Jump to content
Islamic Forum
Sign in to follow this  
Dr. Jawad

002 Tafsir Of Sura Al-baqarah(the Cow)

Recommended Posts

The Condemnation of commanding Others to observe Righteousness while ignoring Righteousness

 

Allah said, "How is it, O People of the Book, that you command people to perform Al-Birr, which encompasses all types of righteousness, yet forget yourselves and do not heed what you call others to And you read Allah's Book (the Tawrah) and know what it promises to those who do not fulfill Allah's commandments.

 

 

[ÃóÃóáÇó ÊóÚúÞöáõæäó]

(Have you then no sense) of what you are doing to yourselves, so that you might become aware of your slumber and restore your sight from blindness'' `Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar stated that Qatadah commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃóÊóÃúãõÑõæäó ÇáäøóÇÓó ÈöÇáúÈöÑøö æóÊóäÓóæúäó ÃóäÃõÓóßõãú]

(Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah) on the people and you forget (to practise it) yourselves,) "The Children of israel used to command people to obey Allah, fear Him and perform Al-Birr. Yet, they contradicted these orders, so Allah reminded them of this fact.'' As-Suddi said similarly. Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah:

 

 

[ÃóÊóÃúãõÑõæäó ÇáäøóÇÓó ÈöÇáúÈöÑøö]

(Enjoin you Al-Birr on the people) "Is about the People of the Book and the hypocrites. They used to command people to pray and fast. However, they did not practice what they commanded others. Allah reminded them of this behavior. So whoever commands people to do righteousness, let him be among the first of them to implement that command.'' Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

 

[æóÊóäÓóæúäó ÃóäÃõÓóßõãú]

(And you forget yourselves,) means, "You forget to practice it yourselves,

 

 

[æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóÊúáõæäó ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó ÃóÃóáÇó ÊóÚúÞöáõæäó]

(While you recite the Scripture (Tawrah)! Have you then no sense) You forbid the people from rejecting the prophethood and the covenant that you have mentioned with you in the Tawrah, while you yourselves have forgoten it, meaning that `you have forgotten the covenant that I made with you that you will accept My Messenger. You have breeched My covenant, and rejected what you know is in My Book.' ''

 

Therefore, Allah admonished the Jews for this behavior and alerted them to the wrongs that they were perpetrating against themselves by ordering righteousness, yet refraining themselves from righteousness. We should state that Allah is not criticizing the People of the Book for ordering righteousness, because enjoining good is a part of righteousness and is an obligation for the scholars. However, the scholar is himself required to heed, and adhere to, what he invites others to. For instance, Prophet Shu`ayb said,

 

 

[æóãó ÃõÑöíÃõ Ãóäú ÃõÎóÇáöÃóßõãú Åöáóì ãó ÃóäúåóÜßõãú Úóäúåõ Åöäú ÃõÑöíÃõ ÅöáÇøó ÇáÅöÕúáóÜÃó ãóÇ ÇÓúÊóØóÚúÊõ æóãóÇ ÊóæúÃöíÞöì ÅöáÇøó ÈöÇááøóåö Úóáóíúåö ÊóæóßøóáúÊõ æóÅöáóíúåö ÃõäöíÈõ]

(I wish not, in contradiction to you, to do that which I forbid you. I only desire reform to the best of my power. And my guidance cannot come except from Allah, in Him I trust and unto Him I repent) (11:88).

 

Therefore, enjoining righteousness and performing righteousness are both required. Neither category is rendered not necessary by the practice of the other, according to the most correct view of the scholars among the Salaf (predecessors) and the Khalaf.

 

Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Wa'il said, "While I was riding behind Usamah, he was asked, `Why not advise `Uthman' He said, `Do you think that if I advise him I should allow you to hear it I advise him in secret, and I will not start something that I would hate to be the first to start. I will not say to a man, `You are the best man,' even if he was my leader, after what I heard from the Messenger of Allah .' They said, `What did he say' He said, `I heard him say,

 

«íõÌóÇÃõ ÈöÇáÑøóÌõáö íóæúãó ÇáúÞöíóÇãÉö ÃóíõáúÞóì Ãöí ÇáäøóÇÑ ÃóÊóäúÃóáöÞõ Èöå ÃóÞúÊóÇÈõåõ ÃíóÃõæÑõ ÈöåóÇ Ãöí ÇáäøóÇÑ ßóãóÇ íóÃõæÑõ ÇáúÃöãóÇÑõ ÈöÑóÃóÇåõ ÃíõØöíÃõ Èöåö Ãóåúáõ ÇáäøóÇÑ ÃóíóÞõæáõæä: íóÇ ÃõáóÇäõ ãÇ ÃóÕóÇÈóßó¿ Ãóáóãú Êóßõäú ÊóÃúãõÑõäóÇ ÈöÇáúãóÚúÑõæà æóÊóäúåóÇäóÇ Úóäö ÇáúãõäúßóÑö¿ ÃóíóÞõæáõ: ßõäúÊõ ÂãÑõßõãú ÈÇöáúãóÚúÑõæÃö æóáóÇ ÂÊöíåö æóÃóäúåóÇßõãú Úóäö ÇáúãõäúßóÑö æóÂÊöíå»(A man will be brought on the Day of Resurrection and thrown in the Fire. His intestines will fall out and he will continue circling pulling them behind him, just as the donkey goes around the pole. The people of the Fire will go to that man and ask him, `What happened to you Did you not used to command us to do righteous acts and forbid us from committing evil' He will say, `Yes. I used to enjoin righteousness, but refrained from performing righteousness, and I used to forbid you to perform from evil while I myself did it.').'''

 

This Hadith was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. eAlso, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said, "I hesitate in advising people because of three Ayat:

 

 

[ÃóÊóÃúãõÑõæäó ÇáäøóÇÓó ÈöÇáúÈöÑøö æóÊóäÓóæúäó ÃóäÃõÓóßõãú]

(Enjoin you Al-Birr on the people and you forget (to practise it) yourselves).

 

 

[íÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú áöãó ÊóÞõæáõæäó ãóÇ áÇó ÊóÃúÚóáõæäó - ßóÈõÑó ãóÞúÊÇð ÚöäÃó Çááøóåö Ãóä ÊóÞõæáõæÇú ãóÇ áÇó ÊóÃúÚóáõæäó ]

(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do Most hateful it is to Allah that you say that which you do not do) (61:2-3).''

 

And Allah informed us that the Prophet Shu`ayb said,

 

 

[æóãó ÃõÑöíÃõ Ãóäú ÃõÎóÇáöÃóßõãú Åöáóì ãó ÃóäúåóÜßõãú Úóäúåõ Åöäú ÃõÑöíÃõ ÅöáÇøó ÇáÅöÕúáóÜÃó ãóÇ ÇÓúÊóØóÚúÊõ æóãóÇ ÊóæúÃöíÞöì ÅöáÇøó ÈöÇááøóåö Úóáóíúåö ÊóæóßøóáúÊõ æóÅöáóíúåö ÃõäöíÈõ]

(I wish not, in contradiction to you, to do that which I forbid you. I only desire reform to the best of my power. And my guidance cannot come except from Allah, in Him I trust and unto Him I repent) (11:88).

 

 

[æóÇÓúÊóÚöíäõæÇú ÈöÇáÕøóÈúÑö æóÇáÕøóáóæÉö æóÅöäøóåóÇ áóßóÈöíÑóÉñ ÅöáÇøó Úóáóì ÇáúÎóÜÔöÚöíäó - ÇáøóÃöíäó íóÙõäøõæäó Ãóäøóåõã ãøõáóÜÞõæÇ ÑóÈøöåöãú æóÃóäøóåõãú Åöáóíúåö ÑóÌöÚõæäó ]

(45. And seek help in patience and As-Salat (the prayer) and truly, it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashi`in.) (46 (They are those) who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are going to return.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
PropellerAds

The Support that comes with Patience and Prayer

 

Allah commanded His servants to use patience and prayer to acquire the good of this life and the Hereafter. Muqatil bin Hayan said that this Ayah means, "Utilize patience and the obligatory prayer in seeking the Hereafter. As for patience (here), they say that it means fasting.'' There are similar texts reported from Mujahid. Al-Qurtubi and other scholars commented, "This is why Ramadan is called the month of patience,'' as is mentioned in the Hadith literature. It was also said that `patience' in the Ayah means, refraining from evil, and this is why `patience' was mentioned along with practicing acts of worship, especially and foremost, the prayer. Also, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "There are two types of patience: good patience when the disaster strikes, and a better patience while avoiding the prohibitions of Allah.'' Ibn Abi Hatim said that Al-Hasan Al-Basri was reported to have said similarly.

 

Allah then said,

 

[æÇáÕøóáóæÉö]

(And As-Salah (the prayer).)

 

The prayer is one of the best means of assistance for firmly adhering to Allah's orders, just as Allah said;

 

 

[ÇÊúáõ ãóÇ ÃõæúÃöìó Åöáóíúßó ãöäó ÇáúßöÊóÜÈö æóÃóÞöãö ÇáÕøóáóæÉó Åöäøó ÇáÕøóáóæÉó Êóäúåóì Úóäö ÇáúÃóÃúÔóÂÃö æóÇáúãõäúßóÑö æóáóÃößúÑõ Çááøóåö ÃóßúÈóÑõ]

(Recite (O Muhammad ) what has been revealed to you of the Book (the Qur'an), and perform As-Salah. Verily, As-Salah (the prayer) prevents from Al-Fahsha' (i.e. great sins of every kind), and Al-Munkar and the remembrance of (praising) of (you by) Allah is greater indeed) (29:45).

 

The personal pronoun in the Ayah,

 

 

[æóÅöäøóåóÇ áóßóÈöíÑóÉñ]

(And truly, it is extremely heavy and hard) refers to prayer, as Mujahid is reported to have said, and it was also the choice of Ibn Jarir. It is possible that the pronoun might be referring to the advice - to observe patience and the prayer - mentioned in the same Ayah. Similarly, Allah said about Qarun (Korah),

 

 

[æóÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃõæÊõæÇú ÇáúÚöáúãó æóíúáóßõãú ËóæóÇÈõ Çááøóåö ÎóíúÑñ áøöãóäú ÃóÇãóäó æóÚóãöáó ÕóÜáöÃÇð æóáÇó íõáóÞøóÇåó ÅöáÇøó ÇáÕøóÜÈöÑõæäó ]

(But those who had been given (religious) knowledge said: "Woe to you! The reward of Allah (in the Hereafter) is better for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and this, none shall attain except As-Sabirun (the patient).'') (28:80).

 

Also, Allah said,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóÓúÊóæöì ÇáúÃóÓóäóÉõ æóáÇó ÇáÓøóíøöÆóÉõ ÇÃúÃóÚú ÈöÇáøóÊöì åöìó ÃóÃúÓóäõ ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÇáøóÃöì Èóíúäóßó æóÈóíúäóåõ ÚóÃóÇæóÉñ ßóÃóäøóåõ æóáöìøñ Ãóãöíãñ - æóãóÇ íõáóÞøóÇåóÇ ÅöáÇøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÕóÈóÑõæÇú æóãóÇ íõáóÞøóÇåó ÅöáÇøó Ãõæ ÃóÙøö ÚóÙöíãò ]

(The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal. Repel (the evil) with one which is better then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend. But none is granted it (the above quality) except those who are patient Ü and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion (of happiness in the Hereafter and) in this world.) (41:34-35) meaning, this advice is only implemented by those who are patient and the fortunate. In any case, Allah's statement here means, prayer is `heavy and burdensome',

 

 

[ÅöáÇøó Úóáóì ÇáúÎóÜÔöÚöíäó]

(except for Al-Khashi`in.)

 

Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on this Ayah, "They (Al-Khashi`in) are those who believe in what Allah has revealed.''

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÇáøóÃöíäó íóÙõäøõæäó Ãóäøóåõã ãøõáóÜÞõæÇ ÑóÈøöåöãú æóÃóäøóåõãú Åöáóíúåö ÑóÌöÚõæäó ]

(They are those who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are going to return.) continues the subject that was started in the previous Ayah. Therefore, the prayer, or the advice to observe it is heavy,

 

[ÅöáÇøó Úóáóì ÇáúÎóÜÔöÚöíäóÇáøóÃöíäó íóÙõäøõæäó Ãóäøóåõã ãøõáóÜÞõæÇ ÑóÈøöåöãú]

(except for Al-Khashi`in. (They are those) who are certain (Yazunnuna) that they are going to meet their Lord,) meaning, they know that they will be gathered and face their Lord on the Day of Resurrection,

 

 

[æóÃóäøóåõãú Åöáóíúåö ÑóÌöÚõæäó]

(and that unto Him they are going to return.) meaning, their affairs are all subject to His will and He justly decides what He wills. Since they are certain that they will be returned to Allah and be reckoned, it is easy for them to perform the acts of obedience and refrain from the prohibitions. Ibn Jarir commented on Allah's statement;

 

[íóÙõäøõæäó Ãóäøóåõã ãøõáóÜÞõæÇ ÑóÈøöåöãú]

(Yazunnuna that they are going to meet their Lord)

 

Ibn Jarir said; "The Arabs call certainty as well as doubt, Zann. There are similar instances in the Arabic language where a subject as well as its opposite share the same name. For instance, Allah said,

 

 

[æóÑóÃóì ÇáúãõÌúÑöãõæäó ÇáäøóÇÑó ÃóÙóäøõæÇú Ãóäøóåõãú ãøõæóÇÞöÚõæåóÇ]

(And the Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists, sinners), shall see the Fire and Zannu (apprehend) that they have to fall therein)''(18:53).

 

It is recorded in the Sahih that on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will say to a servant, "Have I not allowed you to marry, honored you, made the horses and camels subservient to you and allowed you to become a chief and a master'' He will say, "Yes.'' Allah will say, "Did you have Zann (think) that you will meet Me'' He will say, "No.'' Allah will say, "This Day, I will forget you, just as you forgot Me.'' If Allah wills, we will further elaborate on this subject when we explain Allah's statement,

 

 

[äóÓõæÇú Çááøóåó ÃóäóÓöíóåõãú]

(They have forgotten Allah, so He has forgotten them) (9:67).

 

[íóÜÈóäöì ÅöÓúÑóÃöíáó ÇÃúßõÑõæÇú äöÚúãóÊöì ÇáøóÊöì ÃóäúÚóãúÊõ Úóáóíúßõãú æóÃóäøöì ÃóÖøóáúÊõßõãú Úóáóì ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ]

(47. O Children of israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the `Alamin (nations))

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Reminding the Children of israel that They were preferred above the Other Nations

 

Allah reminds the Children of israel of the favors that He granted their fathers and grandfathers, how He showed preference to them by sending them Messengers from among them and revealing Books to them, more so than any of the other previous nations. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóÞóÃö ÇÎúÊóÑúäóÜåõãú Úóáóì Úöáúãò Úóáóì ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ]

(And We chose them (the Children of israel) over the `Alamin, (nations) with knowledge.) (44:32) and,

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞóÇáó ãõæÓóì áöÞóæúãöåö íóÜÞóæúãö ÇÃúßõÑõæÇú äöÚúãóÉó Çááøóåö Úóáóíúßõãú ÅöÃú ÌóÚóáó Ãöíßõãú ÃóäúÈöíóÂÃó æóÌóÚóáóßõãú ãøõáõæßÇð æóÃóÇÊóÜßõãú ãøóÇ áóãú íõÄúÊö ÃóÃóÃÇð ãøöä ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó ]

(And (remember) when Musa (Moses) said to his people: "O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you: when He made Prophets among you, made you kings, honored you above the `Alamin (nations).'') (5:20).

 

Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi reported that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that Abu Al-`Aliyah said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÃóäøöì ÃóÖøóáúÊõßõãú Úóáóì ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó]

(and that I preferred you over the `Alamin) means, "The kingship, Messengers and Books that were granted to them, instead of granting such to the other kingdoms that existed during their time, for every period there is a nation.'' It was also reported that Mujahid, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah and Isma`il bin Abi Khalid said similarly.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Ummah of Muhammad is Better than the Children of israel

 

This is the only way the Ayah can be understood, because this Ummah is better than theirs, as Allah said;

 

 

[ßõäÊõãú ÎóíúÑó ÃõãøóÉò ÃõÎúÑöÌóÊú áöáäøóÇÓö ÊóÃúãõÑõæäó ÈöÇáúãóÚúÑõæÃö æóÊóäúåóæúäó Úóäö ÇáúãõäúßóÑö æóÊõÄúãöäõæäó ÈöÇááøóåö æóáóæú ÃóÇãóäó Ãóåúáõ ÇáúßöÊóÜÈö áóßóÇäó ÎóíúÑÇð áøóåõãú]

(You are the best of people ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin good and forbid evil, and you believe in Allah. And had the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them) (3:110).

 

Also, the Musnad and Sunan Collections of Hadith recorded that Mu`awiyah bin Haydah Al-Qushayri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÃóäúÊõãú ÊõæóÃøõæäó ÓóÈúÚöíäó ÃõãøóÉð ÃóäúÊõãú ÎóíúÑõåóÇ æóÃóßúÑóãõåóÇ Úóáóì Çááå»(You (Muslims) are the seventieth nation, but you are the best and most honored of them according to Allah.)

 

There are many Hadiths on this subject, and they will be mentioned when we discuss Allah's statement,

 

[ßõäÊõãú ÎóíúÑó ÃõãøóÉò ÃõÎúÑöÌóÊú áöáäøóÇÓö]

(You are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind) (3:110).

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÞõæÇú íóæúãðÇ áÇøó ÊóÌúÒöì äóÃúÓñ Úóä äøóÃúÓò ÔóíúÆðÇ æóáÇó íõÞúÈóáõ ãöäúåóÇ ÔóÃóÜÚóÉñ æóáÇó íõÄúÎóÃõ ãöäúåóÇ ÚóÃúáñ æóáÇó åõãú íõäÕóÑõæäó ]

(48. And fear a Day (of Judgement) when a person shall not avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from him, nor will compensation be taken from him, nor will they be helped.)

 

After Allah reminded the Children of israel of the favors that He has granted them, He warned them about the duration of the torment which He will punish them with on the Day of Resurrection. He said,

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÞõæÇú íóæúãðÇ]

(And fear a Day) meaning, the Day of Resurrection,

 

 

[áÇøó ÊóÌúÒöì äóÃúÓñ Úóä äøóÃúÓò ÔóíúÆðÇ]

(When a person shall not avail another) meaning, on that Day, no person shall be of any help to another. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊóÒöÑõ æóÇÒöÑóÉñ æöÒúÑó ÃõÎúÑóì]

(And no bearer of burdens shall bear another's burden) (35:18)

 

 

[áößõáøö ÇãúÑöìÃò ãøöäúåõãú íóæúãóÆöÃò ÔóÃúäñ íõÛúäöíåö ]

(Every man that Day will have enough to make him careless of others.) (80:37) and,

 

 

[íÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáäøóÇÓõ ÇÊøóÞõæÇú ÑóÈøóßõãú æóÇÎúÔóæúÇú íóæúãÇð áÇøó íóÌúÒöì æóÇáöÃñ Úóä æóáóÃöåö æóáÇó ãóæúáõæÃñ åõæó ÌóÇÒò Úóä æóÇáöÃöåö ÔóíúÆÇð]

(O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord (by keeping your duty to Him and avoiding all evil), and fear a Day when no father can avail aught for his son, nor a son avail aught for his father) (31: 33).

 

This indeed should serve as a great warning that both the father and the son will not be of help to each other on that Day.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Neither Intercession, Ransom, or Assistance will be accepted on behalf of the Disbelievers

 

Allah said,

 

[æóáÇó íõÞúÈóáõ ãöäúåóÇ ÔóÃóÜÚóÉñ]

(nor will intercession be accepted from him)

 

meaning, from the disbelievers. Similarly, Allah said,

 

[ÃóãóÇ ÊóäÃóÚõåõãú ÔóÃóÜÚóÉõ ÇáÔøóÜÃöÚöíäó ]

(So no intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them) (74:48) and described the people of the Fire saying,

 

 

[ÃóãóÇ áóäóÇ ãöä ÔóÜÃöÚöíäó - æóáÇó ÕóÃöíÞò Ãóãöíãò ]

(Now we have no intercessors. Nor a close friend (to help us)) (26:100-101).

 

Allah's statement here (2:48)

 

 

[æóáÇó íõÄúÎóÃõ ãöäúåóÇ ÚóÃúáñ]

(nor will compensation be taken from him) means, that Allah does not accept the disbelievers to ransom themselves. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú æóãóÇÊõæÇú æóåõãú ßõÃøóÇÑñ Ãóáóä íõÞúÈóáó ãöäú ÃóÃóÃöåöã ãøöáúÃõ ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÃóåóÈðÇ æóáóæö ÇÃúÊóÃóì Èöåö]

(Verily, those who disbelieved, and died while they were disbelievers, the (whole) earth full of gold will not be accepted from anyone of them even if they offered it as a ransom) (3:91)

 

 

[Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú áóæú Ãóäøó áóåõãú ãøóÇ Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÌóãöíÚÇð æóãöËúáóåõ ãóÚóåõ áöíóÃúÊóÃõæÇú Èöåö ãöäú ÚóÃóÇÈö íóæúãö ÇáúÞöíóÜãóÉö ãóÇ ÊõÞõÈøöáó ãöäúåõãú æóáóåõãú ÚóÃóÇÈñ Ãóáöíãñ ]

(Verily, those who disbelieve, if they had all that is in the earth, and as much again therewith to ransom themselves from the torment on the Day of Resurrection, it would never be accepted of them, and theirs would be a painful torment) (5:36)

 

[æóÅöä ÊóÚúÃöáú ßõáøó ÚóÃúáò áÇøó íõÄúÎóÃú ãöäúåóÂ]

(And even if he offers every ransom, it will not be accepted from him) (6:70) and,

 

 

[ÃóÇáúíóæúãó áÇó íõÄúÎóÃõ ãöäßõãú ÃöÃúíóÉñ æóáÇó ãöäó ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ãóÃúæóÇßõãõ ÇáäøóÇÑõ åöìó ãóæúáóÜßõãú]

(So this Day no ransom shall be taken from you (hypocrites), nor of those who disbelieved. Your abode is the Fire. That is your Mawla (friend Ü proper place)) (57:15).

 

Allah stated that if the people do not believe in His Messenger and follow what He sent him with, then when they meet Him on the Day of Resurrection, after remaining on the path of disbelief, their family lineage and/or the intercession of their masters will not help them at all. It will not be accepted of them, even if they paid the earth's fill of gold as ransom. Similarly, Allah said,

 

[ãøöä ÞóÈúáö Ãóä íóÃúÊöìó íóæúãñ áÇøó ÈóíúÚñ Ãöíåö æóáÇó ÎõáøóÉñ æóáÇó ÔóÃóÜÚóÉñ]

(Before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession) (2:254) and,

 

 

[áÇøó ÈóíúÚñ Ãöíåö æóáÇó ÎöáóÜáñ]

(On which there will be neither mutual bargaining nor befriending) (19:31). Allah's statement next,

 

 

[æóáÇó åõãú íõäÕóÑõæäó]

(nor will they be helped.) means, "no person shall get angry - or anxious - on their behalf and offer them any help, or try to save them from Allah's punishment.'' As stated earlier on that Day, neither the relative, nor persons of authority will feel pity for the disbelievers, nor will any ransom be accepted for them. Consequently, they will receive no help from others and they will be helpless themsleves. Allah said,

 

[æóåõæó íõÌúíöÑõ æóáÇó íõÌóÇÑõ Úóáóíúåö]

(While He (Allah) grants refuge (or protection), but none grants refuge from Him) (23:88)

 

 

[ÃóíóæúãóÆöÃò áÇøó íõÚóÃøöÈõ ÚóÃóÇÈóåõ ÃóÃóÃñ - æóáÇó íõæËöÞõ æóËóÇÞóåõ ÃóÃóÃñ ]

(So on that Day none will punish as He will punish. And none will bind (the wicked, disbelievers and polytheists) as He will bind) (89:25-26)

 

[ãóÇ áóßõãú áÇó ÊóäóÜÕóÑõæäó - Èóáú åõãõ Çáúíóæúãó ãõÓúÊóÓúáöãõæäó ]

("What is the matter with you Why do you not help one another (as you used to do in the world)'' Nay, but that Day they shall surrender) (37:25-26) and,

 

 

[ÃóáóæúáÇó äóÕóÑóåõãõ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÇÊøóÎóÃõæÇú ãöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö ÞõÑúÈóÇäÇð ÃóÇáöåóÉó Èóáú ÖóáøõæÇú Úóäúåõãú]

(Then why did those whom they had taken for alihah (gods) besides Allah, as a way of approach (to Allah) not help them Nay, but they vanished completely from them) (46:28).

 

Also, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[ãóÇ áóßõãú áÇó ÊóäóÜÕóÑõæäó ]

("What is the matter with you Why do you not help one another'') (37:25) means, "This Day, you shall not have a refuge from Us. Not this Day.'' Ibn Jarir said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóáÇó åõãú íõäÕóÑõæäó]

(nor will they be helped.) meaning, on that Day, they shall neither be helped by any helper, nor shall anyone intercede on their behalf. No repeal or ransom will be accepted for them, all courtesy towards them will have ceased, along with any helpful intercession. No type of help or cooperation will be available for them on that Day. The judgment will, on that Day, be up to the Most Great, the Most Just, against whom no intercessor or helper can ever assist. He will then award the evil deed its kind and will multiply the good deeds. This is similar to Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÞöÃõæåõãú Åöäøóåõãú ãøóÓúÆõæáõæäó - ãóÇ áóßõãú áÇó ÊóäóÜÕóÑõæäó - Èóáú åõãõ Çáúíóæúãó ãõÓúÊóÓúáöãõæäó ]

(But stop them, verily, they are to be questioned. "What is the matter with you Why do you not help one another'' Nay, but that Day they shall surrender) (37:24-26).

 

[æóÅöÃú äóÌøóíúäóÜßõã ãøöäú ÃóÇáö ÃöÑúÚóæúäó íóÓõæãõæäóßõãú ÓõæÃó ÇáúÚóÃóÇÈö íõÃóÈøöÃõæäó ÃóÈúäóÂÃóßõãú æóíóÓúÊóÃúíõæäó äöÓóÂÃóßõãú æóÃöì Ãóáößõãú ÈóáÇóÃñ ãøöä ÑøóÈøößõãú ÚóÙöíãñ - æóÅöÃú ÃóÑóÞúäóÇ Èößõãõ ÇáúÈóÃúÑó ÃóÃóäÌóíúäóÜßõãú æóÃóÛúÑóÞúäóÇ ÃóÇáó ÃöÑúÚóæúäó æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóäÙõÑõæäó ]

(49. And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir`awn's (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and therein was a mighty trial from your Lord.) (50. And (remember) when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir`awn's (Pharaoh) people while you were watching.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Children of israel were saved from Pharaoh and His Army Who drowned

 

Allah said to the Children of israel, "Remember My favor on you

 

 

[æóÅöÃú äóÌøóíúäóÜßõã ãøöäú ÃóÇáö ÃöÑúÚóæúäó íóÓõæãõæäóßõãú ÓõæÃó ÇáúÚóÃóÇÈö]

(And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir`awn's (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment,) meaning, `I - Allah - saved you from them and delivered you from their hands in the company of Musa, after they subjected you to horrible torture.' This favor came after the cursed Pharaoh had a dream in which he saw a fire emerge from Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), and then the fire entered the houses of the Coptics in Egypt, with the exception of the Children of israel. Its purport was that his kingship would be toppled by a man among the Children of israel. It was also said that some of Pharaoh's entourage said that the Children of israel were expecting a man among them to arise who would establish a state for them. We will mention the Hadith on this subject when we explain Surat Ta Ha (20), Allah willing. After the dream, Pharaoh ordered that every newborn male among the Children of israel be killed and that the girls be left alone. He also commanded that the Children of israel be given tasks of hard labor and assigned the most humiliating jobs.

 

The torment here refers to killing the male infants. In Surat Ibrahim (14) this meaning is clearly mentioned,

 

[íóÓõæãõæäóßõãú ÓõæÃó ÇáúÚóÃóÇÈö æóíõÃóÈøöÃõæäó ÃóÈúäóÂÃóßõãú æóíóÓúÊóÃúíõæäó äöÓóÂÃóßõãú]

(Who were afflicting you with horrible torment, and were slaughtering your sons and letting your women live.) (14:6).

 

We will explain this Ayah in the beginning of Surat Al-Qasas (28), Allah willing, and our reliance and trust are with Him.

 

The meaning of,

 

 

[íóÓõæãõæäóßõãú]

(who were afflicting you) is, "They humiliated you,'' as Abu `Ubaydah stated. It was also said that it means, "They used to exaggerate in tormenting you'' according to Al-Qurtubi. As for Allah saying,

 

 

[íõÃóÈøöÃõæäó ÃóÈúäóÂÃóßõãú æóíóÓúÊóÃúíõæäó äöÓóÂÃóßõãú]

(killing your sons and sparing your women) that explains His statement,

 

 

[íóÓõæãõæäóßõãú ÓõæÃó ÇáúÚóÃóÇÈö]

(who were afflicting you with horrible torment) then it explains the meaning of the favor He gave them, as mentioned in His statement,

 

 

[ÇÃúßõÑõæÇú äöÚúãóÊöíó ÇáøóÊöì ÃóäúÚóãúÊõ Úóáóíúßõãú]

(Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you). As for what Allah said in Surat Ibrahim,

 

[æóÃóßøöÑúåõãú ÈöÃóíøóÇãö Çááøóåö]

(And remind them of the annals of Allah) (14:5) meaning, the favors and blessing He granted them, He then said,

 

 

[íóÓõæãõæäóßõãú ÓõæÃó ÇáúÚóÃóÇÈö æóíõÃóÈøöÃõæäó ÃóÈúäóÂÃóßõãú æóíóÓúÊóÃúíõæäó äöÓóÂÃóßõãú]

(Who were afflicting you with horrible torment, and were slaughtering your sons and letting your women live.) (14:6)

 

So Allah mentioned saving their children from being slaughtered in order to remind them of the many favors that He granted them.

 

We should state here that `Pharaoh' (Fir`awn) is a title that was given to every disbelieving king who ruled Egypt, whether from the `Amaliq (Canaanites) or otherwise, just as Caesar (Qaysar) is the title of the disbelieving kings who ruled Rome and Damascus. Also, Khosrau (Kisra) is the title of the kings who ruled Persia, while Tubb`a is the title of the kings of Yemen, and the kings of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) were called Negus (An-Najashi).

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóÃöì Ãóáößõãú ÈóáÇóÃñ ãøöä ÑøóÈøößõãú ÚóÙöíãñ]

(And therein was a mighty trial from your Lord.)

 

Ibn Jarir commented that this part of the Ayah means, "Our saving your fathers from the torment that they suffered by the hand of Pharaoh, is a great blessing from your Lord.'' We should mention that in the blessing there a is test, the same as with hardship, for Allah said,

 

[æóäóÈúáõæßõã ÈöÇáÔøóÑøö æóÇáúÎóíúÑö ÃöÊúäóÉð]

(And We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good) (21:35) and,

 

[æóÈóáóæúäóÜåõãú ÈöÇáúÃóÓóäóÜÊö æóÇáÓøóíøöÆóÇÊö áóÚóáøóåõãú íóÑúÌöÚõæäó]

(And We tried them with good (blessings) and evil (calamities) in order that they might turn (to obey Allah.)) (7:168).

 

Allah's statement next,

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÃóÑóÞúäóÇ Èößõãõ ÇáúÈóÃúÑó ÃóÃóäÌóíúäóÜßõãú æóÃóÛúÑóÞúäóÇ ÃóÇáó ÃöÑúÚóæúäó æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóäÙõÑõæäó ]

(And (remember) when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir`awn's (Pharaoh) people while you were watching) means, `After We saved you from Fir`awn and you escaped with Musa; Fir`awn went out in your pursuit and We parted the sea for you.' Allah mentioned this story in detail, as we will come to know, Allah willing. One of the shortest references to this story is Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃóÃóäÌóíúäóÜßõãú]

(And saved you) meaning, "We saved you from them, drowning them while you watched, bringing relief to your hearts and humiliation to your enemy.''

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Fasting the Day of `Ashura

 

It was reported that the day the Children of israel were saved from Fir`awn was called the day of `Ashura'. Imam Ahmad reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah and found that the Jews were fasting the day of `Ashura'. He asked them, "What is this day that you fast'' They said, "This is a good day during which Allah saved the Children of israel from their enemy, and Musa used to fast this day.'' The Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÃóäóÇ ÃóÃóÞøõ ÈöãõæÓóì ãöäúßõã»(I have more right to Musa than you have.)

 

So the Messenger of Allah fasted that day and ordered that it be fasted. This Hadith was collected by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.

 

[æóÅöÃú æóÚóÃúäóÇ ãõæÓóì ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó áóíúáóÉð Ëõãøó ÇÊøóÎóÃúÊõãõ ÇáúÚöÌúáó ãöä ÈóÚúÃöåö æóÃóäÊõãú ÙóÜáöãõæäó - Ëõãøó ÚóÃóæúäóÇ Úóäßõãö ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö Ãóáößó áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóÔúßõÑõæäó - æóÅöÃú ÃóÇÊóíúäóÇ ãõæÓóì ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó æóÇáúÃõÑúÞóÇäó áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóåúÊóÃõæäó ]

(51. And (remember) when We appointed for Musa (Moses) forty nights, and (in his absence) you took the calf (for worship), and you were Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers).) (52. Then after that We forgave you so that you might be grateful.) (53. And (remember) when We gave Musa the Scripture (the Tawrah)) and the criterion (of right and wrong) so that you may be guided aright.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Children of israel worshipped the Calf

 

Allah then said, "Remember My favor on you when I forgave you for worshipping the calf.'' This happened after Musa went to the meeting place with his Lord at the end of that period which was forty days. These forty days were mentioned in Surat Al-A`raf, when Allah said,

 

 

[æóæóÚóÃúäóÇ ãõæÓóì ËóáóÜËöíäó áóíúáóÉð æóÃóÊúãóãúäóÇåóÇ ÈöÚóÔúÑò]

(And We appointed for Musa thirty nights and added (to the period) ten (more)) (7:142).

 

It was said that these days were during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah plus the first ten days in Dhul-Hijjah, after the Children of israel were delivered from Fir`awn and they safely crossed the sea. Allah's statement,

 

[æóÅöÃú ÃóÇÊóíúäóÇ ãõæÓóì ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó]

(And (remember) when We gave Musa the Scripture) means, the Tawrah,

 

 

[æóÇáúÃõÑúÞóÇäö]

(And the criterion) that is that which differentiates between truth and falsehood, guidance and deviation.

 

 

[áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóåúÊóÃõæäó]

(So that you may be guided aright), after escaping the sea, as another Ayah in Surat Al-A`raf clearly stated,

 

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÃóÇÊóíúäóÇ ãõæÓóì ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó ãöä ÈóÚúÃö ãó ÃóåúáóßúäóÇ ÇáúÞõÑõæäó ÇáÇøòæáóì ÈóÕóÂÆöÑó áöáäøóÇÓö æóåõÃðì æóÑóÃúãóÉð áøóÚóáøóåõãú íóÊóÃóßøóÑõæäó ]

(And indeed We gave Musa Ü after We had destroyed the generations of old Ü the Scripture (the Tawrah) as an enlightenment for mankind, and a guidance and a mercy, that they might remember (or receive admonition)) (28:43).

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞóÇáó ãõæÓóì áöÞóæúãöåö íóÜÞóæúãö Åöäøóßõãú ÙóáóãúÊõãú ÃóäÃõÓóßõãú ÈöÇÊøöÎóÇÃößõãõ ÇáúÚöÌúáó ÃóÊõæÈõæÇú Åöáóì ÈóÇÑöÆößõãú ÃóÇÞúÊõáõæÇú]

(54. And (remember) when Musa said to his people: "O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf. So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Creator.'' Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Children of israel kill each other in Repentance

 

This was the repentance required from the Children of israel for worshipping the calf. Commenting on Allah's statement;

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞóÇáó ãõæÓóì áöÞóæúãöåö íóÜÞóæúãö Åöäøóßõãú ÙóáóãúÊõãú ÃóäÃõÓóßõãú ÈöÇÊøöÎóÇÃößõãõ ÇáúÚöÌúáó]

(And (remember) when Musa said to his people: "O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf...), Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "When their hearts thought of worshipping the calf,

 

[æóáóãøóÇ ÓõÞöØó Ãóì ÃóíúÃöíåöãú æóÑóÃóæúÇú Ãóäøóåõãú ÞóÃú ÖóáøõæÇú ÞóÇáõæÇú áóÆöä áøóãú íóÑúÃóãúäóÇ ÑóÈøõäóÇ æóíóÛúÃöÑú áóäóÇ]

(And when they regretted and saw that they had gone astray, they (repented and) said: "If our Lord does not have mercy upon us and forgive us'') (7:149). This is when Musa said to them,

 

 

[íóÜÞóæúãö Åöäøóßõãú ÙóáóãúÊõãú ÃóäÃõÓóßõãú ÈöÇÊøöÎóÇÃößõãõ ÇáúÚöÌúáó]

(O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf...).'' Abu `Al-`Aliyah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas commented on,

 

 

[ÃóÊõæÈõæÇú Åöáóì ÈóÇÑöÆößõãú]

(So turn in repentance to your Bari') that it means, "To your Creator.'' Allah's statement,

 

 

[Åöáóì ÈóÇÑöÆößõãú]

(to your Bari' (Creator)) alerts the Children of israel to the enormity of their error and means, "Repent to He Who created you after you associated others with Him in worship.''

 

An-Nasa'i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ibn `Abbas saying, "Allah told the Children of israel that their repentance would be to slay by the sword every person they meet, be he father or son. They should not care whom they kill. Those were guilty whom Musa and Harun were not aware of their guilt, they admitted their sin and did as they were ordered. So Allah forgave both the killer and the one killed.'' This is part of the Hadith about the trials that we will mention in Surat Ta Ha, (20) Allah willing.

 

Ibn Jarir narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, "Musa said to his people,

 

[ÃóÊõæÈõæÇú Åöáóì ÈóÇÑöÆößõãú ÃóÇÞúÊõáõæÇú ÃóäÃõÓóßõãú Ãóáößõãú ÎóíúÑñ áøóßõãú ÚöäÃó ÈóÇÑöÆößõãú ÃóÊóÇÈó Úóáóíúßõãú Åöäøóåõ åõæó ÇáÊøóæøóÇÈõ ÇáÑøóÃöíãõ]

("So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill each other (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Creator.'' Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.)

 

Allah ordered Musa to command his people to kill each other. He ordered those who worshipped the calf to sit down and those who did not worship the calf to stand holding knives in their hands. When they started killing them, a great darkness suddenly overcame them. After the darkness lifted, they had killed seventy thousand of them. Those who were killed among them were forgiven, and those who remained alive were also forgiven.'' p

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞõáúÊõãú íóÜãõæÓóì áóä äøõÄúãöäó áóßó ÃóÊøóì äóÑóì Çááøóåó ÌóåúÑóÉð ÃóÃóÎóÃóÊúßõãõ ÇáÕøóÜÚöÞóÉõ æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóäÙõÑõæäó - Ëõãøó ÈóÚóËúäóÜßõã ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö ãóæúÊößõãú áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóÔúßõÑõæäó ]

(55. And (remember) when you said: "O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.'' But you were seized with a bolt of lightning while you were looking). (56.Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Best among the Children of israel ask to see Allah; their subsequent Death and Resurrection

 

Allah said, `Remember My favor on you for resurrecting you after you were seized with lightning when you asked to see Me directly, which neither you nor anyone else can bear or attain.' This was said by Ibn Jurayj. Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞõáúÊõãú íóÜãõæÓóì áóä äøõÄúãöäó áóßó ÃóÊøóì äóÑóì Çááøóåó ÌóåúÑóÉð]

(And (remember) when you said: "O Musa ! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.'') means, "Publicly'', "So that we gaze at Allah.'' Also, `Urwah bin Ruwaym said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÃóäÊõãú ÊóäÙõÑõæäó]

(While you were looking) means, "Some of them were struck with lightning while others were watching.'' Allah resurrected those, and struck the others with lightning. As-Suddi commented on,

 

 

[ÃóÃóÎóÃóÊúßõãõ ÇáÕøóÜÚöÞóÉõ]

(But you were seized with a bolt of lightning) saying; "They died, and Musa stood up crying and supplicating to Allah, `O Lord! What should I say to the Children of israel when I go back to them after You destroyed the best of them,

 

 

[áóæú ÔöÆúÊó ÃóåúáóßúÊóåõã ãøöä ÞóÈúáõ æóÅöíøóÜìó ÃóÊõåúáößõäóÇ ÈöãóÇ ÃóÚóáó ÇáÓøõÃóåóÂÃõ ãöäøóÂ]

(If it had been Your will, You could have destroyed them and me before; would You destroy us for the deeds of the foolish ones among us)' Allah revealed to Musa that these seventy men were among those who worshipped the calf. Afterwards, Allah brought them back to life one man at a time, while the rest of them were watching how Allah was bringing them back to life. That is why Allah's said,

 

 

[Ëõãøó ÈóÚóËúäóÜßõã ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö ãóæúÊößõãú áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóÔúßõÑõæäó ]

(Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.)''

 

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, "Death was their punishment, and they were resurrected after they died so they could finish out their lives.'' Qatadah said similarly.

 

`Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on this Ayah, "Musa returned from meeting with his Lord carrying the Tablets on which He wrote the Tawrah. He found that they had worshipped the calf in his absence. Consequently, he commanded them to kill themselves, and they complied, and Allah forgave them. He said to them, `These Tablets have Allah's Book, containing what He commanded you and what He forbade for you.' They said, `Should we believe this statement because you said it By Allah, we will not believe until we see Allah in the open, until He shows us Himself and says: This is My Book, therefore, adhere to it. Why does He not talk to us as He talked to you, O, Musa''' Then he (`Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd) recited Allah's statement,

 

 

[áóä äøõÄúãöäó áóßó ÃóÊøóì äóÑóì Çááøóåó ÌóåúÑóÉð]

(We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly) and said, "So Allah's wrath fell upon them, a thunderbolt struck them, and they all died. Then Allah brought them back to life after He killed them.'' Then he (`Abdur-Rahman) recited Allah's statement,

 

[Ëõãøó ÈóÚóËúäóÜßõã ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö ãóæúÊößõãú áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóÔúßõÑõæäó ]

(Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful), and said, "Musa said to them, `Take the Book of Allah.' They said, `No.' He said, `What is the matter with you' They said, `The problem is that we died and came back to life.' He said, `Take the Book of Allah.' They said, `No.' So Allah sent some angels who made the mountain topple over them.''

 

This shows that the Children of israel were required to fulfill the commandments after they were brought back to life. However, Al-Mawardy said that there are two opinions about this matter. The first opinion is that since the Children of israel witnessed these miracles, they were compelled to believe, so they did not have to fulfill the commandments. The second opinion states that they were required to adhere to the commandments, so that no responsible adult is free of such responsibilities. Al-Qurtubi said that this is what is correct, because, he said, although the Children of israel witnessed these tremendous calamities and incidents, that did not mean that they were not responsible for fulfilling the commandments any more. Rather they are responsible for that, and this is clear. Allah knows best.

 

 

[æóÙóáøóáúäóÇ Úóáóíúßõãõ ÇáúÛóãóÇãó æóÃóäÒóáúäóÇ Úóáóíúßõãõ Çáúãóäøó æóÇáÓøóáúæóì ßõáõæÇú ãöä ØóíøöÈóÜÊö ãóÇ ÑóÒóÞúäóÜßõãú æóãóÇ ÙóáóãõæäóÇ æóáóÜßöä ßóÇäõæÇú ÃóäÃõÓóåõãú íóÙúáöãõæäó ]

(57. And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna and the quail, (saying): "Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,'' (but they rebelled). And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Shade, the Manna and the Quail

 

After Allah mentioned the calamities that He saved the Children of israel from, He mentioned the favors that He granted them, saying,

 

[æóÙóáøóáúäóÇ Úóáóíúßõãõ ÇáúÛóãóÇãó]

And We shaded you with clouds. This A0yah mentions the white clouds that provided shade for the Children of israel, protecting them from the sun s heat during their years of wandering. In the Háad0th about the trials, An-Nasa0 i recorded Ibn Abba0s saying, Alla0h shaded the Children of israel with clouds during the years of wandering. Ibn Abi Háa0tim said, Narrations similar to that of Ibn Abba0s were reported from Ibn Umar, Ar-Rab0 bin Anas, Abu Mijlaz, Adá-Dáaháháa0k, and As-Suddi. Al-Háasan and Qata0dah said that,

 

 

[æóÙóáøóáúäóÇ Úóáóíúßõãõ ÇáúÛóãóÇãó]

(And We shaded you with clouds) "This happened when they were in the desert and the clouds shielded them from the sun.'' Ibn Jarir said that several scholars said that the type of cloud the Ayah mentioned, "was cooler and better than the type we know.''

 

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÃóäÒóáúäóÇ Úóáóíúßõãõ Çáúãóäøó]

And sent down on you Al-Manna, The manna used to descend to them to the trees, and they used to eat whatever they wished of it. Also, Qata0dah said, The manna, which was whiter than milk and sweeter than honey, used to rain down on the Children of israel, just as the snow falls, from dawn until sunrise. One of them would collect enough for that particular day, for if it remained more than that, it would spoil. On the sixth day, Friday, one would collect enough for the sixth and the seventh day, which was the Sabbath during which one would not leave home to seek his livelihood, or for anything else. All this occurred in the wilderness. The type of manna that we know provides sufficient food when eaten alone, because it is nutritious and sweet. When manna is mixed with water, it becomes a sweet drink. It also changes composition when mixed with other types of food. However, this is not the only type. The evidence to this fact is that Al-Bukha0ri narrated, that Sa 0d bin Zayd said that the Messenger of Alla0h said,

 

 

«ÇáúßóãúÃóÉõ ãöäó Çáúãóäøö æóãóÇÄõåóÇ ÔöÃóÇÃñ áöáúÚóíúä»(Kam'ah (truffles) is a type of manna, and its liquid is a remedy for the eyes.)

 

This Hadith was also collected by Imam Ahmad. The group of Hadith compilers, with the exception of Abu Dawud, also collected it, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Hasan Sahih. At-Tirmidhi recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

«ÇáúÚóÌúæóÉõ ãöäó ÇáúÌóäøóÉö æóÃöíåóÇ ÔöÃóÇÃñ ãöäó ÇáÓøõãøö æóÇáúßóãúÃóÉõ ãöäó Çáúãóäøö æóãóÇÄõåóÇ ÔöÃóÇÃñ áöáúÚóíúä»(The `Ajwah (pressed, dried date) is from Paradise and it cures poison, Al-Kam'ah (truffles) is a form of manna, and its liquid heals the eye.'') At-Tirmidhi is the only one of them who recorded this Hadith.

 

As for the quail (Salwa) in question, `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "The (Salwa) is a bird that looks like the quail.'' This is the same opinion reported from Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, `Ikrimah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, may Allah have mercy upon them. Also, `Ikrimah said that the Salwa is a bird in Paradise about the size of a sparrow. Qatadah said "The Salwa is a bird that is similar to a sparrow. During that time, an israelite could catch as many quails as was sufficient for that particular day, otherwise the meat would spoil. On the sixth day, Friday, he would collect what is enough for the sixth and the seventh day, the Sabbath, during which one was not allowed to depart his home to seek anything.''

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ßõáõæÇú ãöä ØóíøöÈóÜÊö ãóÇ ÑóÒóÞúäóÜßõãú]

(Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,) (7:160) this form of command is a simple order of allowance, guiding to what is good. Allah said,

 

[æóãóÇ ÙóáóãõæäóÇ æóáóÜßöä ßóÇäõæÇú ÃóäÃõÓóåõãú íóÙúáöãõæäó]

(And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves) means, `We commanded them to eat from what We gave them, and to perform the acts of worship (but they rebelled).' This Ayah is similar to Allah's statement,

 

[ßõáõæÇú ãöä ÑøöÒúÞö ÑóÈøößõãú æóÇÔúßõÑõæÇú áóåõ]

(Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him) (34:15).

 

Yet, the Children of israel rebelled, disbelieved and committed injustice against themselves, even though they saw the clear signs, tremendous miracles and extraordinary events.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Virtue of Muhammad's Companions over the Companions of all Other Prophets

 

Here it is important to point out the virtue of Muhammad's Companions over the companions of the other Prophets. This includes firmness in the religion, patience and the lack of arrogance, may Allah be pleased with them. Although the Companions accompanied the Prophet in his travels and battles, such as during the battle of Tabuk, in intense heat and hardship, they did not ask for a miracle, though this was easy for the Prophet by Allah's leave. And when the Companions became hungry, they merely asked the Prophet - to invoke Allah - for an increase in the amount of food. They collected whatever food they had and brought it to the Prophet , and he asked Allah to bless it, told each of them to take some food, and they filled every pot they had. Also, when they needed rain, the Prophet asked Allah to send down rain, and a rain cloud came. They drank, gave water to their camels and filled their water skins. When they looked around, they found that the cloud had only rained on their camp. This is the best example of those who were willing to accept Allah's decision and follow the Messenger of Allah .

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞõáúäóÇ ÇÃúÎõáõæÇú åóÜÃöåö ÇáúÞóÑúíóÉó ÃóßõáõæÇú ãöäúåóÇ ÃóíúËõ ÔöÆúÊõãú ÑóÛóÃðÇ æóÇÃúÎõáõæÇú ÇáúÈóÇÈó ÓõÌøóÃðÇ æóÞõæáõæÇú ÃöØøóÉñ äøóÛúÃöÑú áóßõãú ÎóØóÜíóÜßõãú æóÓóäóÒöíÃõ ÇáúãõÃúÓöäöíäó - ÃóÈóÃøóáó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÙóáóãõæÇú ÞóæúáÇð ÛóíúÑó ÇáøóÃöí Þöíáó áóåõãú ÃóÃóäÒóáúäóÇ Úóáóì ÇáøóÃöíäó ÙóáóãõæÇú ÑöÌúÒðÇ ãøöäó ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö ÈöãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú íóÃúÓõÞõæäó ]

(58. And (remember) when We said: "Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility) and say: `Forgive us,' and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers.'') (59. But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another, so We sent upon the wrongdoers Rijz (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebellion.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Jews were Rebellious instead of Appreciative when They gained Victory

 

Allah admonished the Jews for avoiding Jihad and not entering the holy land as they had been ordered to do when they came from Egypt with Musa. They were also commanded to fight the disbelieving `Amaliq (Canaanites) dwelling in the holy land at that time. But they did not want to fight, because they were weak and exhausted. Allah punished them by causing them to become lost, and to continue wandering, as Allah has stated in Surat Al-Ma'idah (5). The correct opinion about the meaning of, `the holy land' mentioned here is that it was Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), as As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah and Abu Muslim Al-Asfahani, as well as others have stated. Musa said,

 

 

[íóÇÞóæúãö ÇÃúÎõáõæÇ ÇáÇøñÑúÖó ÇáãõÞóÃøóÓóÉó ÇáøóÊöì ßóÊóÈó Çááøóåõ áóßõãú æóáÇó ÊóÑúÊóÃøõæÇ]

(O people! Enter the holy land which Allah has assigned to you and turn not back (in flight).) (5:21)

 

However, some scholars said that the holy land is Jericho, (Ariha') and this opinion was mentioned from Ibn `Abbas and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd.

 

After the years of wandering ended forty years later, in the company of Yuwsha` (Joshua) bin Nun, Allah allowed the Children of israel to conquer the holy land on the eve of a Friday. On that day, the sun was kept from setting for a little more time, until victory was achieved. When the Children of israel conquered the holy land, they were commanded to enter its gate while,

 

 

[ÓõÌøóÃðÇ]

(prostrating) in appreciation to Allah for making them victorious, triumphant, returning them to their land and saving them from being lost and wandering. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

 

[æóÇÃúÎõáõæÇú ÇáúÈóÇÈó ÓõÌøóÃðÇ]

(and enter the gate Sujjadan) means, "While bowing''. Ibn Jarir reported Ibn `Abbas saying,

 

 

[æóÇÃúÎõáõæÇú ÇáúÈóÇÈó ÓõÌøóÃðÇ]

(and enter the gate in prostration) means, "Through a small door while bowing.'' Al-Hakim narrated it, and Ibn Abi Hatim added, "And they went through the door backwards!'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that they were ordered to prostrate on their faces when they entered the city, but Ar-Razi discounted this explanation. It was also said that the Sujud mentioned here means, `submissiveness', for actually entering while prostrating is not possible.

 

Khasif said that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said, "The door mentioned here was facing the Qiblah.'' Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that the door is the door of Hittah in Iylya', which is Jerusalem. Ar-Razi also reported that some of them said that it was a door in the direction of the Qiblah''. Khasif said that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Children of israel entered the door sideways. As-Suddi said that Abu Sa`id Al-Azdy said that Abu Al-Kanud said that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that they were commanded to, u

 

 

[æóÇÃúÎõáõæÇú ÇáúÈóÇÈó ÓõÌøóÃðÇ]

(enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility)) but instead, they entered while their heads were raised in defiance.

 

Allah said next,

 

 

[æóÞõæáõæÇú ÃöØøóÉñ]

(and say: `Hittah'). Ibn `Abbas commented, "Seek Allah's forgiveness.'' Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that it means, "Say, `Relieve us from our errors.''

 

 

[äøóÛúÃöÑú áóßõãú ÎóØóÜíóÜßõãú æóÓóäóÒöíÃõ ÇáúãõÃúÓöäöíäó]

(and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers) Here is the reward for fulfilling Allah's commandment. This Ayah means, "If you implement what We commanded you, We will forgive your sins and multiply your good deeds.'' In summary, upon achieving victory, the Children of israel were commanded to submit to Allah in tongue and deed and, to admit to their sins and seek forgiveness for them, to be grateful to Allah for the blessings He gave them, hastening to do the deeds that Allah loves, as He said,

 

 

[ÅöÃóÇ ÌóÂÃó äóÕúÑõ Çááøóåö æóÇáúÃóÊúÃõ - æóÑóÃóíúÊó ÇáäøóÇÓó íóÃúÎõáõæäó Ãöì Ãöíäö Çááøóåö ÃóÃúæóÌÇð - ÃóÓóÈøöÃú ÈöÃóãúÃö ÑóÈøößó æóÇÓúÊóÛúÃöÑúåõ Åöäøóåõ ßóÇäó ÊóæöÈóÇ ]

(When there comes the help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest (of Makkah). And you see that the people enter Allah's religion (Islam) in crowds. So glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance.) (110).

 

Allah said,

 

[ÃóÈóÃøóáó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÙóáóãõæÇú ÞóæúáÇð ÛóíúÑó ÇáøóÃöí Þöíáó áóåõãú]

(But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another).

 

Al-Bukhari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,

 

 

«Þöíáó áöÈóäöí ÅöÓúÑóÇÆöíáó ÇÃúÎõáõæÇ ÇáúÈóÇÈó ÓõÌøóÃðÇ æóÞõæáõæÇ: ÃöØøóÉñ¡ ÃóÃóÎóáõæÇ íóÒúÃóÃõæä Úóáì ÃóÓúÊóÇåöåöã ÃóÈóÃøóáõæÇ æóÞóÇáõæÇ¡ ÃóÈøóÉñ Ãöí ÔóÚúÑóÉ»(The Children of israel were commanded to enter the door while bowing and to say `Hittah'. Yet, they entered the door on their behinds, distorting the words. They said; `Habbah (seed), in Sha`rah (a hair).')

 

An-Nasa'i recorded this part of it from Abu Hurayrah only, but he has a chain from the Prophet , explaining Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃöØøóÉñ]

(`Hittah'), saying, "So they deviated and said `Habbah.'' Similar was recorded by `Abdur-Razzaq, and his route was also collected by Al-Bukhari. Muslim and At-Tirmidhi narrated similar versions of this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

 

The summary of what the scholars have said about this subject is that the Children of israel distorted Allah's command to them to submit to Him in tongue and deed. They were commanded to enter the city while bowing down, but they entered while sliding on their rear ends and raising their heads! They were commanded to say, `Hittah' meaning, "Relieve us from our errors and sins.'' However, they mocked this command and said, "Hintah (grain seed) in Sha`irah (barley).'' This demonstrates the worst type of rebellion and disobedience, and it is why Allah released His anger and punishment upon them, all because of their sinning and defying His commands. Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÃóäÒóáúäóÇ Úóáóì ÇáøóÃöíäó ÙóáóãõæÇú ÑöÌúÒðÇ ãøöäó ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö ÈöãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú íóÃúÓõÞõæäó]

(So We sent upon the wrongdoers Rijz (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebellion.)

 

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Every word in Allah's Book that says Rijz means, `a punishment.''' Mujahid, Abu Malik, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan and Qatadah were reported to have said that Rijz means `Torment.' Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Sa`d bin Malik, Usamah bin Zayd and Khuzaymah bin Thabit said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÇáØøóÇÚõæäõ ÑöÌúÒñ.ÚóÃóÇÈñ ÚõÃøöÈó Èöåö ãóäú ßóÇäó ÞóÈúáóßõã»

(The plague is a Rijz, a punishment with which Allah punished those before you.)

 

This is also how An-Nasa'i recorded this Hadith. In addition, the basis of this Hadith was collected in the Two Sahihs,

 

 

«ÅöÃóÇ ÓóãöÚúÊõãõ ÇáØøóÇÚõæäó ÈÃóÑúÖò ÃóáóÇ ÊóÃúÎõáõæåóÇ»(If you hear of the plague in a land, then do not enter it.)

 

Ibn Jarir recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

«Åäøó åóÃóÇ ÇáúæóÌóÚó æóÇáÓøóÞóãó ÑöÌúÒñ ÚõÃøöÈó Èöåö ÈóÚúÖõ ÇáúÃõãóãö ÞóÈúáóßõã»

(This calamity and sickness (i.e. the plague) is a Rijz, a punishment with which some nations who were before you were punished.)

 

The basis of this Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.

 

 

[æóÅöÃö ÇÓúÊóÓúÞóì ãõæÓóì áöÞóæúãöåö ÃóÞõáúäóÇ ÇÖúÑöÈ ÈøöÚóÕóÇßó ÇáúÃóÌóÑó ÃóÇäÃóÌóÑóÊú ãöäúåõ ÇËúäóÊóÇ ÚóÔúÑóÉó ÚóíúäðÇ ÞóÃú Úóáöãó ßõáøõ ÃõäóÇÓò ãøóÔúÑóÈóåõãú ßõáõæÇú æóÇÔúÑóÈõæÇú ãöä ÑøöÒúÞö Çááøóåö æóáÇó ÊóÚúËóæúÇú Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ãõÃúÓöÃöíäó ]

(60. And (remember) when Musa asked for water for his people, We said: "Strike the stone with your stick.'' Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water. "Eat and drink of that which Allah has provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth.'')

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Twelve Springs gush forth

 

Allah said, "Remember My favor on you when I answered the supplication of your Prophet, Musa, when he asked Me to provide you with water. I made the water available for you, making it gush out through a stone. Twelve springs burst out of that stone, a designated spring for each of your tribes. You eat from the manna and the quails and drink from the water that I provided for you, without any effort or hardship for you. So worship the One Who did this for you.

 

[æóáÇó ÊóÚúËóæúÇú Ãöì ÇáÇøñÑúÖö ãõÃúÓöÃöíäó]

(And do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth) meaning, "Do not return the favor by committing acts of disobedience that cause favors to disappear.''

 

Ibn `Abbas said that the Children of israel, "Had a square stone that Musa was commanded to strike with his staff and, as a result, twelve springs burst out of that stone, three on each side. Each tribe was, therefore, designated a certain spring, and they used to drink from their springs. They never had to travel from their area, they would find the same bounty in the same manner they had in the first area.''This narration is part of the long Hadith that An-Nasa'i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded about the trials.

 

This story is similar to the story in Surat Al-`Araf (Chapter 7) although the latter was revealed in Makkah. In Surat Al-A`raf, Allah used the third person when He mentioned the Children of israel to the Prophet and narrated what He favored them with. In this Surat Al-Baqarah, which was revealed in Al-Madinah, Allah directed His Speech at the Children of israel. Further, Allah said in Surat Al-A`raf,

 

 

[ÃóÇäÈóÌóÓóÊú ãöäúåõ ÇËúäóÊóÇ ÚóÔúÑóÉó ÚóíúäðÇ]

(And there gushed forth out of it twelve springs) (7:160), describing what first occurred when the water begins to gush out. In the Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah, Allah described what happened later on, meaning when the water burst out in full force. Allah knows best.

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞõáúÊõãú íóÜãõæÓóì áóä äøóÕúÈöÑó Úóáóì ØóÚóÇãò æóÃöÃò ÃóÇÃúÚõ áóäóÇ ÑóÈøóßó íõÎúÑöÌú áóäóÇ ãöãøóÇ ÊõäÈöÊõ ÇáÃóÑúÖõ ãöä ÈóÞúáöåóÇ æóÞöËøóÂÆöåóÇ æóÃõæãöåóÇ æóÚóÃóÓöåóÇ æóÈóÕóáöåóÇ ÞóÇáó ÃóÊóÓúÊóÈúÃöáõæäó ÇáøóÃöì åõæó ÃóÃúäóì ÈöÇáøóÃöì åõæó ÎóíúÑñ ÇåúÈöØõæÇú ãöÕúÑðÇ ÃóÅöäøó áóßõã ãøóÇ ÓóÃóáúÊõãú]

(61. And (remember) when you said, "O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumber its Fum, its lentils and its onions.'' He said, "Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!'')

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Children of israel preferred Foods inferior to Manna and Quails

 

Allah said, "And remember My favor on you when I sent down the manna and quails to you, a good, pure, beneficial, easily acquired food. And remember your ungratefulness for what We granted you. Remember how you asked Musa to exchange this type of food for an inferior type that consists of vegetation, and so forth.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said about the Children of israel, "They were bored and impatient with the type of food they were provided. They also remembered the life they used to live, when their diet consisted of lentils, onions, garlic and herbs.'' They said,

 

[íóÜãõæÓóì áóä äøóÕúÈöÑó Úóáóì ØóÚóÇãò æóÃöÃò ÃóÇÃúÚõ áóäóÇ ÑóÈøóßó íõÎúÑöÌú áóäóÇ ãöãøóÇ ÊõäÈöÊõ ÇáÃóÑúÖõ ãöä ÈóÞúáöåóÇ æóÞöËøóÂÆöåóÇ æóÃõæãöåóÇ æóÚóÃóÓöåóÇ æóÈóÕóáöåóÇ]

(O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fum, its lentils and its onions). They said,

 

[Úóáóì ØóÚóÇãò æóÃöÃò]

(One kind of food) meaning, the manna and quails, because they ate the same food day after day. The Ayah mentioned lentils, onions and herbs, which are all known types of foods. As for the Fum, Ibn Mas`ud read it, Thum (garlic). Also, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Al-Hasan said about the Ayah,

 

 

[æóÃõæãöåóÇ]

(Its Fum), "Ibn `Abbas said that Fum means, garlic.''

 

He also said that the expression, `Fumu-lanna' means, `bake for us', according to the languages of old. Ibn Jarir commented, "If this is true, then `Fum' is one of the words whose pronounciation were altered, the letter `fa' was replaced by the letter `tha', since they are similar in sound.'' And Allah knows best. Others said that Fum is wheat, the kind used for bread. Al-Bukhari said, "Some of them said that Fum includes all grains or seeds that are eaten.''

 

Allah's statement,

 

[ÞóÇáó ÃóÊóÓúÊóÈúÃöáõæäó ÇáøóÃöì åõæó ÃóÃúäóì ÈöÇáøóÃöì åõæó ÎóíúÑñ](He said, "Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower'') criticized the Jews for asking for inferior foods, although they were living an easy life, eating tasty, beneficial and pure food. Allah's statement,

 

[ÇåúÈöØõæÇú ãöÕúÑðÇ]

(Go you down to any Misr) means, `any city', as Ibn `Abbas said. Ibn Jarir also reported that Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that the Ayah refers to Misr, the Egypt of Fir`awn. The truth is that the Ayah means any city, as Ibn `Abbas and other scholars stated. Therefore, the meaning of Musa's statement to the Children of israel becomes, "What you are asking for is easy, for it is available in abundance in any city that you might enter. So since what you asked for is available in all of the villages and cities, I will not ask Allah to provide us with it, especially when it is an inferior type of food. '' This is why Musa said to them,

 

 

[ÃóÊóÓúÊóÈúÃöáõæäó ÇáøóÃöì åõæó ÃóÃúäóì ÈöÇáøóÃöì åõæó ÎóíúÑñ ÇåúÈöØõæÇú ãöÕúÑðÇ ÃóÅöäøó áóßõã ãøóÇ ÓóÃóáúÊõãú]

(Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!)

 

Since their request was the result of boredom and arrogance and since fulfilling it was unnecessary, their request was denied. Allah knows best.

 

[æóÖõÑöÈóÊú Úóáóíúåöãõ ÇáÃøöáøóÉõ æóÇáúãóÓúßóäóÉõ æóÈóÂÃõæÇ ÈöÛóÖóÈò ãøöäó Çááøóåö Ãóáößó ÈöÃóäøóåõãú ßóÇäõæÇú íóßúÃõÑõæäó ÈöÂíóÜÊö Çááøóåö æóíóÞúÊõáõæäó ÇáäøóÈöíøöíäó ÈöÛóíúÑö ÇáúÃóÞøö Ãáößó ÈöãóÇ ÚóÕóæÇú æøóßóÇäõæÇú íóÚúÊóÃõæäó]

(61. And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah. That was because they used to disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidence) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit crimes and sins.)) (2:61)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Covering the Jews in Humiliation and Misery

 

Allah said,

 

[æóÖõÑöÈóÊú Úóáóíúåöãõ ÇáÃøöáøóÉõ æóÇáúãóÓúßóäóÉõ]

(And they were covered with humiliation and misery). This Ayah indicates that the Children of israel were plagued with humiliation, and that this will continue, meaning that it will never cease. They will continue to suffer humiliation at the hands of all who interact with them, along with the disgrace that they feel inwardly. Al-Hasan commented, "Allah humiliated them, and they shall have no protector. Allah put them under the feet of the Muslims, who appeared at a time when the Majus (Zoroastrians) were taking the Jizyah (tax) from the Jews.'' Also, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi said that `misery' used in the Ayah means, `poverty.' `Atiyah Al-`Awfi said that `misery' means, `paying the tilth (tax).' In addition, Ad-Dahhak commented on Allah's statement,

 

[æóÈóÂÃõæÇ ÈöÛóÖóÈò ãøöäó Çááøóåö]

(and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah), "They deserved Allah's anger.'' Also, Ibn Jarir said that,

 

[æóÈóÂÃõæÇ ÈöÛóÖóÈò ãøöäó Çááøóåö]

(and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah) means, "They went back with the wrath. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[Åöäøöì ÃõÑöíÃõ Ãóä ÊóÈõæÃó ÈöÅöËúãöì æóÅöËúãößó]

(Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours) (Al-Ma'idah 5:29) meaning, `You will end up carrying my, and your, mistakes instead of me'. Thus, the meaning of the Ayah becomes, `They went back carrying Allah's anger; Allah's wrath descended on them; they deserved Allah's anger.'''

 

Allah's statement,

 

[Ãóáößó ÈöÃóäøóåõãú ßóÇäõæÇú íóßúÃõÑõæäó ÈöÂíóÜÊö Çááøóåö æóíóÞúÊõáõæäó ÇáäøóÈöíøöíäó ÈöÛóíúÑö ÇáúÃóÞøö]

(That was because they used to disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, etc.) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully.) means, "This is what We rewarded the Children of israel with: humiliation and misery.'' Allah's anger that descended on the Children of israel was a part of the humiliation they earned, because of their defiance of the truth, disbelief in Allah's Ayat and belittling the carriers of Allah's Law i.e. the Prophets and their following. The Children of israel rejected the Messengers and even killed them. Surely, there is no form of disbelief worse than disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and murdering the Prophets of Allah.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Meaning of Kibr

 

Similarly, in a Hadith recorded in the Two Sahihs the Messenger of Allah said,

 

«ÇáúßöÈúÑõ ÈóØóÑõ ÇáúÃóÞøö æóÛóãúØõ ÇáäøóÇÓ»

(`Kibr, is refusing the truth and degrading (belittling) people.)

 

Imam Ahmad recorded, `Abdullah bin Mas`ud saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÃóÔóÃøõ ÇáäøóÇÓö ÚóÃóÇÈðÇ íóæúãó ÇáúÞöíóÇãóÉö ÑóÌõáñ ÞóÊóáóåõ äóÈöíøñ Ãóæú ÞóÊóáó äóÈöíøðÇ: æóÅöãóÇãõ ÖóáóÇáóÉò æóãõãóËøöáñ ãöäó ÇáúãõãóËøöáöíä»(The people who will receive the most torment on the Day of Resurrection are: a man who was killed by a Prophet or who killed a Prophet, an unjust ruler and one who mutilates (the dead).) Allah's statement,

 

 

[Ãáößó ÈöãóÇ ÚóÕóæÇú æøóßóÇäõæÇú íóÚúÊóÃõæäó]

(That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds) mentions another reason why the Children of israel were punished in this manner, for they used to disobey and transgress the limits. Disobedience is to do what is prohibited, while transgression entails overstepping the set limits of what is allowed and what is prohibited. Allah knows best.

 

 

[Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æóÇáøóÃöíäó åóÇÃõæÇú æóÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì æóÇáÕøóÜÈöÆöíäó ãóäú ÃóÇãóäó ÈöÇááøóåö æóÇáúíóæúãö ÇáÇøñÎöÑö æóÚóãöáó ÕóÜáöÃÇð Ãóáóåõãú ÃóÌúÑõåõãú ÚöäÃó ÑóÈøöåöãú æóáÇó ÎóæúÃñ Úóáóíúåöãú æóáÇó åõãú íóÃúÒóäõæäó ]

(62. Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians (Sabi'in), whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and does righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Faith and doing Righteous Deeds equals Salvation in all Times

 

After Allah described the condition - and punishment - of those who defy His commands, fall into His prohibitions and transgress set limits by committing prohibited acts, He stated that the earlier nations who were righteous and obedient received the rewards for their good deeds. This shall be the case, until the Day of Judgment. Therefore, whoever follows the unlettered Messenger and Prophet shall acquire eternal happiness and shall neither fear from what will happen in the future nor become sad for what has been lost in the past. Similarly, Allah said,

 

[ÃóáÇ Åöäøó ÃóæúáöíóÂÃó Çááøóåö áÇó ÎóæúÃñ Úóáóíúåöãú æóáÇó åõãú íóÃúÒóäõæäó ]

(No doubt! Verily, the Awliya' of Allah, no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve) (10:62).

 

The angels will proclaim to the dying believers, as mentioned,

 

[Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÞóÇáõæÇú ÑóÈøõäóÇ Çááøóåõ Ëõãøó ÇÓúÊóÞóÜãõæÇú ÊóÊóäóÒøóáõ Úóáóíúåöãõ ÇáúãóáóÜÆößóÉõ ÃóáÇøó ÊóÎóÇÃõæÇú æóáÇó ÊóÃúÒóäõæÇú æóÃóÈúÔöÑõæÇú ÈöÇáúÌóäøóÉö ÇáøóÊöì ßõäÊõãú ÊõæÚóÃõæäó ]

(Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is Allah (alone),'' and then they stand firm, on them the angels will descend (at the time of their death) (saying): "Fear not, nor grieve! But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised!''). (41:30)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Meaning of Mu'min, or Believer

 

`Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated from Ibn `Abbas, about,

 

[Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æóÇáøóÃöíäó åóÇÃõæÇú æóÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì æóÇáÕøóÜÈöÆöíäó ãóäú ÃóÇãóäó ÈöÇááøóåö æóÇáúíóæúãö ÇáÇøñÎöÑö]

(Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians, whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day) that Allah revealed the following Ayah afterwards,

 

[æóãóä íóÈúÊóÛö ÛóíúÑó ÇáÅöÓúáóÜãö ÃöíäðÇ Ãóáóä íõÞúÈóáó ãöäúåõ æóåõæó Ãöì ÇáÇøñÎöÑóÉö ãöäó ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑöíäó ]

(And whoever seeks religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers) (3:85).

 

This statement by Ibn `Abbas indicates that Allah does not accept any deed or work from anyone, unless it conforms to the Law of Muhammad that is, after Allah sent Muhammad . Before that, every person who followed the guidance of his own Prophet was on the correct path, following the correct guidance and was saved.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Why the Jews were called `Yahud

 

The Jews are the followers of Prophet Musa, who used to refer to the Tawrah for judgment. Yahud is a word that means, `repenting', just as Musa said,

 

[ÅöäøóÇ åõÃúäóÜÂ Åöáóíúßó]

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

why the christians were called nasara

 

 

[ãóäú ÃóäÕóÇÑöì Åöáóì Çááøóåö ÞóÇáó ÇáúÃóæóÇÑöíøõæäó äóÃúäõ ÃóäúÕóÇÑõ Çááøóåö]

("Who will be my helpers in Allah's cause'' Al-Hawariyyun said: "We are the helpers of Allah.'') (61:14)

 

It was said that they were called `Nasara', because they inhabited a land called An-Nasirah (Nazareth), as Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn `Abbas were reported to have said, Allah knows best. Nasara is certainly plural for Nasran.

 

When Allah sent Muhammad as the Last and Final Prophet and Messenger to all of the Children of Adam, mankind was required to believe in him, obey him and refrain from what he prohibited them; those who do this are true believers. The Ummah of Muhammad was called `Mu'minin' (believers), because of the depth of their faith and certainty, and because they believe in all of the previous Prophets and matters of the Unseen.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Sabi'un or Sabians

 

There is a difference of opinion over the identity of the Sabians. Sufyan Ath-Thawri said that Layth bin Abu Sulaym said that Mujahid said that, "The Sabians are between the Majus, the Jews and the Christians. They do not have a specific religion.'' Similar is reported from Ibn Abi Najih. Similar statements were attributed to `Ata' and Sa`id bin Jubayr. They (others) say that the Sabians are a sect among the People of the Book who used to read the Zabur (Psalms), others say that they are a people who worshipped the angels or the stars. It appears that the closest opinion to the truth, and Allah knows best, is Mujahid's statement and those who agree with him like Wahb bin Munabbih, that the Sabians are neither Jews nor Christians nor Majus nor polytheists. Rather, they did not have a specific religion that they followed and enforced, because they remained living according to their Fitrah (instinctual nature). This is why the idolators used to call whoever embraced Islam a `Sabi', meaning, that he abandoned all religions that existed on the earth. Some scholars stated that the Sabians are those who never received a message by any Prophet. And Allah knows best.

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÃóÎóÃúäóÇ ãöíËóÜÞóßõãú æóÑóÃóÚúäóÇ ÃóæúÞóßõãõ ÇáØøõæÑó ÎõÃõæÇú ãó ÃóÇÊóíúäóÜßõã ÈöÞõæøóÉò æóÇÃúßõÑõæÇú ãóÇ Ãöíåö áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóÊøóÞõæäó - Ëõãøó ÊóæóáøóíúÊõã ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö Ãáößó ÃóáóæúáÇó ÃóÖúáõ Çááøóåö Úóáóíúßõãú æóÑóÃúãóÊõåõ áóßõäÊõã ãøöäó ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑöíäó ]

(63. And (O Children of Isra'il, remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying): "Hold fast to that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein so that you may acquire Taqwa.) (64. Then after that you turned away. Had it not been for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you, indeed you would have been among the losers.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Taking the Covenant from the Jews

 

Allah reminded the Children of israel of the pledges, covenants and promises that He took from them to believe in Him alone, without a partner, and follow His Messengers. Allah stated that when He took their pledge from them, He raised the mountain above their heads, so that they affirm the pledge that they gave Allah and abide by it with sincerity and seriousness. Hence, Allah's statement,

 

[æóÅöà äóÊóÞúäóÇ ÇáúÌóÈóáó ÃóæúÞóåõãú ßóÃóäøóåõ ÙõáøóÉñ æóÙóäøõæÇú Ãóäøóåõ æóÇÞöÚñ Èöåöãú ÎõÃõæÇú ãó ÃóÇÊóíúäóÇßõã ÈöÞõæøóÉò æóÇÃúßõÑõæÇú ãóÇ Ãöíåö áóÚóáøóßõãú ÊóÊøóÞõæäó ]

(And (remember) when We raised the mountain over them as if it had been a canopy, and they thought that it was going to fall on them. (We said): "Hold firmly to what We have given you (Tawrah), and remember that which is therein (act on its commandments), so that you may fear Allah and obey Him.'') (7:171).

 

The mount mentioned here is At-Tur, just as it was explained in Surat Al-A`raf, according to the Tafsir of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ata', `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and others. This is more obvious. There is another report from Ibn `Abbas saying; `The Tur is a type of mountain that vegetation grows on, if no vegetation grows on it, it is not called Tur.' And in the Hadith about the trials, Ibn `Abbas said; "When they (the Jews) refused to obey, Allah raised the mountain above their heads so that they would listen.''

 

Al-Hasan said that Allah's statement,

 

[ÎõÃõæÇú ãó ÃóÇÊóíúäóÜßõã ÈöÞõæøóÉò]

(Hold fast to that which We have given you) means, the Tawrah. Mujahid said that the Ayah commanded, "Strictly adhere to it.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said that,

 

[æóÇÃúßõÑõæÇú ãóÇ Ãöíåö]

(and remember that which is therein) means, "Read the Tawrah and implement it.'' Allah's statement,

 

 

[Ëõãøó ÊóæóáøóíúÊõã ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö Ãáößó ÃóáóæúáÇó ÃóÖúáõ Çááøóåö]

(Then after that you turned away. Had it not been for the grace of Allah) means, "Yet, after the firm pledge that you gave, you still deviated and broke your pledge'';

 

[ÃóáóæúáÇó ÃóÖúáõ Çááøóåö Úóáóíúßõãú æóÑóÃúãóÊõåõ]

(Had it not been for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you), meaning, by forgiving you and by sending the Prophets and Messengers to you,

 

[áóßõäÊõã ãøöäó ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑöíäó]

(Indeed you would have been among the losers) meaning, in this life and the Hereafter due to their breach of the covenant.

 

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÚóáöãúÊõãõ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÇÚúÊóÃóæÇú ãöäßõãú Ãöì ÇáÓøóÈúÊö ÃóÞõáúäóÇ áóåõãú ßõæäõæÇú ÞöÑóÃóÉð ÎóÜÓöÆöíäó - ÃóÌóÚóáúäóÜåóÇ äóßóÜáÇð áøöãóÇ Èóíúäó íóÃóíúåóÇ æóãóÇ ÎóáúÃóåóÇ æóãóæúÚöÙóÉð áøöáúãõÊøóÞöíäó ]

(65. And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: "Be you monkeys, despised and rejected.'') (66. So We made this punishment an example for those in front of it and those behind it, and a lesson for Al-Muttaqin (the pious.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Jews breach the Sanctity of the Sabbath

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÚóáöãúÊõãõ]

(And indeed you knew). This Ayah means, O Jews! Remember that Allah sent His torment on the village that disobeyed Him and broke their pledge and their covenant to observe the sanctity of the Sabbath. They began using deceitful means to avoid honoring the Sabbath by placing nets, ropes and artificial pools of water for the purpose of fishing before the Sabbath. When the fish came in abundance on Saturday as usual, they were caught in the ropes and nets for the rest of Saturday. During the night, the Jews collected the fish after the Sabbath ended. When they did that, Allah changed them from humans into monkeys, the animals having the form closest to humans. Their evil deeds and deceit appeared lawful on the surface, but they were in reality wicked. This is why their punishment was compatible with their crime. This story is explained in detail in Surat Al-A`raf, where Allah said (7:163),

 

[æóÓúÆóáúåõãú Úóäö ÇáúÞóÑúíóÉö ÇáøóÊöì ßóÇäóÊú ÃóÇÖöÑóÉó ÇáúÈóÃúÑö ÅöÃú íóÚúÃõæäó Ãöì ÇáÓøóÈúÊö ÅöÃú ÊóÃúÊöíåöãú ÃöíÊóÇäõåõãú íóæúãó ÓóÈúÊöåöãú ÔõÑøóÚðÇ æóíóæúãó áÇó íóÓúÈöÊõæäó áÇó ÊóÃúÊöíåöãú ßóÃóáößó äóÈúáõæåõã ÈöãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇ íóÃúÓõÞõæäó ]

(And ask them (O Muhammad ) about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday): when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial of them, for they used to rebel (disobey Allah).)(7:163)

 

In his Tafsir, Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

 

 

[ÃóÞõáúäóÇ áóåõãú ßõæäõæÇú ÞöÑóÃóÉð ÎóÜÓöÆöíäó]

(We said to them: "Be you monkeys, despised and rejected'') means, "Allah changed their bodies into those of monkeys and swines. The young people turned into monkeys while the old people turned into swine.'' Shayban An-Nahwi reported that Qatadah commented on,

 

 

[ÃóÞõáúäóÇ áóåõãú ßõæäõæÇú ÞöÑóÃóÉð ÎóÜÓöÆöíäó]

(We said to them: "Be you monkeys, despised and rejected''), "These people were turned into howling monkeys with tails, after being men and women.''

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Monkeys and Swine that exist now are not the Descendants of Those that were transformed

 

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Those who violated the sanctity of the Sabbath were turned into monkeys, then they perished without offspring.'' Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Allah turned them into monkeys because of their sins. They only lived on the earth for three days, for no transformed person ever lives more than three days. They did not eat, drink or have offspring. Allah transformed their shapes into monkeys, and He does what He wills, with whom He wills and He changes the shape of whomever He wills. On the other hand, Allah created the monkeys, swines and the rest of the creation in the six days (of creation) that He mentioned in His Book.''

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃóÌóÚóáúäóÜåóÇ äóßóÜáÇð]

(So We made this punishment an example) means, Allah made the people of this village, who violated the sanctity of the Sabbath,

 

[äóßóÜáÇð]

(an example) via the way they were punished. Similarly, Allah said about Pharaoh,

 

[ÃóÃóÎóÃóåõ Çááøóåõ äóßóÇáó ÇáÇøñÎöÑóÉö æóÇáÇøòæúáóì ]

(So Allah, seized him with punishing example for his last and first transgression) (79:25). nAllah's statement,

 

[áøöãóÇ Èóíúäó íóÃóíúåóÇ æóãóÇ ÎóáúÃóåóÇ]

(for those in front of it and those behind it) meaning, for the other villages. Ibn `Abbas commented, "Meaning, `We made this village an example for the villages around it by the manner in which We punished its people.''' Similarly, Allah said,

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÃóåúáóßúäóÇ ãóÇ Ãóæúáóßõãú ãøöäó ÇáúÞõÑóì æóÕóÑøóÃúäóÇ ÇáÇøñíóÜÊö áóÚóáøóåõãú íóÑúÌöÚõæäó ]

(And indeed We have destroyed towns (populations) round about you, and We have (repeatedly) shown (them) the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in various ways that they might return (to the truth and believe in the Oneness of Allah Ü Islamic Monotheism)).(46:27)

 

Therefore, Allah made them an example for those who lived during their time as well as a reminder for those to come, by preserving their story. This is why Allah said,

 

 

[æóãóæúÚöÙóÉð áøöáúãõÊøóÞöíäó]

(and a lesson for Al-Muttaqin (the pious)), meaning, a reminder. This Ayah means, "The torment and punishment that this village suffered was a result of indulging in Allah's prohibitions and their deceit. Hence, those who have Taqwa should be aware of their evil behavior, so that what occurred to this village does not befall them as well.'' Also, Imam Abu `Abdullah bin Battah reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

«áóÇ ÊóÑúÊóßöÈõæÇ ãóÇ ÇÑúÊóßóÈóÊö ÇáúíóåõæÃõ ÃóÊóÓúÊóÃöáøõæÇ ãóÃóÇÑöãó Çááåö ÈöÃóÃúäóì ÇáúÃöíóá»(Do not commit what the Jews committed, breaching what Allah has forbidden, by resorting to the lowest types of deceit.)

 

This Hadith has a good (Jayid) chain of narration. Allah knows best.

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞóÇáó ãõæÓóì áöÞóæúãöåö Åöäøó Çááøóåó íóÃúãõÑõßõãú Ãóä ÊóÃúÈóÃõæÇú ÈóÞóÑóÉð ÞóÇáõæÇú ÃóÊóÊøóÎöÃõäóÇ åõÒõæðÇ ÞóÇáó ÃóÚõæÃõ ÈöÇááøóåö Ãóäú Ãóßõæäó ãöäó ÇáúÌóÜåöáöíäó ]

(67. And (remember) when Musa said to his people: "Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow.'' They said, "Do you make fun of us'' He said, "I take Allah's refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (the ignorant or the foolish).'')

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now

Sign in to follow this  

×