We hasten to give them with good things. Nay, but they perceive not.) (23:55-56).

 

Ibn Jarir commented, "The correct meaning of this Ayah is `We give them increase from the view of giving them respite and leaving them in their deviation and rebellion.' Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóäõÞóáøöÈõ ÃóÃúÆöÃóÊóåõãú æóÃóÈúÕóÜÑóåõãú ßóãóÇ áóãú íõÄúãöäõæÇú Èöåö Ãóæøóáó ãóÑøóÉò æóäóÃóÑõåõãú Ãöì ØõÛúíóÇäöåöãú íóÚúãóåõæäó ]

(And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away (from guidance), as they refused to believe in it the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly). '' (6:110).

 

Tughyan used in this Ayah means to transgress the limits, just as Allah said in another Ayah,

 

 

[ÅöäøóÇ áóãøóÇ ØóÛóÇ ÇáúãóÂÃõ ÃóãóáúäóÜßõãú Ãöì ÇáúÌóÇÑöíóÉö ]

(Verily, when the water Tagha (rose) beyond its limits, We carried you in the ship) (69:11).

 

Also, Ibn Jarir said that the term `Amah, in the Ayah means, `deviation'. He also said about Allah's statement,

 

 

[Ãöí ØõÛúíóÜäöåöãú íóÚúãóåõæäó]

(in their deviation to wander), "In the misguidance and disbelief that has encompassed them, causing them to be confused and unable to find a way out of it. This is because Allah has stamped their hearts, sealed them, and blinded their vision. Therefore, they do not recognize guidance or find the way out of their deviation.''

 

 

[ÃõæúáóÜÆößó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÇÔúÊóÑóæõÇú ÇáÖøóáóÜáóÉó ÈöÇáúåõÃóì ÃóãóÇ ÑóÈöÃóÊ ÊøöÌóÜÑóÊõåõãú æóãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú ãõåúÊóÃöíäó ]

(16. These are they who have purchased error with guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided.) In his Tafsir, As-Suddi reported that Ibn `Abbas and Ibn Mas`ud commented on;

 

 

[ÃõæúáóÜÆößó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÇÔúÊóÑóæõÇú ÇáÖøóáóÜáóÉó ÈöÇáúåõÃóì]

(These are they who have purchased error with guidance) saying it means, "They pursued misguidance and abandoned guidance. '' Mujahid said, "They believed and then disbelieved,'' while Qatadah said, "They preferred deviation to guidance.'' Qatadah's statement is similar in meaning to Allah's statement about Thamud,

 

 

[æóÃóãøóÇ ËóãõæÃõ ÃóåóÃóíúäóÜåõãú ÃóÇÓúÊóÃóÈøõæÇú ÇáúÚóãóì Úóáóì ÇáúåõÃóì]

(And as for Thamud, We granted them guidance, but they preferred blindness to guidance) (41:17).

 

In summary, the statements that we have mentioned from the scholars of Tafsir indicate that the hypocrites deviate from the true guidance and prefer misguidance, substituting wickedness in place of righteousness. This meaning explains Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃõæúáóÜÆößó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÇÔúÊóÑóæõÇú ÇáÖøóáóÜáóÉó ÈöÇáúåõÃóì]

(These are they who have purchased error with guidance), meaning, they exchanged guidance to buy misguidance. This meaning includes those who first believed, then later disbelieved, whom Allah described,

 

 

[Ãóáößó ÈöÃóäøóåõãú ÃóÇãóäõæÇø Ëõãøó ßóÃóÑõæÇ ÃóØõÈöÚó Úóáóì ÞõáõæÈöåöãú]

(That is because they believed, and then disbelieved; therefore their hearts are sealed) (63:3).

 

The Ayah also includes those who preferred deviation over guidance. The hypocrites fall into several categories. This is why Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóãóÇ ÑóÈöÃóÊ ÊøöÌóÜÑóÊõåõãú æóãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú ãõåúÊóÃöíäó]

(So their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided), meaning their trade did not succeed nor were they righteous or rightly guided throughout all this. In addition, Ibn Jarir narrated that Qatadah commented on the Ayah,

 

 

[ÃóãóÇ ÑóÈöÃóÊ ÊøöÌóÜÑóÊõåõãú æóãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú ãõåúÊóÃöíäó]

(So their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided), "By Allah! I have seen them leaving guidance for deviation, leaving the Jama`ah (the community of the believers) for the sects, leaving safety for fear, and the Sunnah for innovation.'' Ibn Abi Hatim also reported other similar statements.

 

 

[ãóËóáõåõãú ßóãóËóáö ÇáøóÃöì ÇÓúÊóæúÞóÃó äóÇÑÇð Ãóáóãøó ÃóÖóÇÃóÊú ãóÇ Ãóæúáóåõ ÃóåóÈó Çááøóåõ ÈöäõæÑöåöãú æóÊóÑóßóåõãú Ãöí ÙõáõãóÜÊò áÇøó íõÈúÕöÑõæäó - Õõãøñ Èõßúãñ Úõãúìñ Ãóåõãú áÇó íóÑúÌöÚõæäó ]

(17. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it illuminated all around him, Allah removed their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see). (18. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the right path).)

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The Example of the Hypocrites

 

 

Allah likened the hypocrites when they bought deviation with guidance, thus acquiring utter blindness, to the example of a person who started a fire. When the fire was lit, and illumnitated the surrounding area, the person benefited from it and felt safe. Then the fire was suddenly extinguished. Therefore, total darkness covered this person, and he became unable to see anything or find his way out of it. Further, this person could not hear or speak and became so blind that even if there were light, he would not be able to see. This is why he cannot return to the state that he was in before this happened to him. Such is the case with the hypocrites who preferred misguidance over guidance, deviation over righteousness. This parable indicates that the hypocrites first believed, then disbelieved, just as Allah stated in other parts of the Qur'an.

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃóåóÈó Çááøóåõ ÈöäõæÑöåöãú]

(Allah removed their light) means, Allah removed what benefits them, and this is the light, and He left them with what harms them, that is, the darkness and smoke. Allah said,

 

[æóÊóÑóßóåõãú Ãöí ÙõáõãóÜÊò]

(And left them in darkness), that is their doubts, disbelief and hypocrisy.

 

[áÇøó íõÈúÕöÑõæäó]

((So) they could not see) meaning, they are unable to find the correct path or find its direction. In addition, they are,

 

 

[Õõãøñ]

(deaf) and thus cannot hear the guidance,

 

[Èößõãú]

(dumb) and cannot utter the words that might benefit them,

 

[Úóãðì]

(and blind) in total darkness and deviation. Similarly, Allah said,

 

[ÃóÅöäøóåóÇ áÇó ÊóÚúãóì ÇáÇøñÈúÕóÜÑõ æóáóÜßöä ÊóÚúãóì ÇáúÞõáõæÈõ ÇáøóÊöì Ãöì ÇáÕøõÃõæÑö]

(Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind) (22:46) and this why they cannot get back to the state of guidance that they were in, since they sold it for misguidance.

 

 

[Ãóæú ßóÕóíøöÈò ãøöäó ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö Ãöíåö ÙõáõãóÜÊñ æóÑóÚúÃñ æóÈóÑúÞñ íóÌúÚóáõæäó ÃóÕúÜÈöÚóåõãú Ãöì ÃóÇÃóÇäöåöã ãøöäó ÇáÕøóæóÚöÞö ÃóÃóÑó ÇáúãóæúÊö æóÇááøóåõ ãõÃöíØñ ÈöÇáúßÜÃöÑöíäó - íóßóÇÃõ ÇáúÈóÑúÞõ íóÎúØóÃõ ÃóÈúÕóÜÑóåõãú ßõáøóãó ÃóÖóÂÃó áóåõã ãøóÔóæúÇú Ãöíåö æóÅöÃó ÃóÙúáóãó Úóáóíúåöãú ÞóÇãõæÇú æóáóæú ÔóÂÃó Çááøóåõ áóÃóåóÈó ÈöÓóãúÚöåöãú æóÃóÈúÕóÜÑöåöãú Åöäøó Çááøóåó Úóáóì ßõáøö ÔóìúÃò ÞóÃöíÑñ ]

(19. Or like a rainstorm in the sky, bringing darkness, thunder, and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers.) (20. The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allah willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allah has power over all things.)

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Another Parable of the Hypocrites

 

This is another parable which Allah gave about the hypocrites who sometimes know the truth and doubt it at other times. When they suffer from doubt, confusion and disbelief, their hearts are,

 

[ßóÕóíøöÈò]

(Like a Sayyib), meaning, "The rain", as Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, and several other Companions have confirmed as well as Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata', Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, `Ata' Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Ad-Dahhak said "It is the clouds." However, the most accepted opinion is that it means the rain that comes down during,

 

 

[ÙõáõãóÜÊö]

(darkness), meaning, here, the doubts, disbelief and hypocrisy.

 

 

[æóÑóÚúÃñ]

(thunder) that shocks the hearts with fear. The hypocrites are usually full of fear and anxiety, just as Allah described them,

 

 

[íóÃúÓóÈõæäó ßõáøó ÕóíúÃóÉò Úóáóíúåöãú]

(They think that every cry is against them) (63: 4), and,

 

 

[æóíóÃúáöÃõæäó ÈöÇááøóåö Åöäøóåõãú áóãöäßõãú æóãóÇ åõã ãøöäßõãú æóáóÜßöäøóåõãú Þóæúãñ íóÃúÑóÞõæäó - áóæú íóÌöÃõæäó ãóáúÌóÆÇð Ãóæú ãóÛóÜÑóÇÊò Ãóæú ãõÃøóÎóáÇð áøóæóáøóæúÇú Åöáóíúåö æóåõãú íóÌúãóÃõæäó ]

(They swear by Allah that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people who are afraid. Should they find refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto in a swift rush) (9:56-57).

 

[ÇáúÈóÑúÞó]

(The lightning), is in reference to the light of faith that is sometimes felt in the hearts of the hypocrites,

 

 

[íóÌúÚóáõæäó ÃóÕúÜÈöÚóåõãú Ãöì ÃóÇÃóÇäöåöã ãøöäó ÇáÕøóæóÚöÞö ÃóÃóÑó ÇáúãóæúÊö æóÇááøóåõ ãõÃöíØñ ÈöÇáúßÜÃöÑöíäó]

(They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers), meaning, their cautiousness does not benefit them because they are bound by Allah's all-encompassing will and decision. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[åóáõ ÃóÊóÇßó ÃóÃöíËõ ÇáúÌõäõæÃö - ÃöÑúÚóæúäó æóËóãõæÃó - Èóáö ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú Ãöì ÊóßúÃöíÈò - æóÇááøóåõ ãöä æóÑóÂÆöåöãú ãøõÃöíØñ ]

(Has the story reached you of two hosts. Of Fir`awn (Pharaoh) and Thamud Nay! The disbelievers (persisted) in denying. And Allah encompasses them from behind!) (85:17-20).

 

Allah then said,

 

[íóßóÇÃõ ÇáúÈóÑúÞõ íóÎúØóÃõ ÃóÈúÕóÜÑóåõãú]

(The lightning almost snatches away their sight) meaning, because the lightning is strong itself, and because their comprehension is weak and does not allow them to embrace the faith. Also, `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

 

 

[íóßóÇÃõ ÇáúÈóÑúÞõ íóÎúØóÃõ ÃóÈúÕóÜÑóåõãú]

(The lightning almost snatches away their sight), "The Qur'an mentioned almost all of the secrets of the hypocrites.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah also narrated that Ibn `Abbas said,

 

[ßõáøóãóÂ ÃóÖóÂÃó áóåõã ãøóÔóæúÇú Ãöíåö]

(Whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein), "Whenever the hypocrites acquire a share in the victories of Islam, they are content with this share. Whenever Islam suffers a calamity, they are ready to revert to disbelief.''. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóãöäó ÇáäøóÇÓö ãóä íóÚúÈõÃõ Çááøóåó Úóáóì ÃóÑúÃò ÃóÅöäú ÃóÕóÇÈóåõ ÎóíúÑñ ÇØúãóÃóäøó Èöåö]

(And among mankind is he who worships Allah on the edge: If good befalls him, he is content with that.) (22:11). Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

 

[ßõáøóãó ÃóÖóÂÃó áóåõã ãøóÔóæúÇú Ãöíåö æóÅöÃó ÃóÙúáóãó Úóáóíúåöãú ÞóÇãõæÇú]

(Whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still), "They recognize the truth and speak about it. So their speech is upright, but when they revert to disbeleif, they again fall into confusion.'' This was also said by Abu Al-`Aliyah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi, who narrated it from the Companions, and it is the most obvious and most correct view, and Allah knows best.

 

Consequently, on the Day of Judgment, the believers will be given a light according to the degree of their faith. Some of them will gain light that illuminates over a distance of several miles, some more, some less. Some people's light will glow sometimes and be extinguished at other times. They will, therefore, walk on the Sirat (the bridge over the Fire) in the light, stopping when it is extinguished. Some people will have no light at all, these are the hypocrites whom Allah described when He said,

 

[íóæúãó íóÞõæáõ ÇáúãõäóÜÃöÞõæäó æóÇáúãõäóÜÃöÞóÜÊõ áöáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú ÇäÙõÑõæäóÇ äóÞúÊóÈöÓú ãöä äøõæÑößõãú Þöíáó ÇÑúÌöÚõæÇú æóÑóÂÃóßõãú ÃóÇáúÊóãöÓõæÇú äõæÑÇð]

(On the Day when the hypocrites Ü men and women Ü will say to the believers: "Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!'' It will be said to them; "Go back to you rear! Then seek a light!'') (57:13).

 

Allah described the believers,

 

[íóæúãó ÊóÑóì ÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó æóÇáúãõÄúãöäóÜÊö íóÓúÚóì äõæÑõåõã Èóíúäó ÃóíúÃöíåöãú æóÈöÃóíúãóÜäöåöã ÈõÔúÑóÇßõãõ Çáúíóæúãó ÌóäøóÜÊñ ÊóÌúÑöì ãöä ÊóÃúÊöåóÇ ÇáÇøñäúåóÜÑõ]

(On the Day you shall see the believing men and the believing women Ü their light running forward before them and by their right hands. Glad tidings for you this Day! Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)) (57:12), and,

 

 

[íóæúãó áÇó íõÎúÒöì Çááøóåõ ÇáäøóÈöìøó æóÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú ãóÚóåõ äõæÑõåõãú íóÓúÚóì Èóíúäó ÃóíúÃöíåöãú æóÈöÃóíúãóÜäöåöãú íóÞõæáõæäó ÑóÈøóäó ÃóÊúãöãú áóäóÇ äõæÑóäóÇ æóÇÛúÃöÑú áóäó Åöäøóßó Úóáóì ßõáøö ÔóìúÃò ÞóÃöíÑñ]

(The Day that Allah will not disgrace the Prophet (Muhammad ) and those who believe with him. Their Light will run forward before them and (with their Records Ü Books of deeds) in their right hands. They will say: "Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us [and do not put it off till we cross over the Sirat (a slippery bridge over the Hell) safely] and grant us forgiveness. Verily, You are Able to do all things'') (66:8).

 

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud commented on,

 

 

[äõæÑõåõãú íóÓúÚóì Èóíúäó ÃóíúÃöíåöãú]

(Their Light will run forward before them), "They will pass on the Sirat. according to their deeds. The light that some people have will be as big as a mountain, while the light of others will be as big as a date tree. The people who will have the least light are those whose index fingers will sometimes be lit and extinguished at other times.'' Ibn Abi Hatim also reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Every person among the people of Tawhid (Islamic Monotheism) will gain a light on the Day of Resurrection. As for the hypocrite, his light will be extinguished. When the believers witness the hypocrite's light being extinguished, they will feel anxious. Hence, they will supplicate,

 

 

[ÑóÈøóäó ÃóÊúãöãú áóäóÇ äõæÑóäóÇ]

(Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us).'' Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said, "On the Day of Resurrection, everyone who has embraced the faith will be given a light. When they arrive at the Sirat, the light of the hypocrites will be extinguished. When the believers see this, they will feel anxious and supplicate,

 

 

[ÑóÈøóäó ÃóÊúãöãú áóäóÇ äõæÑóäóÇ]

(Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us).'

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Types of Believers and Types of Disbelievers

 

Consequently, there are several types of people. There are the believers whom the first four Ayat (2:2-5) in Surat Al-Baqarah describe. There are the disbelievers who were described in the next two Ayat. And there are two categories of hypocrites: the complete hypocrites who were mentioned in the parable of the fire, and the hesitant hypocrites, whose light of faith is sometimes lit and sometimes extinguished. The parable of the rain was revealed about this category, which is not as evil as the first category.

 

This is similar to the parables that were given in Surat An-Nur (chapter 24). Like the example of the believer and the faith that Allah put in his heart, compared to a brightly illuminated lamp, just like a rising star. This is the believer, whose heart is built on faith and receiving its support from the divine legislation that was revealed to it, without any impurities or imperfections, as we will come to know, Allah willing.

 

Allah gave a parable of the disbelievers who think that they have something, while in reality they have nothing; such people are those who have compounded ignorance. Allah said,

 

 

[æóÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ÃóÚúãóÜáõåõãú ßóÓóÑóÇÈò ÈöÞöíÚóÉò íóÃúÓóÈõåõ ÇáÙøóãúÂäõ ãóÂÃð ÃóÊøóì ÅöÃóÇ ÌóÂÃóåõ áóãú íóÌöÃúåõ ÔóíúÆÇð]

(As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing) (24:39).

 

Allah then gave the example of ignorant disbelievers, simple in their ignorance. He said;

 

 

[Ãóæú ßóÙõáõãóÜÊò Ãöì ÈóÃúÑò áøõÌøöìøò íóÛúÔóÜåõ ãóæúÌñ ãøöä ÃóæúÞöåö ãóæúÌñ ãøöä ÃóæúÞöåö ÓóÃóÇÈñ ÙõáõãóÜÊñ ÈóÚúÖõåóÇ ÃóæúÞó ÈóÚúÖò ÅöÃó ÃóÎúÑóÌó íóÃóåõ áóãú íóßóÃú íóÑóÇåóÇ æóãóä áøóãú íóÌúÚóáö Çááøóåõ áóåõ äõæÑÇð ÃóãóÇ áóåõ ãöä äõæÑò ]

(Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed by waves, topped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allah has not appointed light, for him there is no light) (24:40).

 

Therefore, Allah divided the camp of the disbelievers into two groups, advocates and followers. Allah mentioned these two groups in the beginning of Surat Al-Hajj,

 

 

[æóãöäó ÇáäøóÇÓö ãóä íõÌóÜÃöáõ Ãöì Çááøóåö ÈöÛóíúÑö Úöáúãò æóíóÊøóÈöÚõ ßõáøó ÔóíúØóÜäò ãøóÑöíÃò ]

(And among mankind is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge, and follows every rebellious (disobedient to Allah) Shaytan (devil) (devoid of every kind of good)) (22:3), and,

 

[æãöäó ÇáäøóÇÓö ãóä íõÌóÜÃöáõ Ãöì Çááøóåö ÈöÛóíúÑö Úöáúãò æóáÇó åõÃðì æóáÇó ßöÊóÜÈò ãøõäöíÑò ]

(And among men is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge or guidance, or a Book giving light (from Allah)) (22:8).

 

Furthermore, Allah has divided the group of the believers in the beginning of Surat Al-Waqi`ah (56) and at the end. He also divided them in Surat Al-Insan (76) into two groups, the Sabiqun (those who preceded), they are the "near ones" (Muqaribun) and Ashab Al-Yamin (the companions of the right), and they are righteous (Abrar).

 

In summary, these Ayat divide the believers into two categories, the near ones and righteous. Also, the disbelievers are of two types, advocates and followers. In addition, the hypocrites are divided into two types, pure hypocrites and those who have some hypocrisy in them. The Two Sahihs record that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Prophet said,

 

 

«ËóáóÇËñ ãóäú ßõäøó Ãöíåö ßóÇäó ãõäóÇÃöÞðÇ ÎóÇáöÕðÇ¡ æóãóäú ßóÇäóÊú Ãöíåö æóÇÃöÃóÉñ ãöäúåõäøó ßóÇäóÊú Ãöíåö ÎóÕúáóÉñ ãöäó ÇáäøöÃóÇÞö ÃóÊøóì íóÃóÚóåóÇ: ãóäú ÅöÃóÇ ÃóÃøóËó ßóÃóÈó¡ æóÅöÃóÇ æóÚóÃó ÃóÎúáóÃó¡ æóÅöÃóÇ ÇÆúÊõãöäó ÎóÇä»(Whoever has the following three (characteristics) will be a pure hypocrite, and whoever has one of the following three characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy, unless and until he gives it up. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie. Whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous. Whenever he is entrusted, he breaches the trust)

 

Hence, man might have both a part of faith and a part of hypocrisy, whether in deed, as this Hadith stipulates, or in the creed, as the Ayah (2:20) stipulates.

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Types of Hearts

 

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Sa`id saying that the Messenger of Allah said

 

 

«ÇáúÞõáõæÈõ ÃóÑúÈóÚóÉñ: ÞóáúÈñ ÃóÌúÑóÃõ Ãöíåö ãöËúáõ ÇáÓøöÑóÇÌö íóÒúåóÑõ æóÞóáúÈñ ÃóÛúáóÃõ ãóÑúÈõæØñ Úóáì ÛöáóÇÃöåö æóÞóáúÈñ ãóäúßõæÓñ æóÞóáúÈñ ãõÕúÃóÃñ¡ ÃóÃóãøóÇ ÇáúÞóáúÈõ ÇáúÃóÌúÑóÃõ ÃóÞóáúÈõ ÇáúãõÄúãöäö ÃóÓöÑóÇÌõåõ Ãöíåö äõæÑõåõ¡ æóÃóãøóÇ ÇáúÞóáúÈõ ÇáúÃóÛúáóÃõ ÃóÞóáúÈõ ÇáúßóÇÃöÑö¡ æóÃóãøóÇ ÇáúÞóáúÈõ ÇáúãóäúßõæÓõ ÃóÞóáúÈõ ÇáúãõäóÇÃöÞö ÇáúÎóÇáöÕö ÚóÑóÃó Ëõãøó ÃóäúßóÑó æóÃóãøóÇ ÇáúÞóáúÈõ ÇáúãõÕúÃóÃõ ÃóÞóáúÈñ Ãöíåö ÅíãóÇäñ æóäöÃóÇÞñ æóãóËóáõ ÇáúÅíãóÇäö Ãöíåö ßóãóËóáö ÇáúÈóÞúáóÉö íóãõÃøõåóÇ ÇáúãóÇÃõ ÇáØøóíøöÈõ æóãóËóáõ ÇáäøöÃóÇÞö Ãöíåö ßóãóËóáö ÇáúÞõÑúÃóÉö íóãõÃøõåóÇ ÇáúÞóíúÃõ æóÇáÃøóãõ ÃóÃóíøõ ÇáúãóÇÃøóÊóíúäö ÛóáóÈóÊú Úóáóì ÇáúÃõÎúÑóì ÛóáóÈóÊú Úóáóíúå»(The hearts are four (types): polished as shiny as the radiating lamp, a sealed heart with a knot tied around its seal, a heart that is turned upside down and a wrapped heart. As for the polished heart, it is the heart of the believer and the lamp is the light of faith. The sealed heart is the heart of the disbeliever. The heart that is turned upside down is the heart of the pure hypocrite, because he had knowledge but denied it. As for the wrapped heart, it is a heart that contains belief and hypocrisy. The example of faith in this heart, is the example of the herb that is sustained by pure water. The example of hypocrisy in it, is the example of an ulcer that thrives on puss and blood. Whichever of the two substances has the upper hand, it will have the upper hand on that heart). This Hadith has a Jayid Hasan (good) chain of narration.

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóæú ÔóÂÃó Çááøóåõ áóÃóåóÈó ÈöÓóãúÚöåöãú æóÃóÈúÕóÜÑöåöãú Åöäøó Çááøóåó Úóáóì ßõáøö ÔóìúÃò ÞóÃöíÑñ]

(And if Allah willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allah has power over all things). Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóáóæú ÔóÂÃó Çááøóåõ áóÃóåóÈó ÈöÓóãúÚöåöãú æóÃóÈúÕóÜÑöåöãú]

(And if Allah willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight), "Because they abandoned the truth after they had knowledge in it.''

 

 

[Åöäøó Çááøóåó Úóáóì ßõáøö ÔóìúÃò ÞóÃöíÑñ]

(Certainly, Allah has power over all things). Ibn `Abbas said, "Allah is able to punish or pardon His servants as He wills.'' Ibn Jarir commented, "Allah only described Himself with the ability to do everything in this Ayah as a warning to the hypocrites of His control over everything, and to inform them that His ability completely encompasses them and that He is able to take away their hearing and sight.''

 

Ibn Jarir and several other scholars of Tafsir stated that these two parables are about the same kind of hypocrite. So the `or' mentioned in,

 

 

[Ãóæú ßóÕóíøöÈò ãøöäó ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö]

(Or like a rainstorm from the sky) means `and', just as the Ayah,

 

[æóáÇó ÊõØöÚú ãöäúåõãú ÃóÇËöãÇð Ãóæú ßóÃõæÑÇð]

(And obey neither a sinner or a disbeliever among them). Therefore, `or' in the Ayah includes a choice of using either example for the hypocrites. Also, Al-Qurtubi said that `or' means, "To show compatibility of the two choices, just as when one says, `Sit with Al-Hasan or Ibn Sirin.' According to the view of Az-Zamakhshari, `so it means each of these persons is the same as the other, so you may sit with either one of them.' The meaning of `or' thus becomes `either.' Allah gave these two examples of the hypocrites, because they both perfectly describe them.''

 

I (Ibn Kathir) say, these descriptions are related to the type of hypocrite, because there is a difference between them as we stated. For instance, Allah mentioned these types in Surat Bara'ah (chapter 9) when He repeated the statement, "And among them'' three times, describing their types, characteristics, statements and deeds. So the two examples mentioned here describe two types of hypocrites whose characteristics are similar. For instance, Allah gave two examples in Surat An-Nur, one for the advocates of disbelief and one for the followers of disbelief, He said,

 

 

[æóÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ÃóÚúãóÜáõåõãú ßóÓóÑóÇÈò ÈöÞöíÚóÉò]

(As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert) (24:39), until,

 

 

[Ãóæú ßóÙõáõãóÜÊò Ãöì ÈóÃúÑò áøõÌøöìøò]

(Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea) (24:40).

 

The first example is of the advocates of disbelief who have complex ignorance, while the second is about the followers who have simple ignorance. Allah knows best.

 

 

[íóÜÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáäøóÇÓõ ÇÚúÈõÃõæÇú ÑóÈøóßõãõ ÇáøóÃöìú ÎóáóÞóßõãú æóÇáøóÃöíäó ãöä ÞóÈúáößõãú áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóÊøóÞõæäó - ÇáøóÃöì ÌóÚóáó áóßõãõ ÇáÇøñÑúÖó ÃöÑóÇÔÇð æóÇáÓøóãóÂÃó ÈöäóÂÃð æóÃóäÒóáó ãöäó ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö ãóÂÃð ÃóÃóÎúÑóÌó Èöåö ãöäó ÇáËøóãóÑóÊö ÑöÒúÞÇð áøóßõãú ÃóáÇó ÊóÌúÚóáõæÇú ááøóåö ÃóäÃóÇÃÇð æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóÚúáóãõæäó ]

(21. O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may acquire Taqwa.) (22. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He alone has the right to

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Tawhid Al-Uluhiyyah

 

Allah next mentioned His Oneness in divinity and stated that He has favored His servants by bringing them to life after they did not exist. He also surrounded them with blessings, both hidden and apparent. He made the earth a resting place for them, just like the bed, stable with the firm mountains.

 

[æóÇáÓøóãóÂÃó ÈöäóÂÃð]

(And the sky as a canopy) meaning, `a ceiling'. Similarly, Allah said in another Ayah,

 

 

[æóÌóÚóáúäóÇ ÇáÓøóãóÂÃó ÓóÞúÃÇð ãøóÃúÃõæÙÇð æóåõãú Úóäú ÃóÇíóÜÊöåóÇ ãõÚúÑöÖõæäó ]

(And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs (i.e. sun, moon, winds, clouds)) (21:32).

 

 

[æóÃóäÒóáó áóßõãú ãøöäó ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö ãóÂÃð]

(And sends down for you water (rain) from the sky) meaning, through the clouds, when they need the rain. Hence, Allah caused the various types of vegetation and fruits to grow as a means of sustenance for people and their cattle. Allah reiterated this bounty in various parts of the Qur'an.

 

There is another Ayah that is similar to this Ayah (2:22), that is, Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÇáøóÃöì ÌóÚóÜáó áóßõÜãõ ÇáÇøñÑúÖó ÞóÜÑóÇÑÇð æóÇáÓøóãóÂÃó ÈöäóÜÂÃð æóÕóæøóÑóßõÜãú ÃóÃóÃúÓóäó ÕõæóÑóßõÜãú æóÑóÒóÞóßõÜãú ãøöäó ÇáØøóíøöÈóÜÊö Ãóáößõãõ Çááøóåõ ÑóÈøõßõÜãú ÃóÊóÜÈóÜÑóßó Çááøóåõ ÑóÈøõ ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó]

(It is He Who has made for you the earth as a dwelling place and the sky as a canopy, and has given you shape and made your shapes good (looking) and has provided you with good things. That is Allah, your Lord, so Blessed be Allah, the Lord of all that exists) (40:64).

 

The meaning that is reiterated here is that Allah is the Creator, the Sustainer, the Owner and Provider of this life, all that is in and on it. Hence, He alone deserves to be worshipped, and no one and nothing is to be associated with Him. This is why Allah said next,

 

 

[ÃóáÇó ÊóÌúÚóáõæÇú ááøóåö ÃóäÃóÇÃÇð æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóÚúáóãõæäó]

(Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He alone has the right to be worshipped)) (2:22).

 

The Two Sahihs record that Ibn Mas`ud said, "I said to the Messenger of Allah , `Which evil deed is the worst with Allah' He said,

 

 

«Ãóäú ÊóÌúÚóáó ááåö äöÃøðÇ æóåõæó ÎóáóÞóß»(To take an equal with Allah, while He alone created you.)''

 

Also, Mu`adh narrated the Prophet's statement,

 

 

«ÃóÊóÃúÑöí ãóÇ ÃóÞøõ Çááåö Úóáóì ÚöÈóÇÃöåö¿ Ãóäú íóÚúÈõÃõæåõ æóáóÇ íõÔúÑößõæÇ Èöåö ÔóíúÆðÇ»(Do you know Allah's right on His servants They must worship Him alone and refrain from associating anything with Him in worship.) Another Hadith states,

 

 

«áóÇ íóÞõæáóäøó ÃóÃóÃõßõãú ãóÇ ÔóÇÃó Çááåõ æóÔóÇÃó ÃõáóÇäñ¡ æóáßöäú áöíóÞõáú: ãóÇ ÔóÇÃó Çááåõ Ëõãøó ÔóÇÃó ÃõáóÇä»(None of you should say, `What Allah and so-and-so person wills. Rather, let him say, `What Allah wills, and then what so-and-so person wills.)

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A Hadith with the same Meaning

 

Imam Ahmad narrated that Al-Harith Al-Ash`ari said that the Prophet of Allah said,

 

 

«Åöäøó Çááåó ÚóÒøóæóÌóáøó ÃóãóÑó íóÃúíóì Èúäó ÒóßóÑöíøóÇ Úóáóíúåö ÇáÓøóáóÇãõ ÈöÎóãúÓö ßóáöãóÇÊò Ãóäú íóÚúãóáó Èöåöäøó¡ æóÃóäú íóÃúãõÑó Èóäöí ÅöÓúÑóÇÆöíáó Ãóäú íóÚúãóáõæÇ Èöåöäøó æóÃóäøóåõ ßóÇÃó Ãóäú íõÈúØöìÃó ÈöåóÇ¡ÃóÞóÇáó áóåõ ÚöíÓóì Úóáóíúåö ÇáÓøóáóÇãõ: Åöäøóßó ÞóÃú ÃõãöÑúÊó ÈöÎóãúÓö ßóáöãóÇÊò Ãóäú ÊóÚúãóáó Èöåöäøó æóÊóÃúãõÑó Èóäöí ÅöÓúÑóÇÆöíáó Ãóäú íóÚúãóáõæÇ Èöåöäøó ÃóÅöãøóÇ Ãóäú ÊõÈóáøöÛóåõãú æóÅãøóÇ Ãóäú ÃõÈóáøöÛóåõäøó¡ ÃóÞóÇáó: íóÇ ÃóÎöí Åöäøöí ÃóÎúÔóì Åöäú ÓóÈóÞúÊóäöí Ãóäú ÃõÚóÃøóÈó Ãóæú íõÎúÓóÃó Èöí ÞóÇáó: ÃóÌóãóÚó íóÃúíóì Èúäõ ÒóßóÑöíøóÇ Èóäöí ÅöÓúÑóÇÆöíáó Ãöí ÈóíúÊö ÇáúãóÞúÃöÓö ÃóÊøóì ÇãúÊóáóÃó ÇáúãóÓúÌöÃõ¡ ÃóÞóÚóÃó Úóáóì ÇáÔøóÑóÃö ÃóÃóãöÃó Çááåó æóÃóËúäóì Úóáóíúåö Ëõãøó ÞóÇáó: Åöäøó Çááåó ÃóãóÑóäöí ÈöÎóãúÓö ßóáöãóÇÊò Ãóäú ÃóÚúãóáó Èöåöäøó æóÂãõÑóßõãú Ãóäú ÊóÚúãóáõæÇ Èöåöäøó Ãóæøóáõåõäøó: Ãóäú ÊóÚúÈõÃõæÇ Çááåó æóáóÇ ÊõÔúÑößõæÇ Èöåö ÔóíúÆðÇ¡ ÃóÅöäøó ãóËóáó Ãáößó ßóãóËóáö ÑóÌõáò ÇÔúÊóÑóì ÚóÈúÃðÇ ãöäú ÎóÇáöÕö ãóÇáöåö ÈöæóÑöÞò Ãóæú ÃóåóÈò ÃóÌóÚóáó íóÚúãóáõ æóíõÄóÃøöí ÛóáøóÊóåõ Åöáì ÛóíúÑö ÓóíøöÃöåö¡ ÃóÃóíøõßõãú íóÓõÑøõåõ Ãóäú íóßõæäó ÚóÈúÃõåõ ßóÃáößó¡ æóÅöäøó Çááåó ÎóáóÞóßõãú æóÑóÒóÞóßõãú ÃóÇÚúÈõÃõæåõ æóáóÇ ÊõÔúÑößõæÇ Èöåö ÔóíúÆðÇ. æóÂãõÑóßõãú ÈöÇáÕøóáóÇÉö ÃóÅöäøó Çááåó íóäúÕöÈõ æóÌúåóåõ áöæóÌúåö ÚóÈúÃöåö ãóÇ áóãú íóáúÊóÃöÊú ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÕóáøóíúÊõãú ÃóáóÇ ÊóáúÊóÃöÊõæÇ. æóÂãõÑõßõãú ÈöÇáÕøöíóÇãö ÃóÅöäøó ãóËóáó Ãáößó ßóãóËóáö ÑóÌõáò ãóÚóåõ ÕõÑøóÉñ ãöäú ãöÓúßò Ãöí ÚöÕóÇÈóÉò ßõáøõåõãú íóÌöÃõ ÑöíÃó ÇáúãöÓúßö æóÅöäøó ÎóáõæÃó Ãóãö ÇáÕøóÇÆöã ÃóØúíóÈõ ÚöäúÃó Çááåö ãöäú ÑöíÃö ÇáúãöÓúßö. æóÂãõÑõßõãú ÈöÇáÕøóÃóÞóÉö ÃóÅöäøó ãóËóáó Ãáößó ßóãóËóáö ÑóÌõáò ÃóÓóÑóåõ ÇáúÚóÃõæøõ ÃóÔóÃøõæÇ íóÃóíúåö Åöáì ÚõäõÞöåö æóÞóÃøóãõæåõ áöíóÖúÑöÈõæÇ ÚõäõÞóåõ ÃóÞóÇáó áóåõãú: åóáú áóßõãú Ãóäú ÃóÃúÊóÃöíó äóÃúÓöí ãöäúßõãú ÃóÌóÚóáó íóÃúÊóÃöí äóÃúÓóåõ ãöäúåõãú ÈöÇáúÞóáöíáö æóÇáúßóËöíÑö ÃóÊøóì Ãóßøó äóÃúÓóåõ.æóÂãõÑõßõãú ÈöÃößúÑö Çááåö ßóËöíÑðÇ æóÅöäøó ãóËóáó Ãáößó ßóãóËóáö ÑóÌõáö ØóáóÈóåõ ÇáúÚóÃõæøõ ÓöÑóÇÚðÇ Ãöí ÃóËóÑöåö ÃóÃóÊóì ÃöÕúäðÇ ÃóÕöíäðÇ ÃóÊóÃóÕøóäó Ãöíåö æóÅöäøó ÇáúÚóÈúÃóÃóÃúÕóäó ãóÇ íóßõæäõ ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö ÅöÃóÇ ßóÇäó Ãöí ÃößúÑö Çááå»(Allah commanded Yahya bin Zakariya to implement five commands and to order the Children of israel to implement them, but Yahya was slow in carrying out these commands. `Isa said to Yahya, `You were ordered to implement five commands and to order the Children of israel to implement them. So either order, or I will do it.' Yahya said, 'My brother! I fear that if you do it before me, I will be punished or the earth will be shaken under my feet.' Hence, Yahya bin Zakariya called the Children of israel to Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), until they filled the Masjid. He sat on the balcony, thanked Allah and praised him and then said, `Allah ordered me to implement five commandments and that I should order you to adhere to them. The first is that you worship Allah alone and not associate any with Him. The example of this command is the example of a man who bought a servant from his money with paper or gold. The servant started to work for the master, but was paying the profits to another person. Who among you would like his servant to do that Allah created you and sustains you. Therefore, worship Him alone and do not associate anything with Him. I also command you to pray, for Allah directs His Face towards His servant's face, as long as the servant does not turn away. So when you pray, do not turn your heads to and fro. I also command you to fast. The example of it is the example of a man in a group of men and he has some musk wrapped in a piece of cloth, and consequently, all of the group smells the scent of the wrapped musk. Verily, the odor of the mouth of a fasting person is better before Allah than the scent of musk. I also command you to give charity. The example of this is the example of a man who was captured by the enemy. They tied his hands to his neck and brought him forth to cut off his neck. He said to them, 'Can I pay a ransom for myself' He kept ransoming himself with small and large amounts until he liberated himself. I also command you to always remember Allah. The example of this deed is that of a man who the enemy is tirelessly pursuing. He takes refuge in a fortified fort. When the servant remembers Allah, he will be resorting to the best refuge from Satan.)

 

Al-Harith then narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«æóÃóäóÇ ÂãõÑõßõãú ÈöÎóãúÓò Çááåõ ÃóãóÑóäöí Èöåöäøó: ÇáúÌóãóÇÚóÉö æóÇáÓøóãúÚö æóÇáØøóÇÚóÉö æóÇáúåöÌúÑóÉö æóÇáúÌöåóÇÃö Ãöí ÓóÈöíáö Çááåö. ÃóÅöäøóåõ ãóäú ÎóÑóÌó ãöäó ÇáúÌóãóÇÚóÉö ÞöíÃó ÔöÈúÑò ÃóÞóÃú ÎóáóÚó ÑóÈúÞóÉó ÇáúÅöÓúáóÇãö ãöäú ÚõäõÞöåö ÅöáøóÇ Ãóäú íõÑóÇÌöÚó æóãóäú ÃóÚóÇ ÈöÃóÚúæóì ÌóÇåöáöíøóÉò Ãóåõæó ãöäú ÌõËóì Ìóåóäøóã»

ÞóÇáõæÇ: íóÇ ÑóÓõæáó Çááåö æóÅöäú ÕóÇãó æóÕóáøóì¿ ÃóÞóÇáó:

 

 

«æóÅöäøó Õóáøóì æóÕóÇãó æóÒóÚóãó Ãóäøóåõ ãõÓúáöãñ¡ ÃóÇÃúÚõæÇ ÇáúãõÓúáöãöíäó ÈöÃóÓúãóÇÆöåöãú Úóáóì ãóÇ ÓóãøóÇåõãõ Çááåõ ÚóÒøó æóÌóáøó ÇáúãõÓúáöãöíäó ÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó ÚöÈóÇÃó Çááå»

(And I order you with five commandments that Allah has ordered me. Stick to the Jama`ah (community of the faithful), listen and obey (your leaders) and perform Hijrah (migration) and Jihad for the sake of Allah. Whoever abandons the Jama`ah, even the distance of a hand span, will have removed the tie of Islam from his neck, unless he returns. Whoever uses the slogans of Jahiliyah (the pre-Islamic period of ignorance) he will be among those kneeling in Jahannam (Hellfire).) They said, "O Messenger of Allah! Even if he prays and fasts'' He said, (Even if he prays, fasts and claims to be Muslim. So call the Muslims with their names that Allah has called them: `The Muslims, the believing servants of Allah.')

 

This is a Hasan Hadith, and it contains the statement, "Allah has created and sustains you, so worship Him and do not associate anything with Him in worship.'' This statement is relevant in the Ayat (2:21-22) we are discussing here and supports singling Allah in worship, without partners.

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Signs of Allah's Existence

 

Several scholars of Tafsir, like Ar-Razi and others, used these Ayat as an argument for the existence of the Creator, and it is a most worthy method of argument. Indeed, whoever ponders over the things that exist, the higher and lower creatures, their various shapes, colors, behavior, benefits and ecological roles, then he will realize the ability, wisdom, knowledge, perfection and majesty of their Creator. Once a bedouin was asked about the evidence to Allah's existence, he responded, "All praise is due to Allah! The camel's dung testifies to the existence of the camel, and the track testifies to the fact that someone was walking. A sky that holds the giant stars, a land that has fairways and a sea that has waves, does not all of this testify that the Most Kind, Most Knowledgeable exists''

 

Hence, whoever gazes at the sky in its immensity, its expanse, and the various kinds of planets in it, some of which appear stationary in the sky - whoever gazes at the seas that surround the land from all sides, and the mountains that were placed on the earth to stabilize it, so that whoever lives on land, whatever their shape and color, are able to live and thrive - whoever reads Allah's statement,

 

[æóãöäó ÇáúÌöÈóÇáö ÌõÃóÃñ ÈöíÖñ æóÃõãúÑñ ãøõÎúÊóáöÃñ ÃóáúæóäõåóÇ æóÛóÑóÇÈöíÈõ ÓõæÃñæóãöäó ÇáäøóÇÓö æóÇáÃøóæóÂÈøö æóÇáÇøñäúÚóÜãö ãõÎúÊóáöÃñ Ãóáúæóäõåõ ßóÃóáößó ÅöäøóãóÇ íóÎúÔóì Çááøóåó ãöäú ÚöÈóÇÃöåö ÇáúÚõáóãóÇÃõ]

(And among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colours and (others) very black. And likewise, men and Ad-Dawabb (moving (living) creatures, beasts) and cattle are of various colours. It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah) (35: 27-28).

 

Whoever thinks about the running rivers that travel from area to area bringing benefit, whoever ponders over what Allah has created on earth; various animals and plants of different tastes, scents, shapes and colors that are a result of unity between land and water, whoever thinks about all of this then he will realize that these facts testify to the existence of the Creator, His perfect ability, wisdom, mercy, kindness, generosity and His overall compassion for His creation. There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, nor is there a Lord besides Him, upon Him we rely and to Him we turn in repentance. There are numerous Ayat in the Qur'an on this subject.

 

 

[æóÅöä ßõäÊõãú Ãöì ÑóíúÈò ãøöãøóÇ äóÒøóáúäóÇ Úóáóì ÚóÈúÃöäóÇ ÃóÃúÊõæÇú ÈöÓõæÑóÉò ãøöä ãøöËúáöåö æóÇÃúÚõæÇú ÔõåóÃóÂÃóßõã ãøöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö Åöä ßõäÊõãú ÕóÜÃöÞöíäó - ÃóÅöä áøóãú ÊóÃúÚóáõæÇú æóáóä ÊóÃúÚóáõæÇú ÃóÇÊøóÞõæÇú ÇáäøóÇÑó ÇáøóÊöì æóÞõæÃõåóÇ ÇáäøóÇÓõ æóÇáúÃöÌóÇÑóÉõ ÃõÚöÃøóÊú áöáúßóÜÃöÑöíäó ]

(23. And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'an) to Our servant (Muhammad ), then produce a Surah (chapter) of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful). (24. But if you do it not, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.)

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The Message of Messenger of Allah is True

 

Allah begins to prove the truth of prophethood after He stated that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. Allah said to the disbelievers,

 

[æóÅöä ßõäÊõãú Ãöì ÑóíúÈò ãøöãøóÇ äóÒøóáúäóÇ Úóáóì ÚóÈúÃöäóÇ]

(And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'an) to Our servant) meaning, Muhammad ,

 

[ÃóÃúÊõæÇú ÈöÓõæÑóÉò]

(then produce a Surah (chapter)) meaning, similar to what he brought to you. Hence, if you claim that what he was sent with did not come from Allah, then produce something similar to what he has brought to you, using the help of anyone you wish instead of Allah. However, you will not be able to succeed in this quest. Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

 

[ÔõåóÃóÂÃóßõãõ]

(your witnesses) means "Aids.'' Also, As-Suddi reported that Abu Malik said the Ayah means, "Your partners, meaning, some other people to help you in that. Meaning then go and seek the help of your deities to support and aid you.'' Also, Mujahid said that,

 

[æóÇÃúÚõæÇú ÔõåóÃóÂÃóßõã]

(and call your witnesses) means, "People, meaning, wise and eloquent men who will provide the testimony that you seek.''

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The Challenge

Allah challenged the disbelievers in various parts of the Qur'an. For instance, Allah said in Surat Al-Qasas (28:49),

 

 

[Þõáú ÃóÃúÊõæÇú ÈößöÊóÜÈò ãøöäú ÚöäÃö Çááøóåö åõæó ÃóåúÃóì ãöäúåõãó ÃóÊøóÈöÚúåõ Åöä ßõäÊõãú ÕóÜÃöÞöíäó ]

(Say (to them, O Muhammad ): "Then bring a Book from Allah, which is a better guide than these two (the Tawrah (Torah) and the Qur'an), that I may follow it, if you are truthful''). Also, Allah said in Surat Al-Isra' (17:88),

 

 

[Þõá áøóÆöäö ÇÌúÊóãóÚóÊö ÇáÅöäÓõ æóÇáúÌöäøõ Úóáóì Ãóä íóÃúÊõæÇú ÈöãöËúáö åóÜÃóÇ ÇáúÞõÑúÃóÇäö áÇó íóÃúÊõæäó ÈöãöËúáöåö æóáóæú ßóÇäó ÈóÚúÖõåõãú áöÈóÚúÖò ÙóåöíÑðÇ ]

(Say: "If mankind and the Jinn were together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.'') Allah said in Surat Hud (11:13),

 

 

[Ãóãú íóÞõæáõæäó ÇÃúÊóÑóÇåõ Þõáú ÃóÃúÊõæÇú ÈöÚóÔúÑö ÓõæóÑò ãøöËúáöåö ãõÃúÊóÑóíóÇÊò æóÇÃúÚõæÇú ãóäö ÇÓúÊóØóÚúÊõãú ãøöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö Åöä ßõäÊõãú ÕóÜÃöÞöíäó ]

(Or they say, "He (Prophet Muhammad ) forged it (the Qur'an).'' Say: "Bring you then ten forged Surahs (chapters) like it, and call whomsoever you can, other than Allah (to your help), if you speak the truth!''), and in Surat Yunus (10:37-38),

 

 

[æóãóÇ ßóÇäó åóÜÃóÇ ÇáúÞõÑúÃóÇäõ Ãóä íõÃúÊóÑóì ãöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö æóáóÜßöä ÊóÕúÃöíÞó ÇáøóÃöì Èóíúäó íóÃóíúåö æóÊóÃúÕöíáó ÇáúßöÊóÇÈö áÇó ÑóíúÈó Ãöíåö ãöä ÑøóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó - Ãóãú íóÞõæáõæäó ÇÃúÊóÑóÇåõ Þõáú ÃóÃúÊõæÇú ÈöÓõæÑóÉò ãøöËúáöåö æóÇÃúÚõæÇú ãóäö ÇÓúÊóØóÚúÊõãú ãøöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö Åöä ßõäÊõãú ÕóÜÃöÞöíäó ]

(And this Qur'an is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth), but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it (i.e. the Tawrah, and the Injil), and a full explanation of the Book (i.e. Laws decreed for mankind) Ü wherein there is no doubt Ü from the Lord of all that exists.) (Or do they say: "He (Muhammad ) has forged it'' Say: "Bring then a Surah (chapter) like it, and call upon whomsoever you can besides Allah, if you are truthful!''). All of these Ayat were revealed in Makkah.

 

Allah also challenged the disbelievers in the Ayat that were revealed in Al-Madinah. In this Ayah, Allah said,

 

 

[æóÅöä ßõäÊõãú Ãöì ÑóíúÈò]

(And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in Rayb) meaning, doubt.

 

 

[ãøöãøóÇ äóÒøóáúäóÇ Úóáóì ÚóÈúÃöäóÇ]

(Concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'an) to Our servant) meaning, Muhammad ,

 

[ÃóÃúÊõæÇú ÈöÓõæÑóÉò ãøöä ãøöËúáöåö]

(then produce a Surah (chapter) the like thereof) meaning, similar to the Qur'an. This is the Tafsir of Mujahid, Qatadah, Ibn Jarir At-Tabari, Az-Zamakhshari and Ar-Razi. Ar-Razi said that this is the Tafsir of `Umar, Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and the majority of the scholars. And he gave preference to this view and mentioned the fact that Allah has challenged the disbelievers as individuals and as groups, whether literate or illiterate, thus making the challenge truly complete. This type of challenge is more daring than simply challenging the disbelievers who might not be literate or knowledgeable. This is why Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÃúÊõæÇú ÈöÚóÔúÑö ÓõæóÑò ãøöËúáöåö]

(Bring you then ten forged Surahs (chapters) like it) (11:13), and,

 

[áÇó íóÃúÊõæäó ÈöãöËúáöåö]

(They could not produce the like thereof) (17:88).

 

Therefore, this is a general challenge to the Arab disbelievers, the most eloquent among all nations. Allah challenged the Arab disbelievers both in Makkah and Al-Madinah several times, especially since they had tremendous hatred and enmity for the Prophet and his religion. Yet, they were unable to succeed in answering the challenge, and this is why Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÅöä áøóãú ÊóÃúÚóáõæÇú æóáóä ÊóÃúÚóáõæÇú]

(But if you do it not, and you can never do it), indicating that they will never be able to answer the challenge. This is another miracle, in that, Allah clearly stated without doubt that the Qur'an will never be opposed or challenged by anything similar to it, for eternity. This is a true statement that has not been changed until the present and shall never change. How can anyone be able to produce something like the Qur'an, when the Qur'an is the Word of Allah Who created everything How can the words of the created ever be similar to the Words of the Creator

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Examples of the Miracle of the Qur'an

 

Whoever reads through the Qur'an will realize that it contains various levels of superiority through both the apparent and hidden meanings that it mentions. Allah said,

 

[ÇáÑßöÊóÜÈóÃõÃúßöãóÊú ÃÇíóÜÊõåõ Ëõãøó ÃõÕøöáóÊú ãöä áøóÃõäú Ãóßöíãò ÎóÈöíÑò]

(Alif Lam Ra. (This is) a Book, the verses whereof are perfect (in every sphere of knowledge, etc.), and then explained in detail from One (Allah), Who is Wise and well-acquainted (with all things)) (11:1)

 

So the expressions in the Qur'an are perfect and its meanings are explained. Further, every word and meaning in the Qur'an is eloquent and cannot be surpassed. The Qur'an also mentioned the stories of the people of the past; and these accounts and stories occurred exactly as the Qur'an stated. Also, the Qur'an commanded every type of righteousness and forbade every type of evil, just as Allah stated,

 

 

[æóÊóãøóÊú ßóáöãóÉõ ÑóÈøößó ÕöÃúÞÇð æóÚóÃúáÇð]

(And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice) (6:115). meaning, true in the stories it narrates and just in its Laws. The Qur'an is true, just and full of guidance. It does not contain exaggerations, lies or falsehood, unlike Arabic and other types of poems that contained lies. These poems, conform with the popular statement, "The most eloquent speech is the one that contains the most lies!'' Sometimes, one would find a long poem that mainly contains descriptions of women, horses or alcohol. Or, the poem might contain praise or the description of a certain person, horse, camel, war, incident, fear, lion, or other types of items and objects. Such praise or descriptions do not bring any benefit, except shed light on the poet's ability to clearly and eloquently describe such items. Yet, one will only be able to find one or two sentences in many long poems that elaborate on the main theme of the poem, while the rest of the poem contains insignificant descriptions and repetitions.

 

As for the Qur'an, it is entirely eloquent in the most perfect manner, as those who have knowledge in such matters and understand Arabic methods of speech and expressions concur. When one reads through the stories in the Qur'an, he will find them fruitful, whether they were in extended or short forms, repeated or not. The more these stories are repeated, the more fruitful and beautiful they become. The Qur'an does not become old when one repeats reciting it, nor do the scholars ever get bored with it. When the Qur'an mentions the subject of warning and promises, it presents truths that would make solid, firm mountains shake, so what about the comprehending, understanding hearts When the Qur'an promises, it opens the hearts and the ears, making them eager to attain the abode of peace - Paradise - and to be the neighbors of the Throne of the Most Beneficent. For instance, on the subject of promises and encouragement, the Qur'an said,

 

 

[ÃóáÇó ÊóÚúáóãõ äóÃúÓñ ãøó ÃõÎúÃöìó áóåõã ãøöä ÞõÑøóÉö ÃóÚúíõäò ÌóÒóÂÃð ÈöãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú íóÚúãóáõæäó ]

(No person knows what is kept hidden for them of joy as a reward for what they used to do) (32:17), and,

 

 

[æóÃöíåóÇ ãóÇ ÊóÔúÊóåöíåö ÇáÇøñäúÃõÓõ æóÊóáóÃøõ ÇáÇøñÚúíõäõ æóÃóäÊõãú ÃöíåóÇ ÎóÜáöÃõæäó]

((There will be) therein all that inner selves could desire, and all that eyes could delight in and you will abide therein forever) (43:71).

 

On the subject of warning and discouragement;

 

[ÃóÃóÃóãöäÊõãú Ãóä íóÎúÓöÃó Èößõãú ÌóÇäöÈó ÇáúÈóÑøö]

(Do you then feel secure that He will not cause a side of the land to swallow you up) (17:68), and,

 

[ÃóÃóãöäÊõãú ãøóä Ãöì ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö Ãóä íóÎúÓöÃó Èößõãõ ÇáÇøñÑúÖó ÃóÅöÃóÇ åöìó ÊóãõæÑõ - Ãóãú ÃóãöäÊõãú ãøöä Ãöì ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö Ãóä íõÑúÓöáó Úóáóíúßõãú ÃóÜÕöÈÇð ÃóÓóÊóÚúáóãõæäó ßóíúÃó äóÃöíÑö ]

(Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not send against you a violent whirlwind Then you shall know how (terrible) has been My warning) (67:16-17).

 

On the subject of threats, the Qur'an said,

 

 

[ÃóßõáÇøð ÃóÎóÃúäóÇ ÈöÃóäÈöåö]

(So We punished each (of them) for his sins) (29:40). Also, on the subject of soft advice, the Qur'an said,

 

 

[ÃóÃóÑóÃóíúÊó Åöä ãøóÊøóÚúäóÜåõãú Óöäöíäó - Ëõãøó ÌóÂÃóåõã ãøóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú íõæÚóÃõæäó - ãó ÃóÛúäóì Úóäúåõãú ãøóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú íõãóÊøóÚõæäó ]

(Tell Me, (even) if We do let them enjoy for years. And afterwards comes to them that (punishment) which they had been promised. All that with which they used to enjoy shall not avail them) (26:205-207).

 

There are many other examples of the eloquence, beauty, and benefits of the Qur'an.

 

When the Qur'an is discussing Laws, commandments and prohibitions, it commands every type of righteous, good, pleasing and beneficial act. It also forbids every type of evil, disliked and amoral act. Ibn Mas`ud and other scholars of the Salaf said, "When you hear what Allah said in the Qur'an, such as,

 

[íóÜÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú]

(O you who believe!), then listen with full attention, for it either contains a type of righteousness that Allah is enjoining, or an evil that He is forbidding.'' For instance, Allah said,

 

 

[íóÃúãõÑõåõã ÈöÇáúãóÚúÑõæÃö æóíóäúåóÜåõãú Úóäö ÇáúãõäúßóÑö æóíõÃöáøõ áóåõãõ ÇáØøóíøöÈóÜÊö æóíõÃóÑøöãõ Úóáóíúåöãõ ÇáúÎóÈóÜÆöËó æóíóÖóÚõ Úóäúåõãú ÅöÕúÑóåõãú æóÇáÇøñÛúáóÜáó ÇáøóÊöì ßóÇäóÊú Úóáóíúåöãú]

(He (Muhammad ) commands them for Al-Ma`ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained); and forbids them from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds, and all that Islam has forbidden); he allows them as lawful At-Tayyibat(i.e. all good and lawful things), and prohibits them as unlawful Al-Khaba'ith (i.e. all evil and unlawful things), he releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them) (7:157).

 

When the Ayat mention Resurrection and the horrors that will occur on that Day, and Paradise and the Fire and the joys and safe refuge that Allah prepared for His loyal friends, or torment and Hell for His enemies, these Ayat contain glad tidings or warnings. The Ayat then call to perform good deeds and avoid evil deeds, making the life of this world less favorable and the Hereafter more favorable. They also establish the correct methods and guide to Allah's straight path and just legislation, all the while ridding the hearts of the evil of the cursed devil.

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The Qur'an is the Greatest Miracle given to the Prophet

 

The Two Sahihs record that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

 

«ãóÇ ãöäú äóÈöíó ãöäó ÇáúÃóäúÈöíóÇÃö ÅöáøóÇ ÞóÃú ÃõÚúØöíó ãöäó ÇáÂíóÇÊö ãóÇ Âãóäó Úóáóì ãöËúáöåö ÇáúÈóÔóÑõ¡ æóÅäøóãóÇ ßóÇäó ÇáøóÃöí ÃõæÊöíÊõå æóÃúíðÇ ÃóæúÃóÇåõ Çááåõ Åöáóíøó ÃóÃóÑúÌõæ Ãóäú Ãóßõæäó ÃóßúËóÑóåõãú ÊóÇÈöÚðÇ íóæúãó ÇáúÞöíóÇãóÉ»(Every Prophet was given a miracle, the type of which brings mankind to faith. What I was given is a revelation that Allah sent down to me. Yet, I hope that I will have the most following on the Day of Resurrection.)

 

This is the wording narrated by Muslim. The Prophet stated that among the Prophets he was given a revelation, meaning, he was especially entrusted with the miraculous Qur'an that challenged mankind to produce something similar to it. As for the rest of the divinely revealed Books, they were not miraculous according to many scholars. Allah knows best. The Prophet was also aided with innumerable signs and indications that testify to the truth of his prophethood and what he was sent with, all thanks and praise is due to Allah.

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Meaning of `Stones

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÇÊøóÞõæÇú ÇáäøóÇÑó ÇáøóÊöì æóÞõæÃõåóÇ ÇáäøóÇÓõ æóÇáúÃöÌóÇÑóÉõ ÃõÚöÃøóÊú áöáúßóÜÃöÑöíäó]

(Then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers) (2:24).

 

`Fuel' is wood, or similar substances, used to start and feed a fire. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóÃóãøóÇ ÇáúÞóÜÓöØõæäó ÃóßóÇäõæÇú áöÌóåóäøóãó ÃóØóÈÇð ]

(And as for the Qasitun (disbelievers who deviated from the right path), they shall be firewood for Hell) (72:15), and,

 

 

[Åöäøóßõãú æóãóÇ ÊóÚúÈõÃõæäó ãöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö ÃóÕóÈõ Ìóåóäøóãó ÃóäÊõãú áóåóÇ æóÇÑöÃõæäó ]

[áóæú ßóÇäó åóÜÄõáÇÃö ÃóÇáöåóÉð ãøóÇ æóÑóÃõæåóÇ æóßõáøñ ÃöíåóÇ ÎóÜáöÃõæäó ]

(Certainly you (disbelievers) and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you enter it. Had these (idols) been alihah (gods), they would not have entered there (Hell), and all of them will abide therein) (21:98-99).

 

The stones mentioned here are the giant, rotten, black, sulfuric stones that become the hottest when heated, may Allah save us from this evil end. It was also reported that the stones mentioned here are the idols and rivals that were worshipped instead of Allah, just as Allah said,

 

 

[Åöäøóßõãú æóãóÇ ÊóÚúÈõÃõæäó ãöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö ÃóÕóÈõ Ìóåóäøóãó]

(Certainly you (disbelievers) and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah,are (but) fuel for Hell!) (21:28).

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃõÚöÃøóÊú áöáúßóÜÃöÑöíäó]

(prepared for the disbelievers)

 

It appears most obvious that it refers to the Fire that is fueled by men and stones, and it also may refer to the stones themselves. There is no contradiction between these two views, because they are dependent upon each other. `Prepared' means, it is `kept' and will surely touch those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger . Ibn Ishaq narrated that Muhammad said that `Ikrimah or Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn `Abbas said,

 

 

[ÃõÚöÃøóÊú áöáúßóÜÃöÑöíäó]

(prepared for the disbelievers),

 

"For those who embrace the disbelief that you (disbelievers) have embraced.''

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Jahannam (Hellfire) exists now

 

Many of the Imams of the Sunnah used this Ayah to prove that the Fire exists now. This is because Allah said,

 

[ÃõÚöÃøóÊú]

(prepared) meaning, prepared and kept. There are many Hadiths on this subject. For instance, the Prophet said,

 

 

«ÊóÃóÇÌøóÊö ÇáúÌóäøóÉõ æóÇáäøóÇÑ»(Paradise and the Fire had an argument..)

 

Also, the Prophet said,

 

«ÇÓúÊóÃúÃóäóÊö ÇáäøóÇÑõ ÑóÈøóåóÇ ÃóÞóÇáóÊú: ÑóÈøö Ãóßóáó ÈóÚÖöí ÈóÚúÖðÇ ÃóÃÃöäó áóåóÇ ÈöäóÃóÓóíúäö: äóÃóÓò Ãöí ÇáÔøöÊóÇÃö æóäóÃóÓò Ãöí ÇáÕøóíúû(The Fire sought the permission of her Lord. She said, 'O my Lord! Some parts of me consumed the other parts.' And Allah allowed her two periods to exhale, one in winter and one in summer.)

 

Also, there is a Hadith recorded from Ibn Mas`ud that the Companions heard the sound of a falling object. When they asked about it, the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«åóÃóÇ ÃóÌóÑñ ÃõáúÞöíó Èöåö ãöäú ÔóÃöíÑö Ìóåóäøóãó ãõäúÃõ ÓóÈúÚöíäó ÓóäóÉð¡ ÇáúÂäó æóÕóáó Åöáì ÞóÚúÑöåóÇ»(This is a stone that was thrown from the top of Jahannam seventy years ago, but only now reached its bottom.) This Hadith is in Sahih Muslim.

 

There are many Hadiths that are Mutawatir (narrated by many different chains of narrations) on this subject, such as the Hadiths about the eclipse prayer, the night of Isra' etc.

 

Allah's statements,

 

 

[ÃóÃúÊõæÇú ÈöÓõæÑóÉò ãøöä ãøöËúáöåö]

(Then produce a Surah (chapter) of the like thereof) (2:23), and,

 

 

[ÈöÓõæÑóÉò ãøöËúáöåö]

(A Surah (chapter) like it) (10:38) this includes the short and long Surahs of the Qur'an. Therefore, the challenge to creation stands with regards to both the long and short Surahs, and there is no disagreement that I know of on this fact between the scholars of old and new. Before he became Muslim, `Amr bin Al-`As met Musaylimah the Liar who asked him, "What has recently been revealed to your fellow (meaning Muhammad ) in Makkah'' `Amr said, "A short, yet eloquent Surah.'' He asked, "What is it'' He said,

 

 

[æóÇáúÚóÕúÑö - Åöäøó ÇáÅöäÓóÜäó áóÃöì ÎõÓúÑò ]

(By Al-`Asr (the time). Verily, man is in loss,) (103:1-2)

 

Musaylimah thought for a while and said, "A similar Surah was also revealed to me.'' `Amr asked, "What is it'' He said, "O Wabr, O Wabr (i.e. a wild cat), you are but two ears and a chest, and the rest of you is unworthy and thin.'' `Amr said, "By Allah! You know that I know that you are lying.''

 

[æóÈóÔøöÑö ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æóÚóãöáõæÇú ÇáÕøóÜáöÃóÇÊö Ãóäøó áóåõãú ÌóäøóÜÊò ÊóÌúÑöì ãöä ÊóÃúÊöåóÇ ÇáÃóäúåóÜÑõ ßõáøóãóÇ ÑõÒöÞõæÇú ãöäúåóÇ ãöä ËóãóÑóÉò ÑøöÒúÞÇð ÞóÇáõæÇú åóÜÃóÇ ÇáøóÃöì ÑõÒöÞúäóÇ ãöä ÞóÈúáõ æóÃõÊõæÇú Èöåö ãõÊóÔóÜÈöåÇð æóáóåõãú Ãöíåó ÃóÒúæóÌñ ãøõØóåøóÑóÉñ æóåõãú ÃöíåóÇ ÎóÜáöÃõæäó ]

(25. And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). Every time they will be provided with a fruit therefrom, they will say: "This is what we were provided with before,'' and they will be given things in resemblance (i.e. in the same form but different in taste) and they shall have therein Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates or wives), and they will abide therein forever.)

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Rewards of Righteous Believers

 

After mentioning the torment that Allah has prepared for His miserable enemies who disbelieve in Him and in His Messengers, He mentions the condition of His happy, loyal friends who believe in Him and in His Messengers, adhere to the faith and perform the good deeds. This is the reason why the Qur'an was called Mathani, based on the correct opinion of the scholars. We will elaborate upon this subject later. Mathani means to mention faith and then disbelief, or vice versa. Or, Allah mentions the miserable and then the happy, or vice versa. As for mentioning similar things, it is called Tashabbuh, as we will come to know, Allah willing. Allah said,

 

 

[æóÈóÔøöÑö ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æóÚóãöáõæÇú ÇáÕøóÜáöÃóÇÊö Ãóäøó áóåõãú ÌóäøóÜÊò ÊóÌúÑöì ãöä ÊóÃúÊöåóÇ ÇáÃóäúåóÜÑõ]

(And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)). Consequently, Allah stated that Paradise has rivers that run beneath it, meaning, underneath its trees and rooms. From Hadiths it is learned that the rivers of Paradise do not run in valleys, and that the banks of Al-Kawthar (the Prophet's lake in Paradise) are made of domes of hollow pearls, the sand of Paradise is made of scented musk while its stones are made from pearls and jewels. We ask Allah to grant Paradise to us, for verily, He is the Most Beneficent, Most Gracious.

 

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÃóäúåóÇÑõ ÇáúÌóäøóÉö ÊóÃóÌøóÑõ ÊóÃúÊó ÊöáóÇáò Ãóæú ãöäú ÊóÃúÊö ÌöÈóÇáö ÇáúãöÓúß»(The rivers of Paradise spring from beneath hills, or mountains of musk.)

 

He also reported from Masruq that `Abdullah said, "The rivers of Paradise spring from beneath mountains of musk.''

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The similarity between the Fruits of Paradise

 

Allah said next,

 

[ßõáøóãóÇ ÑõÒöÞõæÇú ãöäúåóÇ ãöä ËóãóÑóÉò ÑøöÒúÞÇð ÞóÇáõæÇú åóÜÃóÇ ÇáøóÃöì ÑõÒöÞúäóÇ ãöä ÞóÈúáõ]

(Every time they will be provided with a fruit therefrom, they will say: "This is what we were provided with before'').

 

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Yahya bin Abi Kathir said, "The grass of Paradise is made of saffron, its hills from musk and the boys of everlasting youth will serve the believers with fruits which they will eat. They will then be brought similar fruits, and the people of Paradise will comment, `This is the same as what you have just brought us.' The boys will say to them, `Eat, for the color is the same, but the taste is different. Hence Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÃõÊõæÇú Èöåö ãõÊóÔóÜÈöåÇð]

(and they will be given things in resemblance). Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi narrated that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that Abu Al-`Aliyah said that,

 

 

[æóÃõÊõæÇú Èöåö ãõÊóÔóÜÈöåÇð]

(and they will be given things in resemblance) means, "They look like each other, but the taste is different.'' Also, `Ikrimah said,

 

 

[æóÃõÊõæÇú Èöåö ãõÊóÔóÜÈöåÇð]

(and they will be given things in resemblance) "They are similar to the fruits of this life, but the fruits of Paradise taste better. '' Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported from Al-A`mash, from Abu Thubyan, that Ibn `Abbas said, "Nothing in Paradise resembles anything in the life of this world, except in name.'' In another narration, Ibn `Abbas said, "Only the names are similar between what is in this life and what is in Paradise.''

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The Wives of the People of Paradise are Pure

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóåõãú ÃöíåóÂ ÃóÒúæóÌñ ãøõØóåøóÑóÉñ]

(and they shall have therein Azwajun Mutahharatun). Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Purified from filth and impurity.'' Also, Mujahid said, "From menstruation, relieving the call of nature, urine, spit, semen and pregnancies.'' Also, Qatadah said, "Purified from impurity and sin.'' In another narration, he said, "From menstruation and pregnancies.'' Further, `Ata', Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih, `Atiyah and As-Suddi were reported to have said similarly.

 

Allah's statement,

 

[æóåõãú ÃöíåóÇ ÎóÜáöÃõæäó]

(and they will abide therein forever) meaning ultimate happiness, for the believers will enjoy everlasting delight, safe from death and disruption of their bliss, for it never ends or ceases. We ask Allah to make us among these believers, for He is the Most Generous, Most Kind and Most merciful.

 

[Åöäøó Çááøóåó áÇó íóÓúÊóÃúìö Ãóä íóÖúÑöÈó ãóËóáÇð ãøóÇ ÈóÚõæÖóÉð ÃóãóÇ ÃóæúÞóåóÇ ÃóÃóãøóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú ÃóíóÚúáóãõæäó Ãóäøóåõ ÇáúÃóÞøõ ãöä ÑøóÈøöåöãú æóÃóãøóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ÃóíóÞõæáõæäó ãóÇÃó ÃóÑóÇÃó Çááøóåõ ÈöåóÜÃóÇ ãóËóáÇð íõÖöáøõ Èöåö ßóËöíÑðÇ æóíóåúÃöí Èöåö ßóËöíÑðÇ æóãóÇ íõÖöáøõ Èöåö ÅöáÇøó ÇáúÃóÜÓöÞöíäó - ÇáøóÃöíäó íóäÞõÖõæäó ÚóåúÃó Çááøóåö ãöä ÈóÚúÃö ãöíËóÜÞöåö æóíóÞúØóÚõæäó ãó ÃóãóÑó Çááøóåõ Èöåö Ãóä íõæÕóáó æóíõÃúÓöÃõæäó Ãöí ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÃõæáóÜÆößó åõãõ ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑõæäó ]

(26. Verily, Allah is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it. And as for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord, but as for those who disbelieve, they say: "What did Allah intend by this parable'' By it He misleads many, and many He guides thereby. And He misleads thereby only the Fasiqin (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah). (27. Those who break Allah's covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allah has ordered to be joined and do mischief on earth, it is they who are the losers.)

 

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi reported that Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud, and some Companions said; "When Allah gave these two examples of the hypocrites'' meaning Allah's statements,

 

[ãóËóáõåõãú ßóãóËóáö ÇáøóÃöì ÇÓúÊóæúÞóÃó äóÇÑÇð]

(Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire), and,

 

 

[Ãóæú ßóÕóíøöÈò ãøöäó ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö]

(Or like a rainstorm from the sky), "The hypocrites said, `Allah's far more exalted than for Him to make such examples.' So Allah revealed these Ayat (2:26-27) up to:

 

 

[åõãõ ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑõæäó]

(Who are the losers)''. Sa`id said that Qatadah said, "Allah does not shy away from the truth when He mentions a matter as a parable, whether this matter is significant or not. When Allah mentioned the flies and the spider in His Book, the people of misguidance said, `Why did Allah mention these things.' So Allah revealed;

 

 

[Åöäøó Çááøóåó áÇó íóÓúÊóÃúìö Ãóä íóÖúÑöÈó ãóËóáÇð ãøóÇ ÈóÚõæÖóÉð ÃóãóÇ ÃóæúÞóåóÇ]

(Verily, Allah is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it).''

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A Parable about the Life of This World

 

Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi reported that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas commented on this Ayah (2:26); "This is an example that Allah has given for the life of this world. The mosquito lives as long as it needs food, but when it gets fat, it dies. This is also the example of people whom Allah mentioned in the Qur'an: when they acquire (and collect the delights of) the life of this world, Allah then takes them away.'' Afterwards, he recited,

 

 

[ÃóáóãøóÇ äóÓõæÇú ãóÇ ÃõßøöÑõæÇú Èöåö ÃóÊóÃúäóÇ Úóáóíúåöãú ÃóÈúæóÇÈó ßõáøö ÔóìúÃò]

(So, when they forgot (the warning) with which they had been reminded, We opened for them the gates of every (pleasant) thing) (6:44)

 

In this Ayah (2:26) Allah stated that He does not shy away or hesitate in making an example or parable of anything, whether the example involves a significant or an insignificant matter.

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃóãóÇ ÃóæúÞóåóÇ]

(Or so much more when it is bigger than it) Fama fawqaha means, something bigger than the mosquito, which is one of the most insignificant and tiniest of creatures. Muslim narrated that Aishah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ãóÇ ãöäú ãõÓúáöãò íõÔóÇßõ ÔóæßóÉð ÃóãóÇ ÃóæúÞóåóÇ ÅöáøóÇ ßõÊöÈóÊú áóåõ ÈöåóÇ ÃóÑóÌóÉñ¡ æóãõÃöíóÊú Úóäúåõ ÈöåóÇ ÎóØöíÆóÉ»(No Muslim is harmed by a thorn, Fama fawqaha (or something larger), but a good deed will be written for him and an evil deed will be erased from his record.)

 

So Allah has informed us that there is no matter that is too small that is exempt from being used as an example, even if it was as insignificant as a mosquito or a spider. Allah said,

 

 

[íÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáäøóÇÓõ ÖõÑöÈó ãóËóáñ ÃóÇÓúÊóãöÚõæÇú áóåõ Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÊóÃúÚõæäó ãöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö áóä íóÎúáõÞõæÇú ÃõÈóÇÈÇð æóáóæö ÇÌúÊóãóÚõæÇú áóåõ æóÅöä íóÓúáõÈúåõãõ ÇáÃøõÈóÇÈõ ÔóíúÆÇð áÇøó íóÓúÊóäÞöÃõæåõ ãöäúåõ ÖóÚõÃó ÇáØøóÇáöÈõ æóÇáúãóØúáõæÈõ ]

(O mankind! A similitude has been coined, so listen to it (carefully): Verily, those on whom you call besides Allah, cannot create (even) a fly, even though they combine together for the purpose. And if the fly snatches away a thing from them, they will have no power to release it from the fly. So weak are (both) the seeker and the sought.) (22:73),

 

 

[ãóËóáõ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÇÊøóÎóÃõæÇú ãöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö ÃóæúáöíóÂÃó ßóãóËóáö ÇáúÚóäßóÈõæÊö ÇÊøóÎóÃóÊú ÈóíúÊÇð æóÅöäøó Ãóæúåóäó ÇáúÈõíõæÊö áóÈóíúÊõ ÇáúÚóäßóÈõæÊö áóæú ßóÇäõæÇú íóÚúáóãõæäó ]

(The likeness of those who take (false deities as) Awliya' (protectors, helpers) other than Allah is the likeness of a spider who builds (for itself) a house; but verily, the frailest (weakest) of houses is the spider's house Ü if they but knew.) (29:41), and,

 

[Ãóáóãú ÊóÑó ßóíúÃó ÖóÑóÈó Çááøóåõ ãóËóáÇð ßóáöãóÉð ØóíøöÈóÉð ßóÔóÌóÑÉò ØóíøöÈóÉò ÃóÕúáõåóÇ ËóÇÈöÊñ æóÃóÑúÚõåóÇ Ãöì ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö - ÊõÄúÊöì ÃõßõáóåóÇ ßõáøó Ãöíäò ÈöÅöÃúäö ÑóÈøöåóÇ æóíóÖúÑöÈõ Çááøóåõ ÇáÃóãúËóÇáó áöáäøóÇÓö áóÚóáøóåõãú íóÊóÃóßøóÑõæäó - æóãóËáõ ßóáöãóÉò ÎóÈöíËóÉò ßóÔóÌóÑóÉò ÎóÈöíËóÉò ÇÌúÊõËøóÊú ãöä ÃóæúÞö ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ãóÇ áóåóÇ ãöä ÞóÑóÇÑò - íõËóÈøöÊõ Çááøóåõ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú ÈöÇáúÞóæúáö ÇáËøóÇÈöÊö Ãöì ÇáúÃóíóæÉö ÇáÃøõäúíóÇ æóÃöì ÇáÇøñÎöÑóÉö æóíõÖöáøõ Çááøóåõ ÇáÙøóÜáöãöíäó æóíóÃúÚóáõ Çááøóåõ ãóÇ íóÔóÂÃõ ]

(See you not how Allah sets forth a parable A goodly word as a goodly tree, whose root is firmly fixed, and its branches (reach) to the sky (i.e. very high). Giving its fruit at all times, by the leave of its Lord, and Allah sets forth parables for mankind in order that they may remember. And the parable of an evil word is that of an evil tree uprooted from the surface of earth, having no stability. Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in life of this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allah alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allah will cause the Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers) to go astray those and Allah does what He wills.) (14:24-27). Allah said,

 

 

[ÖóÑóÈó Çááøóåõ ãóËóáÇð ÚóÈúÃðÇ ãøóãúáõæßðÇ áÇøó íóÞúÃöÑõ Úóáóì ÔóìúÃò]

(Allah puts forward the example of (two men Ü a believer and a disbeliever); a servant under the possession of another, he has no power of any sort) (16:75). He then said,

 

 

[æóÖóÑóÈó Çááøóåõ ãóËóáÇð ÑøóÌõáóíúäö ÃóÃóÃõåõãó ÃóÈúßóãõ áÇó íóÞúÃöÑõ Úóáóì ÔóìúÃò æóåõæó ßóáøñ Úóáóì ãóæúáÇåõ ÃóíúäóãóÇ íõæóÌøöååøõ áÇó íóÃúÊö ÈöÎóíúÑò åóáú íóÓúÊóæöì åõæó æóãóä íóÃúãõÑõ ÈöÇáúÚóÃúáö]

(And Allah puts forward (another) example of two men, one of them dumb, who has no power over anything, and he is a burden on his master; whichever way he directs him, he brings no good. Is such a man equal to one who commands justice) (16:76). Also, Allah said,

 

 

[ÖóÑóÈó áóßõãú ãøóËóáÇð ãøöäú ÃóäÃõÓößõãú åóáú áøóßõãú ãøöä ãøóÇ ãóáóßóÊú ÃóíúãóÜäõßõãú ãøöä ÔõÑóßóÂÃó Ãöì ãóÇ ÑóÒóÞúäóÜßõãú]

(He sets forth for you a parable from your own selves: Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. your servants) to share as equals in the wealth we have bestowed on you) (30:28).

 

Mujahid commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[Åöäøó Çááøóåó áÇó íóÓúÊóÃúìö Ãóä íóÖúÑöÈó ãóËóáÇð ãøóÇ ÈóÚõæÖóÉð ÃóãóÇ ÃóæúÞóåóÇ]

(Verily, Allah is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger than it.) "The believers believe in these parables, whether they involve large matters or small, because they know that they are the truth from their Lord, and Allah guides the believers by these parables.''

 

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi reported that Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud and other people among the Companions said,

 

 

[íõÖöáøõ Èöåö ßóËöíÑðÇ]

(By it He misleads many), "Meaning the hypocrites. Allah guides the believers with these parables, and the straying of the hypocrites increases when they reject the parables that Allah mentioned for them which they know are true. This is how Allah misleads them.''

 

 

[æóíóåúÃöí Èöåö]

(And He guides thereby) meaning, with the parables,

 

 

[ßóËöíÑÇð]

(many) from among the people of faith and conviction. Allah adds guidance to their guidance, and faith to their faith, because they firmly believe in what they know to be true, that is, the parables that Allah has mentioned. This is guidance that Allah grants them;

 

 

[æóãóÇ íõÖöáøõ Èöåö ÅöáÇøó ÇáúÃóÜÓöÞöíäó]

(And He misleads thereby only the Fasiqin (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah)), meaning, the hypocrites. The Arabs say that the date has Fasaqat, when it comes out of its skin, and they call the mouse a Fuwaysiqah, because it leaves its den to cause mischief. The Two Sahihs recorded `A'ishah saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÎóãúÓñ ÃóæóÇÓöÞõ íõÞúÊóáúäó Ãöí ÇáúÃöáøö æóÇáúÃóÑóãö: ÇáÛõÑóÇÈõ æóÇáúÃöÃóÃóÉõ æóÇáúÚóÞúÑóÈõ æóÇáúÃóÃúÑóÉõ æóÇáúßóáúÈõ ÇáúÚóÞõæÑ»(Five animals are Fawasiq, and they must be killed during Ihram and otherwise: the crow, the kite, the scorpion, the mouse and the rabid dog.) eFasiq, includes the disbeliever and the disobedient. However, the Fisq of the disbeliever is worse, and this is the type of Fasiq that the Ayah is describing here, because Allah described them as,

 

[ÇáøóÃöíäó íóäÞõÖõæäó ÚóåúÃó Çááøóåö ãöä ÈóÚúÃö ãöíËóÜÞöåö æóíóÞúØóÚõæäó ãó ÃóãóÑó Çááøóåõ Èöåö Ãóä íõæÕóáó æóíõÃúÓöÃõæäó Ãöí ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÃõæáóÜÆößó åõãõ ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑõæäó ]

(Those who break Allah's covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allah has ordered to be joined and do mischief on earth, it is they who are the losers.)

 

These are the characteristics of the disbelievers and they contradict the qualities of the believers. Similarly, Allah said in Surat Ar-Ra`d,

 

[ÃóÃóãóä íóÚúáóãõ Ãóäøóãó ÃõäÒöáó Åöáóíúßó ãöä ÑóÈøößó ÇáúÃóÞøõ ßóãóäú åõæó ÃóÚúãóì ÅöäøóãóÇ íóÊóÃóßøóÑõ ÃõæúáõæÇú ÇáÃóáúÈóÜÈö - ÇáøóÃöíäó íõæÃõæäó ÈöÚóåúÃö Çááøóåö æóáÇó íöäÞõÖõæäó ÇáúãöíËóÜÞó - æóÇáøóÃöíäó íóÕöáõæäó ãó ÃóãóÑó Çááøóåõ Èöåö Ãóä íõæÕóáó æóíóÎúÔóæúäó ÑóÈøóåõãú æóíóÎóÇÃõæäó ÓõæÃó ÇáÃöÓóÇÈö ]

(Shall he then, who knows that what has been revealed unto you (O Muhammad ) from your Lord is the truth, be like him who is blind But it is only the men of understanding that pay heed. Those who fulfill the covenant of Allah and break not the Mithaq (bond, treaty, covenant). And those who join that which Allah has commanded to be joined (i.e. they are good to their relatives and do not sever the bond of kinship), and fear their Lord, and dread the terrible reckoning.) (13:19-21)) until,

 

 

[æóÇáøóÃöíäó íóäÞõÖõæäó ÚóåúÃó Çááøóåö ãöä ÈóÚúÃö ãöíËóÜÞöåö æóíóÞúØóÚõæäó ãó ÃóãóÑó Çááøóåõ Èöåö Ãóä íõæÕóáó æóíõÃúÓöÃõæäó Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÃõæúáóÜÆößó áóåõãõ ÇááøóÚúäóÉõ æóáóåõãú ÓõæÃõ ÇáÃøóÇÑö ]

(And those who break the covenant of Allah, after its ratification, and sever that which Allah has commanded to be joined (i.e. they sever the bond of kinship and are not good to their relatives), and work mischief in the land, on them is the curse (i.e. they will be far away from Allah's mercy), and for them is the unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell).) (13:25)

 

The covenant that these deviant people broke is Allah's covenant with His creation, that is, to obey Him and avoid the sins that He prohibited. This covenant was reiterated in Allah's Books and by the words of His Messengers. Ignoring this covenant constitutes breaking it. It was said that the Ayah (2:27) is about the disbelievers and the hypocrites among the People of the Book. In this case, the covenant that they broke is the pledge that Allah took from them in the Tawrah to follow Muhammad when he is sent as a Prophet, and to believe in him, and in what he was sent with. Breaking Allah's covenant in this case occured when the People of the Book rejected the Prophet after they knew the truth about him, and they hid this truth from people, even though they swore to Allah that they would do otherwise. Allah informed us that they threw the covenant behind their backs and sold it for a miserable price.

 

It was also reported that the Ayah (2:27) refers to all disbelievers, idol worshippers and hypocrites. Allah took their pledge to believe in His Oneness, showing them the signs that testify to His Lordship. He also took a covenant from them to obey His commands and refrain from His prohibitions, knowing that His Messengers would bring proofs and miracles that none among the creation could ever produce. These miracles testified to the truth of Allah's Messengers. The covenant was broken when the disbelievers denied what was proven to them to be authentic and rejected Allah's Prophets and Books, although they knew that they were the truth. This Tafsir was reported from Muqatil bin Hayyan, and it is very good. It is also the view that Az-Zamakhshari held.

 

Allah's statement next,

 

[æóíóÞúØóÚõæäó ãóÂ ÃóãóÑó Çááøóåõ Èöåö Ãóä íõæÕóáó]

(And sever what Allah has ordered to be joined) is in reference to keeping the relations with the relatives, as Qatadah asserted. This Ayah is similar to Allah's statement,

 

 

[Ãóåóáú ÚóÓóíúÊõãú Åöä ÊóæóáøóíúÊõãú Ãóä ÊõÃúÓöÃõæÇú Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö æóÊõÞóØøöÚõæÇú ÃóÑúÃóÇãóßõãú ]

(Would you then, if you were given the authority, do mischief in the land, and sever your ties of kinship) (47:22)

 

Ibn Jarir At-Tabari preferred this opinion. However, it has been said that the meaning of the Ayah (2:27) here is more general. Hence, everything that Allah has commanded to nurture, and the people severed, is included in its meaning.

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