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Dr. Jawad

002 Tafsir Of Sura Al-baqarah(the Cow)

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The Meaning of `Loss

 

Muqatil bin Hayyan commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃõæáóÜÆößó åõãõ ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑõæäó]

(It is they who are the losers) "In the Hereafter.'' Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[ÃõæúáóÜÆößó áóåõãõ ÇááøóÚúäóÉõ æóáóåõãú ÓõæÃõ ÇáÃøóÇÑö]

(On them is the curse (i.e. they will be far away from Allah's mercy), and for them is the unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell)) (13:25).

 

Also, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Every characteristic that Allah describes those other than the people of Islam - such as being losers - then it refers to disbelief. However, when they are attributed to the people of Islam, then these terms refer to sin.'' Ibn Jarir commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃõæáóÜÆößó åõãõ ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑõæäó]

(It is they who are the losers,) "`Losers is plural for loser, this word refers to whoever decreased his own share of Allah's mercy by disobeying Him, just as the merchant loses in his trade by sustaining capital loss. Such is the case with the hypocrite and the disbeliever who lose their share of the mercy that Allah has in store for His servants on the Day of Resurrection. And that is when the disbeliever and the hypocrite most desperately need Allah's mercy.''

 

[ßóíúÃó ÊóßúÃõÑõæäó ÈöÇááøóåö æóßõäÊõãú ÃóãúæóÊðÇ ÃóÃóÃúíóÜßõãú Ëõãøó íõãöíÊõßõãú Ëõãøó íõÃúíöíßõãú Ëõãøó Åöáóíúåö ÊõÑúÌóÚõæäó ]

(28. How can you disbelieve in Allah seeing that you were dead and He gave you life Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return.)

 

Allah testifies to the fact that He exists and that He is the Creator and the Sustainer Who has full authority over His servants,

 

 

[ßóíúÃó ÊóßúÃõÑõæäó ÈöÇááøóåö]

(How can you disbelieve in Allah)

 

How can anyone deny Allah's existence or worship others with Him while;

 

 

[æóßõäÊõãú ÃóãúæóÊðÇ ÃóÃóÃúíóÜßõãú]

(You were dead and He gave you life) meaning, He brought them from the state of non-existence to life. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[Ãóãú ÎõáöÞõæÇú ãöäú ÛóíúÑö ÔóìúÃò Ãóãú åõãõ ÇáúÎóÜáöÞõæäó - Ãóãú ÎóáóÞõæÇú ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖó Èóá áÇøó íõæÞöäõæäó ]

(Were they created by nothing Or were they themselves the creators Or did they create the heavens and the earth Nay, but they have no firm belief) (52:35-36) and,

 

 

[åóáú ÃóÊóì Úóáóì ÇáÅöäÓóÜäö Ãöíäñ ãøöäó ÇáÃøóåúÑö áóãú íóßõä ÔóíúÆÇð ãøóÃúßõæÑÇð ]

(Has there not been over man a period of time, when he was not a thing worth mentioning) (76:1).

 

There are many other Ayat on this subject. Ibn Jarir reported from `Ata' that Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

 

[æóßõäÊõãú ÃóãúæóÊðÇ ÃóÃóÃúíóÜßõãú]

(Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life) means, "You did not exist beforehand. You were nothing until Allah created you; He will bring death to you and then bring you back to life during Resurrection.'' Ibn `Abbas then said, "This is similar to Allah's statement;

 

 

[ÞóÇáõæÇú ÑóÈøóäó ÃóãóÊøóäóÇ ÇËúäóÊóíúäö æóÃóÃúíóíúÊóäóÇ ÇËúäóÊóíúäö]

(They will say: "Our Lord! You have made us to die twice and You have given us life twice.'') (40:11)''

 

 

[åõæó ÇáøóÃöì ÎóáóÞó áóßõã ãøóÇ Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÌóãöíÚÇð Ëõãøó ÇÓúÊóæóì Åöáóì ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö ÃóÓóæøóÇåõäøó ÓóÈúÚó ÓóãóÜæóÇÊò æóåõæó Èößõáøö ÔóìúÃò Úóáöíãñ ]

(29. He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa ila the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the Knower of everything.)

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Evidence of Allah's Ability

 

After Allah mentioned the proofs of His creating them, and what they can witness in themselves as proof of that, He mentioned another proof that they can witness, that is, the creation of the heavens and earth. Allah said,

 

 

[åõæó ÇáøóÃöì ÎóáóÞó áóßõã ãøóÇ Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÌóãöíÚÇð Ëõãøó ÇÓúÊóæóì Åöáóì ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö ÃóÓóæøóÇåõäøó ÓóÈúÚó ÓóãóÜæóÇÊò]

(He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa ila the heaven and made them seven heavens) meaning, He turned towards the heaven,

 

 

[ÃóÓóæøóÇåõäøó]

(And made them) meaning, that He made the heaven, seven heavens. Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÓóæøóÇåõäøó ÓóÈúÚó ÓóãóÜæóÇÊò æóåõæó Èößõáøö ÔóìúÃò Úóáöíãñ]

(And made them seven heavens and He is the Knower of everything) meaning, His knowledge encompasses all His creation, just as He said in another Ayah,

 

 

[ÃóáÇó íóÚúáóãõ ãóäú ÎóáóÞó]

(Should not He Who has created know) (67:14).

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The Beginning of the Creation

 

This Ayah (2:29) is explained in detail in Surat As-Sajdah where Allah said;

 

 

[Þõáú ÃóÃöäøóßõãú áóÊóßúÃõÑõæäó ÈöÇáøóÃöì ÎóáóÞó ÇáÇøñÑúÖó Ãöì íóæúãóíúäö æóÊóÌúÚóáõæäó áóåõ ÃóäÃóÇÃÇð Ãóáößó ÑóÈøõ ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó - æóÌóÚóáó ÃöíåóÇ ÑóæóÇÓöìó ãöä ÃóæúÞöåóÇ æóÈóÜÑóßó ÃöíåóÇ æóÞóÃøóÑó Ãöíåó ÃóÞúæóÊóåóÇ Ãöì ÃóÑúÈóÚóÉö ÃóíøóÇãò ÓóæóÂÃð áøöáÓøóÂÆöáöíäó - Ëõãøó ÇÓúÊóæóì Åöáóì ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö æóåöìó ÃõÎóÇäñ ÃóÞóÇáó áóåóÇ æóáöáÇøñÑúÖö ÇÆúÊöíóÇ ØóæúÚÇð Ãóæú ßóÑúåÇð ÞóÇáóÊó ÃóÊóíúäóÇ ØóÂÆöÚöíäó - ÃóÞóÖóÇåõäøó ÓóÈúÚó ÓóãóÜæóÊò Ãöì íóæúãóíúäö æóÃóæúÃóì Ãöì ßõáøö ÓóãóÂÃò ÃóãúÑóåóÇ æóÒóíøóäøóÇ ÇáÓøóãóÂÃó ÇáÃøõäúíóÇ ÈöãóÕóÜÈöíÃó æóÃöÃúÙÇð Ãóáößó ÊóÞúÃöíÑõ ÇáúÚóÒöíÒö ÇáúÚóáöíãö ]

(Say (O Muhammad ): "Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days And you set up rivals (in worship) with Him That is the Lord of all that exists. He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four Days equal (i.e. all these four `days' were equal in the length of time) for all those who ask (about its creation). Then He Istawa ila the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly.'' They both said: "We come willingly.'' Then He finished them (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the decree of the Almighty, the Knower) (41:9-12).

 

These Ayat indicate that Allah started creation by creating earth, then He made heaven into seven heavens. This is how building usually starts, with the lower floors first and then the top floors, as the scholars of Tafsir reiterated, as we will come to know, Allah willing. Allah also said,

 

 

[ÃóÃóäÊõãú ÃóÔóÃøõ ÎóáúÞÇð Ãóãö ÇáÓøóãóÂÃõ ÈóäóÜåóÇ - ÑóÃóÚó ÓóãúßóåóÇ ÃóÓóæøóÇåóÇ - æóÃóÛúØóÔó áóíúáóåóÇ æóÃóÎúÑóÌó ÖõÃóÜåóÇ - æóÇáÇøñÑúÖó ÈóÚúÃó Ãóáößó ÃóÃóÜåóÇ - ÃóÎúÑóÌó ãöäúåóÇ ãóÂÃóåóÇ æóãóÑúÚóÜåóÇ - æóÇáúÌöÈóÇáó ÃóÑúÓóÜåóÇ - ãóÊóÜÚÇð áøóßõãú æóáÇøðäúÚóÜãößõãú ]

(Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed He raised its height, and has perfected it. Its night He covers with darkness and its forenoon He brings out (with light). And the earth, after that, He spread it out. And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture. And the mountains He has fixed firmly. (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle) (79:27-33).

 

It is said that "Then'' in the Ayah (2:29) relates only to the order of reciting the information being given, it does not relate to the order that the events being mentioned took place, this was reported from Ibn `Abbas by `Ali bin Abi Talhah.

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The Earth was created before Heaven

 

Mujahid commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[åõæó ÇáøóÃöì ÎóáóÞó áóßõã ãøóÇ Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÌóãöíÚÇð]

(He it is Who created for you all that is on earth) "Allah created the earth before heaven, and when He created the earth, smoke burst out of it. This is why Allah said,

 

[Ëõãøó ÇÓúÊóæóì Åöáóì ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö æóåöìó ÃõÎóÇäñ]

(Then He Istawa ila (turned towards) the heaven when it was smoke.) (41:11)

 

 

[ÃóÓóæøóÇåõäøó ÓóÈúÚó ÓóãóÜæóÇÊò]

(And made them seven heavens) means, one above the other, while the `seven earths' means, one below the other.''

 

This Ayah testifies to the fact that the earth was created before heaven, as Allah has indicated in the Ayat in Surat As-Sajdah.

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:D

 

Wow such exceptional posts,

may Allah bless u lots for sharing them.Ameen.

 

I really love them,alhumdulilah they are soo interesting and great to read. :D

 

Keep the wonderful posts coming. :D

 

This Surah is very powerful and influential mashallah.

 

btw could you provide a source from where the info is from cause I would love to read info on other Surahs too inshallah.

 

Jazakallah khayr. :D

 

:D

Edited by Aaqib Ahmed

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Spreading the Earth out after the Heavens were created

 

Sahih Al-Bukhari records that when Ibn `Abbas was question about this matter, he said that the earth was created before heaven, and the earth was spread out only after the creation of the heaven. Several Tafsir scholars of old and recent times also said similarly, as we have elaborated on in the Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at (chapter 79). The result of that discussion is that the word Daha (translated above as "spread'') is mentioned and explained in Allah's statement,

 

[æóÇáÇøñÑúÖó ÈóÚúÃó Ãóáößó ÃóÃóÜåóÇ - ÃóÎúÑóÌó ãöäúåóÇ ãóÂÃóåóÇ æóãóÑúÚóÜåóÇ - æóÇáúÌöÈóÇáó ÃóÑúÓóÜåóÇ ]

(And the earth, after that, He spread it out. And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture. And the mountains He has fixed firmly.) (79:30-32)

 

Therefore, Daha means that the earth's treasures were brought to its surface after finishing the job of creating whatever will reside on earth and heaven. When the earth became Daha, the water burst out to its surface and the various types, colors, shapes and kinds of plants grew. The stars started rotating along with the planets that rotate around them. And Allah knows best.

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞóÇáó ÑóÈøõßó áöáúãóáóÜÆößóÉö Åöäøöí ÌóÇÚöáñ Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö ÎóáöíÃóÉð ÞóÇáõæÇú ÃóÊóÌúÚóáõ ÃöíåóÇ ãóä íõÃúÓöÃõ ÃöíåóÇ æóíóÓúÃößõ ÇáÃøöãóÂÃó æóäóÃúäõ äõÓóÈøöÃõ ÈöÃóãúÃößó æóäõÞóÃøöÓõ áóßó ÞóÇáó Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ áÇó ÊóÚúáóãõæäó ]

(30. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.'' They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, Ü while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.'' He (Allah) said: "I know that which you do not know.'')

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Adam and His Children inhabited the Earth, Generation after Generation

 

Allah reiterated His favor on the Children of Adam when He stated that He mentioned them in the highest of heights before He created them. Allah said,

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞóÇáó ÑóÈøõßó áöáúãóáóÜÆößóÉö]

(And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels.)

 

This Ayah means, "O Muhammad ! Mention to your people what Allah said to the angels,

 

[Åöäøöí ÌóÇÚöáñ Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö ÎóáöíÃóÉð]

(Verily, I am going to place a Khalifah on earth).

 

Meaning people reproducing generation after generation, century after century, just as Allah said,

 

 

[æóåõæó ÇáøóÃöì ÌóÚóáóßõãú ÎóáóÜÆöÃó ÇáÇøñÑúÖö]

(And it is He Who has made you (Khala'if) generations coming after generations, replacing each other on the earth) (6:165),

 

 

[æóíóÌúÚóáõßõãú ÃõáóÃóÂÃó ÇáÇøñÑúÖö]

(And makes you (Khulafa') inheritors of the earth) (27:62),

 

[æóáóæú äóÔóÂÃõ áóÌóÚóáúäóÇ ãöäßõãú ãøóáóÜÆößóÉð Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö íóÎúáõÃõæäó ]

(And if it were Our will, We would have (destroyed you (mankind all, and) made angels to replace you (Yakhlufun) on the earth.) (43: 60) and,

 

 

[ÃóÎóáóÃó ãöä ÈóÚúÃöåöãú ÎóáúÃñ]

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation (Khalf)) (7:169). It appears that Allah was not refering to Adam specifically as Khalifah, otherwise he would not have allowed the angels' statement,

 

 

[ÃóÊóÌúÚóáõ ÃöíåóÇ ãóä íõÃúÓöÃõ ÃöíåóÇ æóíóÓúÃößõ ÇáÃøöãóÂÃó]

(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood).

 

The angels meant that this type of creature usually commits the atrocities they mentioned. The angels knew of this fact, according to their understanding of human nature, for Allah stated that He would create man from clay. Or, the angels understood this fact from the word Khalifah, which also means the person who judges disputes that occur between people, forbidding them from injustice and sin, as Al-Qurtubi said.

 

The statement the angels uttered was not a form of disputing with Allah's, nor out of envy for the Children of Adam, as some mistakenly thought. Allah has described them as those who do not precede Him in speaking, meaning that they do not ask Allah anything without His permission. When Allah informed them that He was going to create a creation on the earth, and they had knowledge that this creation would commit mischief on it, as Qatadah mentioned, they said,

 

 

[ÃóÊóÌúÚóáõ ÃöíåóÇ ãóä íõÃúÓöÃõ ÃöíåóÇ æóíóÓúÃößõ ÇáÃøöãóÂÃó]

(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood)

 

This is only a question for the sake of learning about the wisdom of that, as if they said, Our Lord! What is the wisdom of creating such creatures since they will cause trouble in the earth and spill blood "If the wisdom behind this action is that You be worshipped, we praise and glorify You (meaning we pray to You) we never indulge in mischief, so why create other creatures''

 

Allah said to the angels in answer to their inquiry,

 

 

[Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ áÇó ÊóÚúáóãõæäó]

(I know that which you do not know.) meaning, "I know that the benefit of creating this type of creature outweighs the harm that you mentioned, that which you have no knowledge of. I will create among them Prophets and send Messengers. I will also create among them truthful, martyrs, righteous believers, worshippers, the modest, the pious, the scholars who implement their knowledge, humble people and those who love Allah and follow His Messengers.''

 

The Sahih recorded that when the angels ascend to Allah with the records of the servant's deeds, Allah asks them, while having better knowledge, "How did you leave My servants'' They will say, "We came to them while they were praying and left them while they were praying.'' This is because the angels work in shifts with mankind, and they change shifts during the Fajr and `Asr prayers. The angels who descended will remain with us, while the angels who have remained with us ascend with our deeds. The Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«íõÑúÃóÚõ Åöáóíúåö Úóãóáõ Çááøóíúáö ÞóÈúáó ÇáäøóåóÇÑö æóÚóãóáõ ÇáäøóåóÇÑö ÞóÈúáó Çááøóíúá»(The deeds of the night are elevated to Allah before the morning, and the deeds of the morning before the night falls. )

 

Hence, the angels' statement, "We came to them while they were praying and left them while they were praying,'' explains Allah's statement,

 

 

[Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ áÇó ÊóÚúáóãõæäó]

(I know that which you do not know.)

 

It was said that the meaning of Allah's statement,

 

 

[Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ áÇó ÊóÚúáóãõæäó]

(I know that which you do not know.) is, "I have a specific wisdom in creating them, which you do not have knowledge of.'' It was also said that it is in answer to,

 

 

[æóäóÃúäõ äõÓóÈøöÃõ ÈöÃóãúÃößó æóäõÞóÃøöÓõ áóßó]

(While we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You) after which Allah said,

 

 

[Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ áÇó ÊóÚúáóãõæäó]

(I know that which you do not know). Meaning, "I know that Iblis is not as you are, although he is among you.'' Others said,

 

 

[ÃóÊóÌúÚóáõ ÃöíåóÇ ãóä íõÃúÓöÃõ ÃöíåóÇ æóíóÓúÃößõ ÇáÃøöãóÂÃó æóäóÃúäõ äõÓóÈøöÃõ ÈöÃóãúÃößó æóäõÞóÃøöÓõ áóßó]

"(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, Ü while we glorify you with praises and thanks and sanctify You.) is their request that they should be allowed to inhabit the earth, instead of the Children of Adam. So Allah said to them,

 

 

[Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ áÇó ÊóÚúáóãõæäó]

(I know that which you do not know) if your inhabiting the heavens is better, or worse for you.'' Ar-Razi as well as others said this. Allah knows best.

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The Obligation of appointing a Khalifah and some related Issues

 

Al-Qurtubi, as well as other scholars, said that this Ayah (2:30) proves the obligation of appointing a Khalifah to pass judgements on matters of dispute between people, to aid the oppressed against the oppressor, to implement the Islamic penal code and to forbid evil. There are many other tasks that can only be fulfilled by appointing the Imam, and what is necessary in performing an obligation, is an obligation itself. We should state here that Imamah occurs by either naming a successor, as a group among Ahl As-Sunnah scholars said occurred - by the Prophet - in the case of Abu Bakr, or hinting to a successor. Or, the current Khalifah names a certain person as Khalifah after him, as Abu Bakr did with `Umar. Or, the Khalifah might leave the matter in the hands of the Muslim consultative council, or a group of righteous men, just as `Umar did. Or, the people of authority could gather around a certain person to whom they give the pledge of allegiance, or they could select one among them to choose the candidate, according to the majority of the scholars.

 

The Khalifah must be a responsible adult Muslim male, able to perform Ijtihad (independent legal judgments), bodily able, righteous, with knowledge of warfare, politics. He also must be from the tribe of Quraysh, according to the correct view, but it is not necessary that he be from the tribe of Bani Hashim, or that he be immune from error, as the Rafidah (Shiites) falsely claim.

 

When the Khalifah becomes an immoral person (Fasiq), should he be impeached There is disagreement over this matter, but the correct view is that he is not to be removed, because the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÅöáøóÇ Ãóäú ÊóÑóæúÇ ßõÃúÑðÇ ÈóæóÇÃðÇ ÚöäúÃóßõãú ãöäó Çááåö Ãöíåö ÈõÑúåóÇä»(Unless you witness a clear Kufr regarding which you have clear proof from Allah. )

 

Does the Khalifah have the right to resign from his post There is a difference on this issue. It is a fact that Al-Hasan bin `Ali removed himself from the position of Khalifah and surrendered it to Mu`awiyah. However, this occurred because of a necessity, and Al-Hasan was praised for this action.

 

It is not permissible to appoint two Imams for the world or more at the same time. This is not allowed because the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ãóäú ÌóÇÃóßõãú æóÃóãúÑõßõãú ÌóãöíÚñ íõÑöíÃõ Ãóäú íõÃóÑøöÞó Èóíúäóßõãú ÃóÇÞúÊõáõæåõ ßóÇÆöäðÇ ãóäú ßóÇä»(Whoever came to you while you are united and tried to divide you, then execute him, no matter who he is.)

 

This is the view of the majority of scholars. Imam Al-Haramayn stated that Abu Ishaq allowed the appointment of two or more Imams when the various provinces are far away from each other. However, Imam Al-Haramayn himself was indecisive about this view.

 

[æóÚóáøóãó ÃóÇÃóãó ÇáÃóÓúãóÂÃó ßõáøóåóÇ Ëõãøó ÚóÑóÖóåõãú Úóáóì ÇáúãóáóÜÆößóÉö ÃóÞóÇáó ÃóäÈöÆõæäöì ÈöÃóÓúãóÂÃö åóÜÄõáÇóÃö Åöä ßõäÊõãú ÕóÜÃöÞöíäó - ÞóÇáõæÇú ÓõÈúÃóÜäóßó áÇó Úöáúãó áóäó ÅöáÇøó ãóÇ ÚóáøóãúÊóäó Åöäøóßó ÃóäÊó ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ÇáúÃóßöíãõ - ÞóÇáó íóÜÇÃóÇÃóãõ ÃóäÈöÆúåõã ÈöÃóÓúãóÂÆöåöãú Ãóáóãøó ÃóäÈóÃóåõã ÈöÃóÓúãóÂÆöåöã ÞóÇáó Ãóáóãú ÃóÞõá áøóßõãú Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ÛóíúÈó ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÇÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö æóÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊõÈúÃõæäó æóãóÇ ßõäÊõãú ÊóßúÊõãõæäó ]

(31. And He taught Adam all the names (of everything), then He showed them to the angels and said, "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.'') (32. They (angels) said: "Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, You are the Knower, the Wise.'') (33. He said: "O Adam! Inform them of their names,'' and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing''

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The Virtue of Adam over the Angels

 

Allah stated the virtue of Adam above the angels, because He taught Adam, rather than them, the names of everything. This occurred after they prostrated to him. This discussion precedes that event here, only to show the importance of his position, and the absence of the angels' knowledge about creating the Khalifah when they asked about it. So Allah informed the angels that He knows what they do not know, and then He mentioned this to show them Adam's superiority over them in knowledge. Allah said,

 

 

[æóÚóáøóãó ÃóÇÃóãó ÇáÃóÓúãóÂÃó ßõáøóåóÇ]

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)).

 

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah;

 

 

[æóÚóáøóãó ÃóÇÃóãó ÇáÃóÓúãóÂÃó ßõáøóåóÇ]

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)) "Meaning, the names that people use, such as human, animal, sky, earth, land, sea, horse, donkey, and so forth, including the names of the other species.'' Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir reported that `Asim bin Kulayb narrated from Sa`id bin Ma`bad that Ibn `Abbas was questioned,

 

 

[æóÚóáøóãó ÃóÇÃóãó ÇáÃóÓúãóÂÃó ßõáøóåóÇ]

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)) "Did Allah teach him the names of the plate and the pot'' He said, "Yes, and even the terms for breaking wind!''

 

Allah taught Adam the names of everything, their proper names, the names of their characteristics, and what they do, just as Ibn `Abbas stated about the terms for passing gas.

 

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari explained this Ayah in the Book of Tafsir with a report from Anas bin Malik who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«íóÌúÊóãöÚõ ÇáúãõÄãöäõæäó íóæúãó ÇáúÞöíóÇãóÉö ÃóíóÞõæáõæäó: áóæö ÇÓúÊóÔúÃóÚúäóÇ Åöáóì ÑóÈøöäóÇ ÃóíóÃúÊõæäó ÂÃóãó ÃóíóÞõæáõæäó: ÃóäúÊó ÃóÈõæ ÇáäøóÇÓö ÎóáóÞóßó Çááåõ ÈöíóÃöåö æóÃóÓúÌóÃó áóßó ãóáóÇÆößóÊóåõ æóÚóáøóãóßó ÃóÓúãóÇÃó ßõáøö ÔóíúÃò¡ ÃóÇÔúÃóÚú áóäóÇ ÚöäúÃó ÑóÈøößó ÃóÊøóì íõÑíÃóäóÇ ãöäú ãóßóÇäöäóÇ åóÃÇ¡ ÃóíóÞõæáõ: áóÓúÊõ åõäóÇßõãú æóíóÃúßõÑõ ÃóäúÈóåõ ÃóíóÓúÊóÃúíöí ÇÆúÊõæÇ äõæÃðÇ ÃÅöäøóåõ Ãóæøóáõ ÑóÓõæáò ÈóÚóËóåõ Çááåõ Åöáóì Ãóåúáö ÇáúÃóÑúÖö¡ ÃóíóÃúÊõæäóå¡ ÃóíóÞõæáõ: áóÓúÊõ åõäÇßõãú æóíóÃúßõÑ ÓõÄóÇáóå ÑóÈøóå ãóÇ áóíúÓó áóåõ Èöå Úöáúã ÃóíóÓúÊóÃúíöí ÃóíóÞõæáõ: ÇÆúÊõæÇ Îóáöíáó ÇáÑøóÃúãä ÃóíóÃúÊõæäóåõ ÃóíÞõæáõ: áóÓúÊõ åõäóÇßõãú ÃóíóÞõæáõ: ÇÆúÊõæÇ ãõæÓóì ÚóÈúÃðÇ ßóáøóãóåõ Çááåõ æóÃÚúØóÇåõ ÇáÊøóæúÑóÇÉó¡ ÃóíÞõæáõ: áóÓúÊõ åõäóÇßõã ÃóíóÃúßõÑõ ÞóÊúáó ÇáäøóÃúÓö ÈöÛóíúÑö äóÃúÓò ÃóíóÓúÊóÃúíöí ãöäú ÑóÈøöåö ÃóíóÞõæáõ: ÇÆúÊõæÇ ÚöíÓì ÚóÈúÃóÇááåö æóÑóÓõæáóåõ æóßóáöãóÉó Çááåö æÑõæÃóåõ¡ ÃóíóÃúÊõæäóåõ ÃóíóÞõæáõ: áóÓúÊõ åõäóÇßõãú ÇÆúÊõæÇ ãõÃóãøóÃðÇ ÚóÈúÃðÇ ÛõÃöÑó áóåõ ãóÇ ÊóÞóÃøóã ãöäú ÃóäúÈöåö æóãóÇ ÊóÃóÎøóÑó¡ ÃóíóÃúÊõæäøöí ÃÃóäúØóáöÞõ ÃóÊøóì ÃóÓúÊÃÃöäó Úóáóì ÑóÈøöí ÃíóÃúÃóäõ áöí¡ ÃÅöÃóÇ ÑÃóíúÊõ ÑóÈøöí æóÞóÚúÊõ ÓóÇÌöÃðÇ ÃóíóÃóÚõäöí ãóÇ ÔóÇÃó Çááåõ Ëõãøó íõÞóÇáõ: ÇÑúÃóÚú ÑóÃúÓóßó æóÓóáú ÊõÚúØóåú æóÞõáú íõÓúãóÚú æóÇÔúÃóÚú ÊõÔóÃøóÚú¡ ÃÃóÑúÃóÚõ ÑóÃúÓöí ÃÃóÃúãóÃõåõ ÈöÊóÃúãöíÃò íõÚóáøöãõäöíåö Ëõãøó ÃóÔúÃóÚõ ÃóíõÃóÃøõ áöí ÃóÃøðÇ ÃÃõÃúÎöáõåõãõ ÇáúÌóäøóÉó Ëõãøó ÃóÚõæÃõ Åáóíúåö ÃóÅÃóÇ ÑóÃóíúÊõ ÑóÈøöí ãöËúáóåõ Ëõãøó ÃóÔúÃóÚõ ÃóíõÃóÃøõ áöí ÃÃøðÇ ÃÃõÃúÎöáõåõãõ ÇáúÌóäøóÉó Ëõãøó ÃóÚõæÃõ ÇáËøóÇáöËóÉó Ëõãøó ÃÚõæÃõ ÇáÑøóÇÈöÚóÉó ÃóÃóÞõæáõ:ãóÇ ÈóÞöíó Ãöí ÇáäøóÇÑ ÅáøóÇ ãóäú ÃóÈóÓóåõ ÇáúÞõÑúÂäõ æóæóÌóÈó Úóáóíúåö ÇáúÎõáõæû(The believers will gather on the Day of Resurrection and will say, `We should seek a means of intercession with our Lord' They will go to Adam and say, `O Adam! You are the father of all mankind, Allah created you with His Own Hand, ordered the angels to prostrate for you and taught you the names of everything. Will you not intercede for us with your Lord, so that he relieve us from this gathering place' On that Adam will reply, `I cannot do what you have asked'. He will have remembered his error and will be embarrassed, saying, `Go to Nuh, for he is the first of Allah's Messengers whom Allah sent to the people of the earth.' They will go to Nuh and ask him. He will say, `I cannot do what you have asked.' He will recall asking Allah what he was not to know, and will also be embarrassed. He will say, `Go to Khalil Ar-Rahman.' They will go to Ibrahim and he will also say, `I cannot do what you have asked.' He will say, `Go to Musa, a servant to whom Allah spoke directly and gave the Tawrah.' Musa will say, `I cannot do what you have asked.' He will remember that he killed a person without justification and will be embarrassed before his Lord. He will say, `Go to `Isa, Allah's servant and Messenger and His Word and a spirit of His.' They will go to `Isa and he will say, `I will not do what you asked. Go to Muhammad, a servant whose previous and latter errors were forgiven.' They will come to me, and I will go to Allah and seek His permission and He will give me His permission. When I gaze at my Lord, I will prostrate myself and Allah will allow me to remain like that as much as He will. Then I will be addressed, `O Muhammad! Raise your head; ask, for you will be given what you ask, and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will raise my head and thank and praise Allah with such praise as He will inspire me. I will intercede and He will grant me a quantity of people that He will admit into Paradise. I will go back to Him, and when I see my Lord, I will intercede and He will allow me a quantity that He will admit into Paradise. I will do that for a third and then a fourth time. I will say, `There are no more people left in Hell except those whom the Qur'an has incarcerated and have thus acquired eternity in Hell.') This Hadith was collected by Muslim, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah. fThe reason why we mentioned this Hadith here is the Prophet's statement,

 

 

«ÃóíóÃúÊõæäó ÂÃóãó ÃóíóÞõæáõæä: ÃäúÊó ÃóÈõæ ÇáäøóÇÓö ÎóáóÞóßó Çááåõ ÈöíóÃöåö æóÃóÓúÌóÃó áóßó ãóáóÇÆößóÊóåõ æóÚóáøóãóßó ÃóÓúãóÇÃó ßõáøö Ôóíúû(They will go to Adam and say, `O Adam! You are the father of all mankind, and Allah created you with His Own Hand, ordered the angels to prostrate for you, and taught you the names of everything). This part of the Hadith testifies to the fact that Allah taught Adam the names of all creatures.

 

This is why Allah said,

 

 

[Ëõãøó ÚóÑóÖóåõãú Úóáóì ÇáúãóáóÜÆößóÉö]

(Then He showed them to the angels) meaning, the objects or creations. `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said, "Allah paraded the objects before the angels,

 

 

[ÃóÞóÇáó ÃóäÈöÆõæäöì ÈöÃóÓúãóÂÃö åóÜÄõáÇóÃö Åöä ßõäÊõãú ÕóÜÃöÞöíäó]

(And said, "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful'').''

 

Allah's statement means, "Tell Me the names of what I paraded before you, O angels who said,

 

 

[ÃóÊóÌúÚóáõ ÃöíåóÇ ãóä íõÃúÓöÃõ ÃöíåóÇ æóíóÓúÃößõ ÇáÃøöãóÂÃó]

(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood).

 

You asked, `Are You appointing a Khalifah from us or from other creations We praise and glorify You.

 

Therefore, Allah said, "If you say the truth, that if I appoint a non-angel Khalifah on the earth, he and his offspring will disobey Me, commit mischief and shed blood, but if I designate you the Khalifahs you will obey Me, follow My command and honor and glorify Me. However, since you do not know the names of the objects I paraded before you, then you have even less knowledge of what will occur on the earth that does not exist yet.''

 

[ÞóÇáõæÇú ÓõÈúÃóÜäóßó áÇó Úöáúãó áóäó ÅöáÇøó ãóÇ ÚóáøóãúÊóäó Åöäøóßó ÃóäÊó ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ÇáúÃóßöíãõ ]

(They (angels) said: "Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the Knower, the Wise.'').

 

Here the angels are praising Allah's holiness, and perfection above every kind of deficiency, affirming that no creature could ever acquire any part of Allah's knowledge, except by His permission, nor could anyone know anything except what Allah teaches them. This is why they said,

 

[ÓõÈúÃóÜäóßó áÇó Úöáúãó áóäó ÅöáÇøó ãóÇ ÚóáøóãúÊóäó Åöäøóßó ÃóäÊó ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ÇáúÃóßöíãõ]

("Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily You are the Knower, the Wise) meaning, Allah is knowledgeable of everything, Most Wise about His creation, and He makes the wisest decisions, and He teaches and deprives whom He wills from knowledge. Verily, Allah's wisdom and justice in all matters is perfect.

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Assalam Alaikum

 

Jazaak Allah Khair for the Wonderful thread.

 

May Allah (SWT) reward you for this.. ameen

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Adam's Virtue of Knowledge is demonstrated

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ÞóÇáó íóÜÇÃóÇÃóãõ ÃóäÈöÆúåõã ÈöÃóÓúãóÂÆöåöãú Ãóáóãøó ÃóäÈóÃóåõã ÈöÃóÓúãóÂÆöåöã ÞóÇáó Ãóáóãú ÃóÞõá áøóßõãú Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ÛóíúÈó ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÇÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö æóÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊõÈúÃõæäó æóãóÇ ßõäÊõãú ÊóßúÊõãõæäó ]

(He said: "O Adam! Inform them of their names,'' and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing'')

 

Zayd bin Aslam said, "You are Jibril, you are Mika'il, you are Israfil, until he mentioned the name of the crow.'' Mujahid said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÞóÇáó íóÜÇÃóÇÃóãõ ÃóäÈöÆúåõã ÈöÃóÓúãóÂÆöåöãú]

(He said: "O Adam! Inform them of their names,'') "The name of the pigeon, the crow and everything.'' Statements of a similar meaning were reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah. When Adam's virtue over the angels became apparent, as he mentioned the names that Allah taught him, Allah said to the angels,

 

 

[Ãóáóãú ÃóÞõá áøóßõãú Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ÛóíúÈó ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÇÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö æóÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊõÈúÃõæäó æóãóÇ ßõäÊõãú ÊóßúÊõãõæäó]

(Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing)

 

This means, "Did I not state that I know the seen and unseen matters. '' Similarly, Allah said,

 

[æóÅöä ÊóÌúåóÑú ÈöÇáúÞóæúáö ÃóÅöäøóåõ íóÚúáóãõ ÇáÓøöÑøó æóÃóÎúÃóì ]

(And if you (O Muhammad ) speak (the invocation) aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden) (20:7).

 

Also, Allah said about the hoopoe, that it said to Sulayman;

 

 

[ÃóáÇøó íóÓúÌõÃõæÇú ááøóåö ÇáøóÃöì íõÎúÑöÌõ ÇáúÎóÈúÃó Ãöì ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö æóíóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊõÎúÃõæäó æóãóÇ ÊõÚúáöäõæäó - Çááøóåõ áÇó ÅöáóÜåó ÅöáÇøó åõæó ÑóÈøõ ÇáúÚóÑúÔö ÇáúÚóÙöíãö ]

([As Shaytan (Satan) has barred them from Allah's way] so they do not prostrate before Allah, Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knows what you conceal and what you reveal. Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Lord of the Supreme Throne!) (27:25-26).

 

They also have comments other than what we have said about the meaning of Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊõÈúÃõæäó æóãóÇ ßõäÊõãú ÊóßúÊõãõæäó]

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing).

 

It is reported from Ad-Dahhak that Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

 

[æóÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊõÈúÃõæäó æóãóÇ ßõäÊõãú ÊóßúÊõãõæäó]

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means, "`I know the secrets, just as I know the apparent things, such as, what Iblis concealed in his heart of arrogance and pride.'' Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi narrated that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that,

 

[æóÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊõÈúÃõæäó æóãóÇ ßõäÊõãú ÊóßúÊõãõæäó]

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means, "The apparent part of what they said was: `Do you create in it that which would commit mischief and shed blood' The hidden meaning was: `We have more knowledge and honor than any creation our Lord would create.' But they came to know that Allah favored Adam above them regarding knowledge and honor.''

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞõáúäóÇ áöáúãóáóÜÆößóÉö ÇÓúÌõÃõæÇú áÇøðÃóãó ÃóÓóÌóÃõæÇú ÅöáÇøó ÅöÈúáöíÓó ÃóÈóì æóÇÓúÊóßúÈóÑó æóßóÇäó ãöäó ÇáúßóÜÃöÑöíäó ]

(34. And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.'' And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).)

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Honoring Adam when the Angels prostrated before Him

 

This Ayah mentions the great honor that Allah granted Adam, and Allah reminded Adam's offspring of this fact. Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, as this Ayah and many Hadiths testify, such as the Hadith about the intercession that we discussed. There is a Hadith about the supplication of Musa, "O my Lord! Show me Adam who caused us and himself to be thrown out of Paradise.'' When Musa met Adam, he said to him, "Are you Adam whom Allah created with His Own Hands, blew life into and commanded the angels to prostrate before'' Iblis was among Those ordered to prostrate before Adam, although He was not an Angel

 

When Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, Iblis was included in this command. Although Iblis was not an angel, he was trying - and pretending - to imitate the angels' behavior and deeds, and this is why he was also included in the command to the angels to prostrate before Adam. Satan was criticized for defying that command, as we will explain with detail, Allah willing, when we mention the Tafsir of Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÅöáÇøó ÅöÈúáöíÓó ßóÇäó ãöäó ÇáúÌöäøö ÃóÃóÓóÞó Úóäú ÃóãúÑö ÑóÈøöåö]

(Except Iblis (Satan). He was one of the Jinn; he disobeyed the command of his Lord.) (18:50)

 

Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Before he undertook the path of sin, Iblis was with the angels and was called `Azazil.' He was among the residents of the earth and was one of the most active worshippers and knowledgeable persons among the angels. This fact caused him to be arrogant. Iblis was from a genus called Jinn.''

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The Prostration was before Adam but the Obedience was to Allah

 

Qatadah commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞõáúäóÇ áöáúãóáóÜÆößóÉö ÇÓúÌõÃõæÇú áÇøðÃóãó]

(And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.'')

 

"The obedience was for Allah and the prostration was before Adam. Allah honored Adam and commanded the angels to prostrate before him.'' Some people said that this prostration was just a prostration of greeting, peace and honor, hence Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÑóÃóÚó ÃóÈóæóíúåö Úóáóì ÇáúÚóÑúÔö æóÎóÑøõæÇú áóåõ ÓõÌøóÃóÇ æóÞóÇáó íÃóÈóÊö åóÜÃóÇ ÊóÃúæöíáõ ÑõÄúíóÜì ãöä ÞóÈúáõ ÞóÃú ÌóÚóáóåóÇ ÑóÈøöì ÃóÞøðÇ]

(And he (Prophet Yusuf) raised his parents to the throne and they fell down before him prostrate. And he said: "O my father! This is the interpretation of my dream aforetime! My Lord has made it come true!'') (12:100)

 

The practice of prostrating was allowed for previous nations, but was repealed for ours. Mu`adh said to the Prophet , "I visited Ash-Sham and found that they used to prostate before their priests and scholars. You, O Messenger of Allah, are more deserving of prostration.'' The Prophet said,

 

«áóÇ áóæú ßõäúÊõ ÂãöÑðÇ ÈóÔóÑðÇ Ãäú íóÓúÌõÃó áöÈóÔóÑò áóÃóãóÑúÊõ ÇáúãóÑúÃÉó Ãäú ÊóÓúÌõÃó áöÒóæÌöåóÇ ãöäú ÚöÙóãö ÃóÞøöåö ÚóáóíúåóÇ»(No. If I was to command any human to prostrate before another human, I would command the wife to prostrate before her husband because of the enormity of his right on her.)

 

Ar-Razi agreed with this view. Also, Qatadah said about Allah's statement,

 

[ÃóÓóÌóÃõæÇú ÅöáÇøó ÅöÈúáöíÓó ÃóÈóì æóÇÓúÊóßúÈóÑó æóßóÇäó ãöäó ÇáúßóÜÃöÑöíäó]

(And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).)

 

"Iblis, the enemy of Allah, envied Adam because Allah honored Adam. He said, `I was created from fire, and he was created from clay.' Therefore, the first error ever committed was arrogance, for the enemy of Allah was too arrogant to prostrate before Adam.'' I - Ibn Kathir - say, the following is recorded in the Sahih,

 

 

«áóÇ íóÃúÎõáõ ÇáúÌóäøóÉó ãóäú ßóÇäó Ãöí ÞóáúÈöåö ãöËúÞóÇáõ ÃóÈøóÉò ãöäú ÎóÑúÃóáò ãöäú ßöÈúÑ»(No person who has the weight of a mustard seed of arrogance in his heart shall enter Paradise.)

 

Iblis had disbelief, arrogance, and rebellion, all of which caused him to be expelled from the holy presence of Allah, and His mercy.

 

[æóÞõáúäóÇ íóÇÃóÇÃóãõ ÇÓúßõäú ÃóäúÊó æóÒóæúÌõßó ÇáúÌóäøóÉó æóßõáÇó ãöäúåóÇ ÑóÛóÃðÇ ÃóíúËõ ÔöÆúÊõãóÇ æóáÇó ÊóÞúÑóÈóÇ åóÜÃöåö ÇáÔøóÌóÑóÉó ÃóÊóßõæäóÇ ãöäó ÇáúÙøóÜáöãöíäó - ÃóÃóÒóáøóåõãóÇ ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäõ ÚóäúåóÇ ÃóÃóÎúÑóÌóåõãóÇ ãöãøóÇ ßóÇäóÇ Ãöíåö æóÞõáúäóÇ ÇåúÈöØõæÇú ÈóÚúÖõßõãú áöÈóÚúÖò ÚóÃõæøñ æóáóßõãú Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö ãõÓúÊóÞóÑøñ æóãóÊóÜÚñ Åöáóì Ãöíäò ]

(35. And We said: "O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers). '') (36. Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.'')

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Adam was honored again

 

Allah honored Adam by commanding the angels to prostrate before him, so they all complied except for Iblis. Allah then allowed Adam to live and eat wherever and whatever he wished in Paradise. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah reported Abu Dharr saying, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Was Adam a Prophet' He said,

 

 

«äóÚóãú äóÈöíøðÇ ÑóÓõæáðÇ ßóáøóãóåõ Çááøóåõ ÞõÈõáðÇ»(Yes. He was a Prophet and a Messenger to whom Allah spoke directly), meaning

 

 

[ÇÓúßõäú ÃóäÊó æóÒóæúÌõßó ÇáúÌóäøóÉó]

((O Adam!) Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise.)''

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Hawwa' was created before Adam entered Paradise

 

The Ayah (2:35) indicates that Hawwa' was created before Adam entered Paradise, as Muhammad bin Ishaq stated. Ibn Ishaq said, "After Allah finished criticizing Iblis, and after teaching Adam the names of everything, He said,

 

[íóÜÇÃóÇÃóãõ ÃóäÈöÆúåõã ÈöÃóÓúãóÂÆöåöãú]

(O Adam! Inform them of their names) until,

 

 

[Åöäøóßó ÃóäÊó ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ÇáúÃóßöíãõ]

(Verily, You are the Knower, the Wise.)

 

Then Adam fell asleep, as the People of the Book and other scholars such as Ibn `Abbas have stated, Allah took one of Adam's left ribs and made flesh grow in its place, while Adam was asleep and unaware. Allah then created Adam's wife, Hawwa', from his rib and made her a woman, so that she could be a comfort for him. When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa' next to him, it was claimed, he said, `My flesh and blood, my wife.' Hence, Adam reclined with Hawwa'. When Allah married Adam to Hawwa' and gave him comfort, Allah said to him directly,

 

 

[íóÇÃóÇÃóãõ ÇÓúßõäú ÃóäúÊó æóÒóæúÌõßó ÇáúÌóäøóÉó æóßõáÇó ãöäúåóÇ ÑóÛóÃðÇ ÃóíúËõ ÔöÆúÊõãóÇ æóáÇó ÊóÞúÑóÈóÇ åóÜÃöåö ÇáÔøóÌóÑóÉó ÃóÊóßõæäóÇ ãöäó ÇáúÙøóÜáöãöíäó]

("O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers).'').''

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Allah tests Adam

 

Allah's statement to Adam,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóÞúÑóÈóÇ åóÜÃöåö ÇáÔøóÌóÑóÉó]

(but come not near this tree) is a test for Adam. There are conflicting opinions over the nature of the tree mentioned here. Some said that it was the grape tree, barley, date tree, fig tree, and so forth. Some said that it was a certain tree, and whoever eats from it will be relieved of the call of nature. It was also said that it was a tree from which the angels eat so that they live for eternity. Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir said, "The correct opinion is that Allah forbade Adam and his wife from eating from a certain tree in Paradise, but they ate from it. We do not know which tree that was, because Allah has not mentioned anything in the Qur'an or the authentic Sunnah about the nature of this tree. It was said that it was barley, grape, or a fig tree. It is possible that it was one of those trees. Yet, this is knowledge that does not bring any benefit, just as being ignorant in its nature does no harm. Allah knows best.'' This is similar to what Ar-Razi stated in his Tafsir, and this is the correct opinion. Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃóÃóÒóáøóåõãóÇ ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäõ ÚóäúåóÇ]

(Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom) either refers to Paradise, and in this case, it means that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa' away from it, as `Asim bin Abi An-Najud recited it. It is also possible that this Ayah refers to the forbidden tree. In this case, the Ayah would mean, as Al-Hasan and Qatadah stated, "He tripped them.'' In this case,

 

 

[ÃóÃóÒóáøóåõãóÇ ÇáÔøóíúØóÜäõ ÚóäúåóÇ]

(Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom)

 

means, "Because of the tree'', just as Allah said,

 

[íõÄúÃóßõ Úóäúåõ ãóäú ÃõÃößó ]

(Turned aside therefrom (i.e. from Muhammad and the Qur'an) is he who is turned aside (by the decree and preordainment of Allah)) (51:9) meaning, the deviant person becomes turned aside - or slips - from the truth because of so and so reason. This is why then Allah said,

 

[ÃóÃóÎúÑóÌóåõãóÇ ãöãøóÇ ßóÇäóÇ Ãöíåö]

(And got them out from that in which they were) meaning, the clothes, spacious dwelling and comfortable sustenance.

 

[æóÞõáúäóÇ ÇåúÈöØõæÇú ÈóÚúÖõßõãú áöÈóÚúÖò ÚóÃõæøñ æóáóßõãú Ãöì ÇáÃóÑúÖö ãõÓúÊóÞóÑøñ æóãóÊóÜÚñ Åöáóì Ãöíäò]

(We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.'') meaning, dwelling, sustenance and limited life, until the commencement of the Day of Resurrection

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Adam was very Tall

 

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

«Åöäøó Çááåó ÎóáóÞó ÂÃóãó ÑóÌõáðÇ ØõæóÇáðÇ ßóËöíÑó ÔóÚúÑö ÇáÑøóÃúÓö ßóÃóäøóåõ äóÎúáóÉñ ÓóÃõæÞñ¡ ÃóáóãøóÇ ÃóÇÞó ÇáÔøóÌóÑóÉó ÓóÞóØó Úóäúåõ áöÈóÇÓõåõ ÃóÃóæøóáõ ãóÇ ÈóÃóÇ ãöäúåõ ÚóæúÑóÊõåõ¡ ÃóáóãøóÇ äóÙóÑó Åáì ÚóæúÑÊöå ÌóÚóáó íóÔúÊóÃøõ Ãöí ÇáúÌóäøóÉö ÃóÃóÎóÃóÊú ÔóÚúÑóåõ ÔóÌóÑóÉñ ÃóäóÇÒóÚóåóÇ¡ ÃóäóÇÃóÇåõ ÇáÑøóÃúãäõ: íóÇ ÂÃóãõ ãöäøöí ÊóÃöÑøõ¿ ÃóáóãøóÇ ÓóãöÚó ßóáÇãó ÇáÑøóÃúãäö ÞóÇáó: íóÇ ÑóÈøö áóÇ æáóßöäö ÇÓúÊöÃúíóÇû(Allah created Adam tall, with thick hair, just as a date tree with full branches. When Adam ate from the forbidden tree, his cover fell off, and the first thing that appeared was his private area. When he saw his private area, he ran away in Paradise and his hair got caught in a tree. He tried to free himself and Ar-Rahman called him, 'O Adam! Are you running away from Me' When Adam heard the words of Ar-Rahman (Allah), he said, 'No, O my Lord! But I am shy.')

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Adam remained in Paradise for an Hour

 

Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Adam was allowed to reside in Paradise during the time period between the `Asr (Afternoon) prayer, until sunset.'' Al-Hakim then commented this is "Sahih according to the Two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim), but they did not include it in their collections.'' Also, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ibn `Abbas saying, "Allah sent Adam to earth to an area called, Dahna, between Makkah and At-Ta'if.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that Adam was sent down to India, while Hawwa' was sent to Jeddah. Iblis was sent down to Dustumaysan, several miles from Basra. Further, the snake was sent down to Asbahan. This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim. Also, Muslim and An-Nasa'i recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÎóíúÑõ íóæúãò ØóáóÚóÊú Ãöíåö ÇáÔøóãúÓõ íóæúãõ ÇáúÌõãõÚóÉö Ãöíåö ÎõáöÞó ÂÃóãõ æóÃöíåö ÃõÃúÎöáó ÇáúÌóäøóÉó æóÃöíåö ÃõÎúÑöÌó ãöäúåóÇ»(Friday is the best day on which the sun has risen. On Friday, Allah created Adam, admitted him into Paradise, and expelled him from it.)

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A Doubt and a Rebuttal

 

If one asks, "If the Paradise that Adam was thrown out of was in heaven, as the majority of the scholars assert, then is it possible for Iblis to enter Paradise, although he was expelled from it by Allah's decision (when he refused to prostrate before Adam)''

 

Basically, the response to this would be that the Paradise which Adam was in, was in the heavens, not on the earth, as we explained in the beginning of our book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah.

 

The majority of scholars said that Shaytan was originally prohibited from entering Paradise, but there were times when he sneaked into it in secret. For instance, the Tawrah stated that Iblis hid inside the snake's mouth and entered Paradise. Some scholars said that it is possible that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa' astray on his way out of Paradise. Some scholars said that he led Adam and Hawwa' astray when he was on earth, while they were still in heaven, as stated by Az-Zamakhshari. Al-Qurtubi mentioned several beneficial Hadiths here about snakes and the ruling on killing them.

 

 

[ÃóÊóáóÞøóì ÃóÇÃóãõ ãöä ÑøóÈøöåö ßóáöãóÇÊò ÃóÊóÇÈó Úóáóíúåö Åöäøóåõ åõæó ÇáÊøóæøóÇÈõ ÇáÑøóÃöíãõ ]

(37. Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful.)

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Adam repents and supplicates to Allah

 

It was reported that the above Ayah is explained by Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÞóÇáÇó ÑóÈøóäóÇ Ùóáóãúäó ÃóäÃõÓóäóÇ æóÅöä áøóãú ÊóÛúÃöÑú áóäóÇ æóÊóÑúÃóãúäóÇ áóäóßõæäóäøó ãöäó ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑöíäó ]

(37. They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.'') (7:23) as Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Khaálid bin Ma`dan, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam have stated. As-Suddi said that Ibn `Abbas commented on,

 

 

[ÃóÊóáóÞøóì ÃóÇÃóãõ ãöä ÑøóÈøöåö ßóáöãóÇÊò]

(Then Adam received from his Lord Words) "Adam said, `O Lord! Did You not created me with Your Own Hands' He said, `Yes.' He said, `And blow life into me' He said, `Yes.' He said, `And when I sneezed, You said, `May Allah grant you His mercy.' Does not Your mercy precede Your anger' He was told, `Yes.' Adam said, `And You destined me to commit this evil act' He was told, `Yes.' He said, `If I repent, will You send me back to Paradise' Allah said, `Yes.''' Similar is reported from Al-`Awfi, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Sa`id bin Ma`bad, and Ibn `Abbas. Al-Hakim recorded this Hadith in his Mustadrak from Ibn Jubayr, who narrated it from Ibn `Abbas. Al-Hakim said, "Its chain is Sahih and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.''

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[Åöäøóåõ åõæó ÇáÊøóæøóÇÈõ ÇáÑøóÃöíãõ]

(Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful) (2:37) means that Allah forgives whoever regrets his error and returns to Him in repentance. This meaning is similar to Allah's statements,

 

[Ãóáóãú íóÚúáóãõæÇú Ãóäøó Çááøóåó åõæó íóÞúÈóáõ ÇáÊøóæúÈóÉó Úóäú ÚöÈóÇÃöåö]

(Know they not that Allah accepts repentance from His servants) (9:104),

 

[æóãóä íóÚúãóáú ÓõæÃÇð Ãóæú íóÙúáöãú äóÃúÓóåõ]

(And whoever does evil or wrongs himself) (4:110) and

 

[æóãóä ÊóÇÈó æóÚóãöáó ÕóÜáöÃÇð]

(And whosoever repents and does righteous good deeds) (25:71).

 

The Ayat mentioned above, testify to the fact that Allah forgives the sins of whoever repents, demonstrating His kindness and mercy towards His creation and servants. There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.

 

[ÞõáúäóÇ ÇåúÈöØõæÇú ãöäúåóÇ ÌóãöíÚðÇ ÃóÅöãøóÇ íóÃúÊöíóäøóßõã ãøöäøöì åõÃðì Ãóãóä ÊóÈöÚó åõÃóÇíó ÃóáÇó ÎóæúÃñ Úóáóíúåöãú æóáÇó åõãú íóÃúÒóäõæäó - æóÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú æóßóÃøóÈõæÇú ÈöÂíóÜÊöäó ÃõæáóÜÆößó ÃóÕúÃóÜÈõ ÇáäøóÇÑö åõãú ÃöíåóÇ ÎóÜáöÃõæäó ]

(38. We said: "Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Hudan (guidance) from Me, and whoever follows My guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve.) (39. But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) Ü such are the dwellers of the Fire. They shall abide therein forever.'')

 

Allah stated that when He sent Adam, Hawwa', and Shaytan to earth from Paradise, He warned them that He will reveal Books and send Prophets and Messengers to them, i.e., to their offspring. Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "Al-Huda, refers to the Prophets, Messengers, the clear signs and plain explanation.''

 

 

[Ãóãóä ÊóÈöÚó åõÃóÇíó]

(And whoever follows My guidance) meaning, whoever accepts what is contained in My Books and what I send the Messengers with,

 

 

[ÃóáÇó ÎóæúÃñ Úóáóíúåöãú]

(There shall be no fear on them) regarding the Hereafter,

 

 

[æóáÇó åõãú íóÃúÒóäõæäó]

(nor shall they grieve) regarding the life of this world. Similarly, in Surat Ta Ha, Allah said,

 

[ÞóÇáó ÇåúÈöØóÇ ãöäúåóÇ ÌóãöíÚÇð ÈóÚúÖõßõãú áöÈóÚúÖò ÚóÃõæøñ ÃóÅöãøóÇ íóÃúÊöíóäøóßõã ãøöäøöì åõÃðì Ãóãóäö ÇÊøóÈóÚó åõÃóÇìó ÃóáÇó íóÖöáøõ æóáÇó íóÔúÞóì ]

(He (Allah) said: "Get you down (from the Paradise to the earth), both of you, together, some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, he shall neither go astray, nor shall he be distressed.) (20:123)

 

Ibn `Abbas commented, "He will not be misguided in this life or miserable in the Hereafter.'' The Ayah,

 

[æóãóäú ÃóÚúÑóÖó Úóä ÃößúÑöì ÃóÅöäøó áóåõ ãóÚöíÔóÉð ÖóäßÇð æóäóÃúÔõÑõåõ íóæúãó ÇáúÞöíÜãóÉö ÃóÚúãóì ]

(But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur'an nor acts on its teachings) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.) (20:124) is similar to what Allah stated here,

 

 

[æóÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú æóßóÃøóÈõæÇú ÈöÂíóÜÊöäó ÃõæáóÜÆößó ÃóÕúÃóÜÈõ ÇáäøóÇÑö åõãú ÃöíåóÇ ÎóÜáöÃõæäó ]

(But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat Ü such are the dwellers of the Fire. They shall abide therein forever), meaning, they will remain in Hell for eternity and will not find a way out of it.

 

[íóÜÈóäöì ÅöÓúÑóÃöíáó ÇÃúßõÑõæÇú äöÚúãóÊöíó ÇáøóÊöì ÃóäúÚóãúÊõ Úóáóíúßõãú æóÃóæúÃõæÇú ÈöÚóåúÃöì ÃõæÃö ÈöÚóåúÃößõãú æóÅöíøóÜìó ÃóÇÑúåóÈõæäö - æóÃóÇãöäõæÇú Èöãó ÃóäÒóáúÊõ ãõÕóÃøöÞðÇ áøöãóÇ ãóÚóßõãú æóáÇó ÊóßõæäõæÇú Ãóæøóáó ßóÇÃöÑò Èöåö æóáÇó ÊóÔúÊóÑõæÇú ÈöÂíóÜÊöí ËóãóäðÇ ÞóáöíáÇð æóÅöíøóÜìó ÃóÇÊøóÞõæäö ]

(40. O Children of israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you, and fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My obligations to) your covenant (with Me), and fear none but Me.) (41. And believe in what I have sent down (this Qur'an), confirming that which is with you (the Tawrah and the Injil), and be not the first to disbelieve therein, and buy not with My verses (the Tawrah and the Injil) a small price (i.e. getting a small gain by selling My verses), and fear Me and Me alone.)

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Encouraging the Children of israel to embrace Islam

 

Allah commanded the Children of israel to embrace Islam and to follow Muhammad . He also reminded them with the example of their father israel, Allah's Prophet Ya`qub, as if saying, "O children of the pious, righteous servant of Allah who obeyed Allah! Be like your father, following the truth.'' This statement is similar to one's saying, "O you son of that generous man! Do this or that'' or, "O son of the brave man, engage the strong fighters,'' or "O son of the scholar, seek the knowledge,'' and so forth. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[ÃõÑøöíøóÉó ãóäú ÃóãóáúäóÇ ãóÚó äõæÃò Åöäøóåõ ßóÇäó ÚóÈúÃðÇ ÔóßõæÑðÇ ]

(O offspring of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nuh (Noah)! Verily, he was a grateful servant) (17:3).

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israel is Prophet Ya`qub (Jacob)

 

israel is Prophet Ya`qub, for Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas said, "A group of Jews came to the Prophet and he said to them,

 

 

«åóáú ÊóÚúáóãõæäó Ãóäøó ÅöÓúÑóÇÆöíáó íóÚúÞõæÈõ¿»(Do you know that israel is Jacob) They said, "Yes, by Allah.'' He said,

 

 

«Çááøóåõãøó ÇÔúåóû(O Allah! Be witness.)''

 

At-Tabari recorded that `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas said that `israel' means, `the servant of Allah.'

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Allah's Blessings for the Children of israel

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ÇÃúßõÑõæÇú äöÚúãóÊöíó ÇáøóÊöì ÃóäúÚóãúÊõ Úóáóíúßõãú]

(Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you).

 

Mujahid commented, "Allah's favor that He granted the Jews is that He made water gush from stones, sent down manna and quails for them, and saved them from being enslaved by Pharaoh.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah also said, "Allah's favor mentioned here is His sending Prophets and Messengers among them, and revealing Books to them.'' I - Ibn Kathir - say that this Ayah is similar to what Musa said to the Children of israel,

 

 

[íóÜÞóæúãö ÇÃúßõÑõæÇú äöÚúãóÉó Çááøóåö Úóáóíúßõãú ÅöÃú ÌóÚóáó Ãöíßõãú ÃóäúÈöíóÂÃó æóÌóÚóáóßõãú ãøõáõæßÇð æóÃóÇÊóÜßõãú ãøóÇ áóãú íõÄúÊö ÃóÃóÃÇð ãøöä ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó]

(O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you: when He made Prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (of their time) (5:20) meaning, during their time. Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Ibn `Abbas said,

 

 

[ÇÃúßõÑõæÇú äöÚúãóÊöíó ÇáøóÊöì ÃóäúÚóãúÊõ Úóáóíúßõãú]

(Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you,) means, "My support for you and your fathers,'' that is saving them from Pharaoh and his people.

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Reminding the Children of israel of Allah's Covenant with Them

 

Allah's statement,

 

[æóÃóæúÃõæÇú ÈöÚóåúÃöì ÃõæÃö ÈöÚóåúÃößõãú]

(And fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My obligations to) your covenant (with Me),) means, `My covenant that I took from you concerning Prophet Muhammad , when he is sent to you, so that I grant you what I promised you if you believe in him and follow him. I will then remove the chains and restrictions that were placed around your necks, because of the errors that you committed.' Also, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "The `covenant' is in reference to Allah's statement, i

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÃóÎóÃó Çááøóåõ ãöíËóÜÞó Èóäöì ÅöÓúÑóÃöíáó æóÈóÚóËúäóÇ ãöäåõãõ ÇËúäóìú ÚóÔóÑó äóÞöíÈÇð æóÞóÇáó Çááøóåõ Åöäøöì ãóÚóßõãú áóÆöäú ÃóÞóãúÊõãõ ÇáÕøóáæÉó æóÃóÇÊóíúÊõãú ÇáÒøóßóæÉó æóÃóÇãóäÊõãú ÈöÑõÓõáöì æóÚóÒøóÑúÊõãõæåõãú æóÃóÞúÑóÖúÊõãõ Çááøóåó ÞóÑúÖÇð ÃóÓóäÇð áÃõßóÃøöÑóäøó Úóäúßõãú ÓóíøöÆóÜÊößõãú æóáÃÃúÎöáóäøóßõãú ÌóäøóÜÊò ÊóÌúÑöì ãöä ÊóÃúÊöåóÇ ÇáÇøñäúåóÜÑõ]

(Indeed, Allah took the covenant from the Children of israel (Jews), and We appointed twelve leaders among them. And Allah said: "I am with you if you perform As-Salah and give Zakah and believe in My Messengers; honor and assist them, and lend a good loan to Allah, verily, I will expiate your sins and admit you to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise)) (5:12).''

 

Other scholars said, "The covenant is what Allah took from them in the Tawrah, in that, He will send a great Prophet - meaning Muhammad - from among the offspring of Isma`il, who will be obeyed by all peoples. Therefore, whoever obeys him, then Allah will forgive his sins, enter him into Paradise and award him two rewards.'' We should mention here that Ar-Razi mentioned several cases of information brought by the earlier Prophets regarding the coming of Muhammad . Further, Abu Al-`Aliyah said that,

 

 

[æóÃóæúÃõæÇú ÈöÚóåúÃöì]

(And fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you)) means, "His covenant with His servants is to embrace Islam and to adhere to it.'' Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "`I fulfill My obligations to you' means, `I (Allah) will be pleased with you and admit you into Paradise.''' As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said similarly.

 

Ibn `Abbas said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÅöíøóÜìó ÃóÇÑúåóÈõæäö]

(And fear Me and Me alone.) means, "Fear the torment that I might exert on you, just as I did with your fathers, like the mutation, etc.'' This Ayah contains encouragement, followed by warning. Allah first called the Children of israel, using encouragement, then He warned them, so that they might return to the Truth, follow the Messenger , heed the Qur'an's prohibitions and commands and believe in its content. Surely, Allah guides whom He wills to the straight path.

 

Allah said next,

 

[æóÃóÇãöäõæÇú Èöãó ÃóäÒóáúÊõ ãõÕóÃøöÞðÇ áøöãóÇ ãóÚóßõãú]

(And believe in what I have sent down, confirming that which is with you (the Tawrah and the Injil)) meaning, the Qur'an that Allah sent down to Muhammad , the unlettered Arab Prophet, as bringer of glad tidings, a warner and a light. The Qur'an contains the Truth from Allah and affirms what was revealed beforehand in the Tawrah and the Injil (the Gospel). Abu Al-`Aliyah said that Allah's statement,

 

[æóÃóÇãöäõæÇú Èöãó ÃóäÒóáúÊõ ãõÕóÃøöÞðÇ áøöãóÇ ãóÚóßõãú]

(And believe in what I have sent down (this Qur'an), confirming that which is with you (the Tawrah and the Injil)) "means, `O People of the Book! Believe in what I sent down that conforms to what you have.' This is because they find the description of Muhammad recorded in the Tawrah and the Injil.'' Similar statements were attributed to Mujahid, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah.

 

Allah said,

 

[æóáÇó ÊóßõæäõæÇú Ãóæøóáó ßóÇÃöÑò Èöåö]

(and be not the first to disbelieve therein).

 

Ibn `Abbas commented, "Do not become the first to disbelieve in the Qur'an (or Muhammad ), while you have more knowledge in it than other people.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah commented, "`Do not become the first to disbelieve in Muhammad, ' meaning from among the People of the Book, `after you hear that he was sent as a Prophet.''' Similar statements were attributed to Al-Hasan, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Ibn Jarir stated that the Ayah (disbelieve therein 2:41) refers to the Qur'an, mentioned earlier in the Ayah,

 

[ÈöãóÂ ÃóäÒóáúÊõ]

(in what I have sent down (this Qur'an),)

 

Both statements are correct because they are inter-related. For instance, whoever disbelieves in the Qur'an will have disbelieved in Muhammad , and whoever disbelieves in Muhammad will have disbelieved in the Qur'an. Allah's statement,

 

 

[Ãóæøóáó ßóÇÃöÑò Èöåö]

(the first to disbelieve therein) means, do not become the first among the Children of israel to disbelieve in it, for there were people from Quraysh and the Arabs in general who rejected Muhammad before the People of the Book disbelieved in him. We should state here that the Ayah is talking about the Children of israel in specific, because the Jews in Al-Madinah were the first among the Children of israel to be addressed by the Qur'an. Hence, their disbelief in the Qur'an means that they were the first among the People of the Book to disbelieve in it.

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóÔúÊóÑõæÇú ÈöÂíóÜÊöí ËóãóäðÇ ÞóáöíáÇð]

(and buy not with My verses a small price,) means, "Do not substitute faith in My Ayat and belief in My Prophet with the life of this world and its lusts which are minute and bound to end. '' Allah said,

 

 

[æóÅöíøóÜìó ÃóÇÊøóÞõæäö]

(and have Taqwa of Me and Me alone).

 

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Talq bin Habib said, "Taqwa is to work in Allah's obedience, on a light from Allah, hoping in Allah's mercy, and to avoid Allah's disobedience, on a light from Allah, fearing Allah's punishment.'' Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÅöíøóÜìó ÃóÇÊøóÞõæäö]

(and fear Me and Me alone) means, that Allah warns the People of the Book against intentionally hiding the truth and spreading the opposite of it, as well as, against defying the Messenger .

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóáúÈöÓõæÇú ÇáúÃóÞøó ÈöÇáúÈóÜØöáö æóÊóßúÊõãõæÇú ÇáúÃóÞøó æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóÚúáóãõæäó - æóÃóÞöíãõæÇú ÇáÕøóáæÉó æóÂÊõæÇú ÇáÒøóßóæÉó æóÇÑúßóÚõæÇú ãóÚó ÇáÑøóÇßöÚöíäó ]

(42. And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you know (the truth).) (43. And perform As-Salah, and give Zakah, and bow down along with Ar-Raki`in.)

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The Prohibition of hiding the Truth and distorting It with Falsehood

 

Allah forbade the Jews from intentionally distorting the truth with falsehood and from hiding the truth and spreading falsehood,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóáúÈöÓõæÇú ÇáúÃóÞøó ÈöÇáúÈóÜØöáö æóÊóßúÊõãõæÇú ÇáúÃóÞøó æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóÚúáóãõæäó ]

(And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you know (the truth)).

 

So Allah forbade them from two things; He ordered them to make the truth known, as well as explaining it. Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas mentioned the Ayah,

 

[æóáÇó ÊóáúÈöÓõæÇú ÇáúÃóÞøó ÈöÇáúÈóÜØöáö]

(And mix not truth with falsehood) and said; "Do not mix the truth with falsehood and the facts with lies.'' Qatadah said that,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóáúÈöÓõæÇú ÇáúÃóÞøó ÈöÇáúÈóÜØöáö]

(And mix not truth with falsehood) means, "Do not mix Judaism and Christianity with Islam,

 

 

[æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóÚúáóãõæäó]

(while you know (the truth).) that the religion of Allah is Islam, and that Judaism and Christianity are innovations that did not come from Allah.'' It was reported that Al-Hasan Al-Basri said similarly.

 

Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

[æóÊóßúÊõãõæÇú ÇáúÃóÞøó æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóÚúáóãõæäó]

(nor conceal the truth while you know (the truth).) means, "Do not hide the knowledge that you have of My Messenger and what he was sent with. His description, which you know about, can be found written in the Books that you have.''

 

It is possible that it means, "..although you know the tremendous harm that this evil will cause people, misguiding them and leading them to the Fire, because they will follow the falsehood that you mixed with the truth in your claims.''

 

 

[æóÃóÞöíãõæÇú ÇáÕøóáæÉó æóÂÊõæÇú ÇáÒøóßóæÉó æóÇÑúßóÚõæÇú ãóÚó ÇáÑøóÇßöÚöíäó ]

(And perform As-Salat and give Zakah, and bow down along with Ar-Raki`in.)

 

Muqatil said, "Allah's statement to the People of the Book,

 

 

[æóÃóÞöíãõæÇú ÇáÕøóáóæÉó]

(And perform As-Salah) commands them to perform the prayer behind the Prophet ,

 

 

[æóÂÊóæõÇú ÇáÒøóßóæÉó]

(and give Zakah) commands them to pay the Zakah to the Prophet , and

 

 

[æóÇÑúßóÚõæÇú ãóÚó ÇáÑøóÇßöÚöíäó]

(and bow down along with Ar-Raki`in) commands them to bow down with those who bow down among the Ummah of Muhammad . Allah therefore commands the People of the Book to be with, and among the Ummah of Muhammad .'' In addition, Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÇÑúßóÚõæÇú ãóÚó ÇáÑøóÇßöÚöíäó]

(And bow down along with Ar-Raki`in) means, "And be among the believers performing the best deeds they perform, such as, and foremost, the prayer.'' Many scholars said that this Ayah (2:43) is proof for the obligation of performing the prayer in congregation (for men only). I will explain this ruling in detail in Kitab Al-Ahkam Al-Kabir, Allah willing.

 

 

[ÃóÊóÃúãõÑõæäó ÇáäøóÇÓó ÈöÇáúÈöÑøö æóÊóäÓóæúäó ÃóäÃõÓóßõãú æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóÊúáõæäó ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó ÃóÃóáÇó ÊóÚúÞöáõæäó ]

(44. Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah) on the people and you forget (to practise it) yourselves, while you recite the Scripture (Tawrah))! Have you then no sense)

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