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Dr. Jawad

002 Tafsir Of Sura Al-baqarah(the Cow)

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The Jews break Their Covenants

 

 

When the Messenger of Allah was sent and Allah reminded the Jews of the covenant that they had with Him, especially concerning Muhammad , Malik bin As-Sayf said, "By Allah! Allah never made a covenant with us about Muhammad, nor did He take a pledge from us at all.'' Allah then revealed,

 

 

[ÃóæóßõáøóãóÇ ÚóÜåóÃõæÇú ÚóåúÃðÇ äøóÈóÃóåõ ÃóÑöíÞñ ãøöäúåõã]

 

 

(Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throw it aside) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that Allah's statement,

 

[Èóáú ÃóßúËóÑõåõãú áÇó íõÄúãöäõæäó]

 

 

(Nay! (the truth is:) most of them believe not) means, "There is not a promise that they make, but they break it and abandon it. They make a promise today and break it tomorrow.''

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The Jews abandoned the Book of Allah and practiced Magic

 

 

As-Suddi commented on,

 

[æóáóãøóÇ ÌóÂÃóåõãú ÑóÓõæáñ ãøöäú ÚöäÃö Çááøóåö ãõÕóÃøöÞñ áøöãóÇ ãóÚóåõãú]

 

 

(And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah (i.e. Muhammad ) confirming what was with them), "When Muhammad came to them, they wanted to contradict and dispute with him using the Tawrah. However, the Tawrah and the Qur'an affirmed each other. So the Jews gave up on using the Torah, and took to the Book of Asaf, and the magic of Harut and Marut, which indeed did not conform to the Qur'an. Hence Allah's statement,

 

 

[ßóÃóäøóåõãú áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó]

 

 

(As if they did not know!).''

 

 

Also, Qatadah said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[ßóÃóäøóåõãú áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó]

 

 

(As if they did not know!) means, "They knew the truth but abandoned it, hid it and denied the fact that they even had it.''

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As-Suddi said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÈóÚõæÇú ãóÇ ÊóÊúáõæÇú ÇáÔøóíóÜØöíäõ Úóáóì ãõáúßö ÓõáóíúãóÜäó]

 

 

(They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulayman) means, "`During the time of Prophet Solomon.' Beforehand, the devils used to ascend to heaven and eavesdrop on the conversations of the angels about what will occur on the earth regarding death, other incidents or unseen matters. They would convey this news to the soothsayers, and the soothsayers would in turn convey the news to the people. The people would believe what the soothsayers told them as being true. When the soothsayers trusted the devils, the devils started to lie to them and added other words to the true news that they heard, to the extent of adding seventy false words to each true word. The people recorded these words in some books. Soon after, the Children of israel said that the Jinns know matters of the Unseen. When Solomon was sent as a Prophet, he collected these books in a box and buried it under his throne; any devil that dared get near the box was burned. Solomon said, `I will not hear of anyone who says that the devils know the Unseen, but I will cut off his head.' When Solomon died and the scholars who knew the truth about Solomon perished, there came another generation. To them, the devil materialized in the shape of a human and said to some of the Children of israel, `Should I lead you to a treasure that you will never be able to use up' They said. `Yes.' He said, `Dig under this throne,' and he went with them and showed them Solomon's throne. They said to him, `Come closer.' He said, `No. I will wait for you here, and if you do not find the treasure then kill me. ' They dug and found the buried books, and Satan said to them, `Solomon only controlled the humans, devils and birds with this magic.' Thereafter, the news that Solomon was a sorcerer spread among the people, and the Children of israel adopted these books. When Muhammad came, they disputed with him relying on these books. Hence Allah's statement,

 

[æóãóÇ ßóÃóÑó ÓõáóíúãóÜäõ æóáóÜßöäøó ÇáÔøóíúÇØöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú]

 

 

(Sulayman did not disbelieve, but the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved).

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The Story of Harut and Marut, and the Explanation that They were Angels

 

Allah said,

 

[æóãó ÃõäÒöáó Úóáóì Çáúãóáóßóíúäö ÈöÈóÇÈöáó åóÜÑõæÊó æóãóÜÑõæÊó æóãóÇ íõÚóáøöãóÇäö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÃóÊøóì íóÞõæáÇó ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ÃöÊúäóÉñ ÃóáÇó ÊóßúÃõÑú ÃóíóÊóÚóáøóãõæäó ãöäúåõãóÇ ãóÇ íõÃóÑøöÞõæäó Èöåö Èóíúäó ÇáúãóÑúÃö æóÒóæúÌöåö]

(And such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Harut and Marut, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).'' And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife).

 

There is a difference of opinion regarding this story. It was said that this Ayah denies that anything was sent down to the two angels, as Al-Qurtubi stated and then referred to the Ayah,

 

 

[æóãóÇ ßóÃóÑó ÓõáóíúãóÜäõ]

(Sulayman did not disbelieve) saying, "The negation applies in both cases. Allah then said,

 

 

[æóáóÜßöäøó ÇáÔøóíúÇØöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú íõÚóáøöãõæäó ÇáäøóÇÓó ÇáÓøöÃúÑó æóãó ÃõäÒöáó Úóáóì Çáúãóáóßóíúäö]

(But the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels).

 

The Jews claimed that Gabriel and Michael brought magic down to the two angels, but Allah refuted this false claim.''

 

Also, Ibn Jarir reported, that Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,

 

[æóãóÂ ÃõäÒöáó Úóáóì Çáúãóáóßóíúäö ÈöÈóÇÈöáó]

(And such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels)

 

"Allah did not send magic down.''

 

Also, Ibn Jarir narrated that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said about,

 

 

[æóãóÂ ÃõäÒöáó Úóáóì Çáúãóáóßóíúäö]

(And such things that came down to the two angels), "Allah did not send magic down to the them.'' Ibn Jarir commented, "This is the correct explanation for this Ayah.

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÈóÚõæÇú ãóÇ ÊóÊúáõæÇú ÇáÔøóíóÜØöíäõ Úóáóì ãõáúßö ÓõáóíúãóÜäó]

(They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely) in the lifetime of Sulayman.) meaning, magic. However, neither did Solomon disbelieve nor did Allah send magic with the two angels. The devils, on the other hand, disbelieved and taught magic to the people of the Babylon of Harut and Marut.''

 

Ibn Jarir continued; "If someone asks about explaining this Ayah in this manner, we say that,

 

[æóÇÊøóÈóÚõæÇú ãóÇ ÊóÊúáõæÇú ÇáÔøóíóÜØöíäõ Úóáóì ãõáúßö ÓõáóíúãóÜäó]

(They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely) in the lifetime of Sulayman.) means, magic. Solomon neither disbelieved nor did Allah send magic with the two angels. However, the devils disbelieved and taught magic to the people in the Babylon of Harut and Marut, meaning Gabriel and Michael, for Jewish sorcerers claimed that Allah sent magic by the words of Gabriel and Michael to Solomon, son of David. Allah denied this false claim and stated to His Prophet Muhammad that Gabriel and Michael were not sent with magic. Allah also exonerated Solomon from practicing magic, which the devils taught to the people of Babylon by the hands of two men, Harut and Marut. Hence, Harut and Marut were two ordinary men (not angels or Gabriel or Michael).'' These were the words of At-Tabari, and this explanation is not plausible.

 

Many among the Salaf, said that Harut and Marut were angels who came down from heaven to earth and did what they did as the Ayah stated. To conform this opinion with the fact that the angels are immune from error, we say that Allah had eternal knowledge what these angels would do, just as He had eternal knowledge that Iblis would do as he did, while Allah refered to him being among the angels,

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞõáúäóÇ áöáúãóáóÜÆößóÉö ÇÓúÌõÃõæÇú áÃóÃóãó ÃóÓóÌóÃõæÇú ÅöáÇøó ÅöÈúáöíÓó ÃóÈóì ]

(And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.'' And they prostrated except Iblis (Satan), he refused) (20:116) and so forth. However, what Harut and Marut did was less evil than what Iblis, may Allah curse him, did. Al-Qurtubi reported this opinion from `Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Ka`b Al-Ahbar, As-Suddi and Al-Kalbi.

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Learning Magic is Kufr

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóãóÇ íõÚóáøöãóÇäö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÃóÊøóì íóÞõæáÇó ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ÃöÊúäóÉñ ÃóáÇó ÊóßúÃõÑú]

(But neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).)

 

Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi said that Ar-Rabi' bin Anas said that Qays bin `Abbad said that Ibn `Abbas said, "When someone came to the angels to learn magic, they would discourage him and say to him, `We are only a test, so do not fall into disbelief.' They had knowledge of what is good and evil and what constitutes belief or disbelief, and they thus knew that magic is a form of disbelief. When the person who came to learn magic still insisted on learning it, they commanded him to go to such and such place, where if he went, Satan would meet him and teach him magic. When this man would learn magic, the light (of faith) would depart him, and he would see it shining (and flying away) in the sky. He would then proclaim, `O my sorrow! Woe unto me! What should I do.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that this Ayah means, "The angels were sent with magic, so that the people whom Allah willed would be tried and tested. Allah made them promise that they would not teach anyone until first proclaiming, `We are a test for you, do not fall into disbelief.''' It was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. Also, Qatadah said, "Allah took their covenant to not teach anyone magic until they said, `We are a test. Therefore, do not fall in disbelief.'''

 

Also, As-Suddi said, "When a man would come to the two angels they would advise him, `Do not fall into disbelief. We are a test. ' When the man would ignore their advice, they would say, `Go to that pile of ashes and urinate on it.' When he would urinate on the ashes, a light, meaning the light of faith, would depart from him and would shine until it entered heaven. Then something black that appeared to be smoke would descend and enter his ears and the rest of his body, and this is Allah's anger. When he told the angels what happened, they would teach him magic. So Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóãóÇ íõÚóáøöãóÇäö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÃóÊøóì íóÞõæáÇó ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ÃöÊúäóÉñ ÃóáÇó ÊóßúÃõÑú]

(But neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).)

 

Sunayd said that Hajjaj said that Ibn Jurayj commented on this Ayah (2:102), "No one dares practice magic except a disbeliever. As for the Fitnah, it involves trials and freedom of choice.''The scholars who stated that learning magic is disbelief relied on this Ayah for evidence. They also mentioned the Hadith that Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded from `Abdullah, which states,

 

 

«ãóäú ÃóÊóì ßóÇåöäðÇ Ãóæú ÓóÇÃöÑðÇ ÃóÕóÃøóÞóåõ ÈöãóÇ íóÞõæáõ ÃóÞóÃú ßóÃóÑ ÈöãóÇ ÃõäúÒöáó Úóáì ãõÃóãøóÃòÕáì Çááå Úáíå æÓáøã»(Whoever came to a soothsayer or a sorcerer and believed in what he said, will have disbelieved in what Allah revealed to Muhammad .)

 

This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration and there are other Hadiths which support it.

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Learning Magic is Kufr

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóãóÇ íõÚóáøöãóÇäö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÃóÊøóì íóÞõæáÇó ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ÃöÊúäóÉñ ÃóáÇó ÊóßúÃõÑú]

(But neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).)

 

Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi said that Ar-Rabi' bin Anas said that Qays bin `Abbad said that Ibn `Abbas said, "When someone came to the angels to learn magic, they would discourage him and say to him, `We are only a test, so do not fall into disbelief.' They had knowledge of what is good and evil and what constitutes belief or disbelief, and they thus knew that magic is a form of disbelief. When the person who came to learn magic still insisted on learning it, they commanded him to go to such and such place, where if he went, Satan would meet him and teach him magic. When this man would learn magic, the light (of faith) would depart him, and he would see it shining (and flying away) in the sky. He would then proclaim, `O my sorrow! Woe unto me! What should I do.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that this Ayah means, "The angels were sent with magic, so that the people whom Allah willed would be tried and tested. Allah made them promise that they would not teach anyone until first proclaiming, `We are a test for you, do not fall into disbelief.''' It was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. Also, Qatadah said, "Allah took their covenant to not teach anyone magic until they said, `We are a test. Therefore, do not fall in disbelief.'''

 

Also, As-Suddi said, "When a man would come to the two angels they would advise him, `Do not fall into disbelief. We are a test. ' When the man would ignore their advice, they would say, `Go to that pile of ashes and urinate on it.' When he would urinate on the ashes, a light, meaning the light of faith, would depart from him and would shine until it entered heaven. Then something black that appeared to be smoke would descend and enter his ears and the rest of his body, and this is Allah's anger. When he told the angels what happened, they would teach him magic. So Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóãóÇ íõÚóáøöãóÇäö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÃóÊøóì íóÞõæáÇó ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ÃöÊúäóÉñ ÃóáÇó ÊóßúÃõÑú]

(But neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).)

 

Sunayd said that Hajjaj said that Ibn Jurayj commented on this Ayah (2:102), "No one dares practice magic except a disbeliever. As for the Fitnah, it involves trials and freedom of choice.''The scholars who stated that learning magic is disbelief relied on this Ayah for evidence. They also mentioned the Hadith that Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded from `Abdullah, which states,

 

 

«ãóäú ÃóÊóì ßóÇåöäðÇ Ãóæú ÓóÇÃöÑðÇ ÃóÕóÃøóÞóåõ ÈöãóÇ íóÞõæáõ ÃóÞóÃú ßóÃóÑ ÈöãóÇ ÃõäúÒöáó Úóáì ãõÃóãøóÃòÕáì Çááå Úáíå æÓáøã»(Whoever came to a soothsayer or a sorcerer and believed in what he said, will have disbelieved in what Allah revealed to Muhammad .)

 

This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration and there are other Hadiths which support it.

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Causing a Separation between the Spouses is One of the Effects of Magic

 

Allah said,

 

[ÃóíóÊóÚóáøóãõæäó ãöäúåõãóÇ ãóÇ íõÃóÑøöÞõæäó Èöåö Èóíúäó ÇáúãóÑúÃö æóÒóæúÌöåö]

(And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife,) This means, "The people learned magic from Harut and Marut and indulged in evil acts that included separating spouses, even though spouses are close to, and intimately associate with each other. This is the devil's work.'' Muslim recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«Åöäøó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäó áóíóÖóÚõ ÚóÑúÔóåõ Úóáóì ÇáúãóÇÃö Ëõãøó íóÈúÚóËõ ÓóÑóÇíóÇåõ Ãöí ÇáäøóÇÓö ÃóÃóÞúÑóÈõåõãú ÚöäúÃóåõ ãóäúÒöáóÉð ÃóÚúÙóãõåõãú ÚöäúÃóåõ ÃöÊúäóÉð æóíóÌöíÃõ ÃóÃóÃõåõãú ÃóíóÞõæáõ: ãóÇ ÒöáúÊõ ÈöÃõáóÇäò ÃóÊøóì ÊóÑóßúÊõåõ æóåõæó íóÞõæáõ ßóÃóÇ æóßóÃóÇ¡ ÃóíóÞõæáõ ÅöÈúáöíÓõ: áóÇ æóÇááåö ãóÇ ÕóäóÚúÊó ÔóíúÆðÇ¡ æóíóÌöíÃõ ÃóÃóÃõåõãú ÃóíóÞõæáõ: ãóÇ ÊóÑóßúÊõåõ ÃóÊøì ÃóÑøóÞúÊõ Èóíúäóåõ æóÈóíúäó Ãóåúáöåö¡ ÞóÇáó: ÃóíõÞÑøöÈõåõ æóíõÃúäöíåö æóíóáúÊóÒöãõåõ æóíóÞõæáõ: äöÚúãó ÃóäúÊ»(Satan erects his throne on water and sends his emissaries among the people. The closest person to him is the person who causes the most Fitnah. One of them (a devil) would come to him and would say, `I kept inciting so-and-so, until he said such and such words.' Iblis says, `No, by Allah, you have not done much.' Another devil would come to him and would say, `I kept inciting so-and-so, until I separated between him and his wife.' Satan would draw him closer and embrace him, saying, `Yes, you did well.')

 

Separation between a man and his wife occurs here because each spouse imagines that the other spouse is ugly or ill-mannered, etc.

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Allah's Appointed Term supercedes Everything

 

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóãóÇ åõã ÈöÖóÂÑøöíäó Èöåö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÅöáÇøó ÈöÅöÃúäö Çááøóåö]

 

 

(But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's leave). Sufyan Ath-Thawri commented, "Except by Allah's appointed term.'' Further, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that,

 

 

[æóãóÇ åõã ÈöÖóÂÑøöíäó Èöåö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÅöáÇøó ÈöÅöÃúäö Çááøóåö]

 

 

(But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's leave) means, "Allah allows magicians to adversely affect whomever He wills and saves whomever He wills from them. Sorcerers never bring harm to anyone except by Allah's leave.'' Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóíóÊóÚóáøóãõæäó ãóÇ íóÖõÑøõåõãú æóáÇó íóäÃóÚõåõãú]

 

 

(And they learn that which harms them and profits them not.) means, it harms their religion and does not have a benefit compared to its harm.

 

 

[æóáóÞóÃú ÚóáöãõæÇú áóãóäö ÇÔúÊóÑóÇåõ ãóÇ áóåõ Ãöì ÇáÇøñÎöÑóÉö ãöäú ÎóáóÜÞò]

 

 

(And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no (Khalaq) share in the Hereafter.) meaning, "The Jews who preferred magic over following the Messenger of Allah knew that those who commit the same error shall have no Khalaq in the Hereafter.'' Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and As-Suddi stated that `no Khalaq' means, `no share.'

 

 

Allah then said,

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÈóÚõæÇú ãóÇ ÊóÊúáõæÇú ÇáÔøóíóÜØöíäõ Úóáóì ãõáúßö ÓõáóíúãóÜäó æóãóÇ ßóÃóÑó ÓõáóíúãóÜäõ æóáóÜßöäøó ÇáÔøóíúÇØöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú íõÚóáøöãõæäó ÇáäøóÇÓó ÇáÓøöÃúÑó æóãó ÃõäÒöáó Úóáóì Çáúãóáóßóíúäö ÈöÈóÇÈöáó åóÜÑõæÊó æóãóÜÑõæÊó æóãóÇ íõÚóáøöãóÇäö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÃóÊøóì íóÞõæáÇó ÅöäøóãóÇ äóÃúäõ ÃöÊúäóÉñ ÃóáÇó ÊóßúÃõÑú ÃóíóÊóÚóáøóãõæäó ãöäúåõãóÇ ãóÇ íõÃóÑøöÞõæäó Èöåö Èóíúäó ÇáúãóÑúÃö æóÒóæúÌöåö æóãóÇ åõã ÈöÖóÂÑøöíäó Èöåö ãöäú ÃóÃóÃò ÅöáÇøó ÈöÅöÃúäö Çááøóåö æóíóÊóÚóáøóãõæäó ãóÇ íóÖõÑøõåõãú æóáÇó íóäÃóÚõåõãú æóáóÞóÃú ÚóáöãõæÇú áóãóäö ÇÔúÊóÑóÇåõ ãóÇ áóåõ Ãöì ÇáÇøñÎöÑóÉö ãöäú ÎóáóÜÞò æóáóÈöÆúÓó ãóÇ ÔóÑóæúÇú Èöåö ÃóäÃõÓóåõãú áóæú ßóÇäõæÇú íóÚúáóãõæäó - æóáóæú Ãóäøóåõãú ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æÇÊøóÞóæúÇ áóãóËõæÈóÉñ ãøöäú ÚöäÃö Çááøóåö ÎóíúÑñ áøóæú ßóÇäõæÇú íóÚúáóãõæäó ]

 

 

(And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their own selves, if they but knew. And if they had believed and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allah, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew!). Allah stated, o

 

[æóáóÈöÆúÓó]

 

 

(And how bad) meaning, what they preferred, magic, instead of faith and following the Messenger, if they but comprehend the advice.

 

 

[æóáóæú Ãóäøóåõãú ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æÇÊøóÞóæúÇ áóãóËõæÈóÉñ ãøöäú ÚöäÃö Çááøóåö ÎóíúÑñ]

 

 

(And if they had believed and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allah, far better would have been the reward from their Lord,) meaning, "Had they believed in Allah and His Messenger and avoided the prohibitions, then Allah's reward for these good deeds would have been better for them than what they chose and preferred for themselves.'' Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[æóÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃõæÊõæÇú ÇáúÚöáúãó æóíúáóßõãú ËóæóÇÈõ Çááøóåö ÎóíúÑñ áøöãóäú ÃóÇãóäó æóÚóãöáó ÕóÜáöÃÇð æóáÇó íõáóÞøóÇåó ÅöáÇøó ÇáÕøóÜÈöÑõæäó ]

 

 

(But those who had been given (religious) knowledge said: "Woe to you! The reward of Allah (in the Hereafter) is better for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and this none shall attain except As-Sabirun (the patient in following the truth).'') (28:80).

 

 

[íóÜÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú áÇó ÊóÞõæáõæÇú ÑóÚöäóÇ æóÞõæáõæÇú ÇäÙõÑúäóÇ æóÇÓúãóÚõæÇú æóáöáßóÜÃöÑöíäó ÚóÃóÇÈñ Ãóáöíãñ - ãøóÇ íóæóÃøõ ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ãöäú Ãóåúáö ÇáúßöÊóÜÈö æóáÇó ÇáúãõÔúÑößöíäó Ãóä íõäóÒøóáó Úóáóíúßõã ãøöäú ÎóíúÑò ãøöä ÑøóÈøößõãú æóÇááøóåõ íóÎúÊóÕøõ ÈöÑóÃúãóÊöåö ãóä íóÔóÂÃõ æóÇááøóåõ Ãõæ ÇáúÃóÖúáö ÇáúÚóÙöíãö ]

 

(104. O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger ) Ra`ina but say Unzurna (make us understand) and hear. And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment.) (105. Neither those who disbelieve among the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikin (the idolaters) like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord. But Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.)

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Manners in Speech

 

 

Allah forbade His believing servants from imitating the behavior and deeds of the disbelievers. The Jews used to use devious words that hide what they really meant. May Allah's curse be upon them. When they wanted to say, `hear us,' they would use the word Ra`ina, which is an insult (in Hebrew, but means `hear us' in Arabic). Allah said,

 

[ãøöäó ÇáøóÃöíäó åóÇÃõæÇú íõÃóÑøöÃõæäó Çáúßóáöãó Úóä ãøóæóÇÖöÚöåö æóíóÞõæáõæäó ÓóãöÚúäóÇ æóÚóÕóíúäóÇ æóÇÓúãóÚú ÛóíúÑó ãõÓúãóÚò æóÑóÚöäóÇ áóíøÇð ÈöÃóáúÓöäóÊöåöãú æóØóÚúäÇð Ãöì ÇáÃøöíäö æóáóæú Ãóäøóåõãú ÞóÇáõæÇú ÓóãöÚúäóÇ æóÃóØóÚúäóÇ æóÇÓúãóÚú æóÇäúÙõÑúäóÇ áóßóÇäó ÎóíúÑÇð áøóåõãú æóÃóÞúæóãó æóáóßöä áøóÚóäóåõãõ Çááøóåõ ÈößõÃúÑöåöãú ÃóáÇó íõÄúãöäõæäó ÅöáÇøó ÞóáöíáÇð ]

 

 

(Among those who are Jews, there are some who displace words from (their) right places and say: "We hear your word (O Muhammad ) and disobey,'' and "Hear and let you (O Muhammad ) hear nothing.'' And Ra`ina with a twist of their tongues and as a mockery of the religion (Islam). And if only they had said: "We hear and obey,'' and "Do make us understand,'' it would have been better for them, and more proper; but Allah cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not except a few) (4:46).

 

 

Also, the Hadiths stated that when they would greet Muslims, they would say, `As-Samu `alaykum,' meaning, `death be to you'. This is why we were commanded to answer them by saying, `Wa `alaykum,' meaning, `and to you too', then our supplication against them shall be answered, rather than theirs against us.

 

 

Allah forbade the believers from imitating the disbelievers in tongue or deed. Allah said,

 

 

[íóÜÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú áÇó ÊóÞõæáõæÇú ÑóÚöäóÇ æóÞõæáõæÇú ÇäÙõÑúäóÇ æóÇÓúãóÚõæÇú æóáöáßóÜÃöÑöíäó ÚóÃóÇÈñ Ãóáöíãñ ]

 

 

(O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger ) Ra`ina but say Unzurna (make us understand) and hear. And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment) (2:104).

 

 

Also, Imam Ahmad narrated that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ÈõÚöËúÊõ Èóíúäó íóÃóíö ÇáÓøóÇÚóÉö ÈöÇáÓøóíúÃö ÃóÊøóì íõÚúÈóÃóÇááåõ æóÃúÃóåõ áóÇ ÔóÑöíßó áóåõ¡ æóÌõÚöáó ÑöÒúÞöí ÊóÃúÊó Ùöáøö ÑõãúÃöí¡ æóÌõÚöáóÊö ÇáÃøöáøóÉõ æóÇáÕøóÛóÇÑõ Úóáóì ãóäú ÎóÇáóÃó ÃóãúÑöí¡ æóãóäú ÊóÔóÈøóåó ÈöÞóæãò Ãóåõæó ãöäúåõã»

 

(I was sent with the sword just before the Last Hour, so that Allah is worshipped alone without partners. My sustenance was provided for me from under the shadow of my spear. Those who oppose my command were humiliated and made inferior, and whoever imitates a people, he is one of them.)

 

 

Abu Dawud narrated that the Prophet said,

 

 

«ãóäú ÊóÔóÈøóåó ÈöÞóæúãò Ãóåõæó ãöäúåõã»

 

 

(Whoever imitates a people is one of them.)

 

 

These Hadiths indicate, along with their threats and warnings, that we are not allowed to imitate the disbelievers in their statements, deeds, clothes, feasts, acts of worship, etc., whatever actions of the disbelievers that were not legislated for us.

 

 

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

 

[áÇó ÊóÞõæáõæÇú ÑóÚöäóÇ]

 

 

(Say not (to the Messenger ) Ra`ina) "They used to say to the Prophet , Ar`ina samak (which is an insult).'' Ibn Abu Hatim said that it was reported that Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Malik, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, `Atiyah Al-`Awfi and Qatadah said similarly. Further, Mujahid said, "`Do not say Ra`ina' means, `Do not dispute'.'' Mujahid said in another narration, "Do not say, `We hear from you, and you hear from us.''' Also, `Ata' said, "Do not say,

 

[ÑóÚöäóÇ]

 

 

(Ra`ina), which was a dialect that the Ansar used and which was forbidden from use by Allah.''

 

 

Also, As-Suddi said, "Rifa`ah bin Zayd, a Jewish man from the tribe of Qaynuqa`, used to come to the Prophet and say to him, `Hear, Ghayr Musma'in (let you hear nothing).' The Muslims used to think that the Prophets are greeted and honored with this type of speech, and this is why some of them used to say, `Hear, let you hear nothing,' and so on, as mentioned in Surat An-Nisa.'' Thereafter, Allah forbade the believers from uttering the word Ra`ina.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam also said similarly.

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The extreme Enmity that the Disbelievers and the People of the Book have against Muslims

 

 

Allah said next (2:105),

 

[ãøóÇ íóæóÃøõ ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ãöäú Ãóåúáö ÇáúßöÊóÜÈö æóáÇó ÇáúãõÔúÑößöíäó Ãóä íõäóÒøóáó Úóáóíúßõã ãøöäú ÎóíúÑò ãøöä ÑøóÈøößõãú]

 

 

(Neither those who disbelieve among the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikin (the idolaters), like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord).

 

 

Allah described the deep enmity that the disbelieving polytheists and People of the Scripture, whom Allah warned against imitating, have against the believers, so that Muslims should sever all friendship with them. Also, Allah mentioned what He granted the believers of the perfect Law that He legislated for their Prophet Muhammad . Allah said,

 

[æóÇááøóåõ íóÎúÊóÕøõ ÈöÑóÃúãóÊöåö ãóä íóÔóÂÃõ æóÇááøóåõ Ãõæ ÇáúÃóÖúáö ÇáúÚóÙöíãö]

 

 

(But Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty) (2:105).

 

[ãóÇ äóäÓóÎú ãöäú ÃóÇíóÉò Ãóæú äõäÓöåóÇ äóÃúÊö ÈöÎóíúÑò ãøöäúåóÇ Ãóæú ãöËúáöåóÇ Ãóáóãú ÊóÚúáóãú Ãóäøó Çááøóåó Úóáóì ßõáøö ÔóíúÃò ÞóÃöíÑñ - Ãóáóãú ÊóÚúáóãú Ãóäøó Çááøóåó áóåõ ãõáúßõ ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÃóÑúÖö æóãóÇ áóßõã ãøöä Ãõæäö Çááøóåö ãöä æóáöíøò æóáÇó äóÕöíÑò ]

 

 

(106. Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh (We abrogate) or Nunsiha (cause to be forgotten), We bring a better one or similar to it. Know you not that Allah is Able to do all things) (107. Know you not that it is Allah to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth And besides Allah you have neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.)

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The Meaning of Naskh

 

Ibn Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

 

[ãóÇ äóäÓóÎú ãöäú ÃóÇíóÉò]

 

 

(Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means, "Whatever an Ayah We abrogate.'' Also, Ibn Jurayj said that Mujahid said that,

 

 

[ãóÇ äóäÓóÎú ãöäú ÃóÇíóÉò]

 

 

(Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means, "Whatever an Ayah We erase.'' Also, Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that,

 

 

[ãóÇ äóäÓóÎú ãöäú ÃóÇíóÉò]

 

 

(Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means, "We keep the words, but change the meaning.'' He related these words to the companions of `Abdullah bin Mas`ud. Ibn Abi Hatim said that similar statements were mentioned by Abu Al-`Aliyah and Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi. Also As-Suddi said that,

 

[ãóÇ äóäÓóÎú ãöäú ÃóÇíóÉò]

 

(Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means, "We erase it.'' Further, Ibn Abi Hatim said that it means, "Erase and raise it, such as erasing the following wordings (from the Qur'an), `The married adulterer and the married adulteress: stone them to death,' and, `If the son of Adam had two valleys of gold, he would seek a third.'''

 

 

Ibn Jarir stated that,

 

 

[ãóÇ äóäÓóÎú ãöäú ÃóÇíóÉò]

 

 

(Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means, "Whatever ruling we repeal in an Ayah by making the allowed unlawful and the unlawful allowed.'' The Nasakh only occurs with commandments, prohibitions, permissions, and so forth. As for stories, they do not undergo Nasakh. The word, `Nasakh' literally means, `to copy a book'. The meaning of Nasakh in the case of commandments is removing the commandment and replacing it by another. And whether the Nasakh involves the wordings, the ruling or both, it is still called Nasakh.

 

 

Allah said next,

 

[Ãóæú äõäÓöåóÇ]

(or Nunsiha (cause it to be forgotten)). `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

 

[ãóÇ äóäÓóÎú ãöäú ÃóÇíóÉò Ãóæú äõäÓöåóÇ]

 

 

(Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh or Nunsiha) means, "Whatever Ayah We repeal or uphold without change.'' Also, Mujahid said that the companions of Ibn Mas`ud (who read this word Nansa'ha) said that it means, "We uphold its wording and change its ruling.'' Further, `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Mujahid and `Ata' said, `Nansa'ha' means, "We delay it (i.e., do not abrogate it).'' Further, `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi said that the Ayah means, "We delay repealing it.'' This is the same Tafsir provided by As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. `Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said about Allah's statement,

 

 

[ãóÇ äóäÓóÎú ãöäú ÃóÇíóÉò Ãóæú äõäÓöåóÇ]

 

 

(Whatever a verse (revelation) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten) "Allah made His Prophet forget what He willed and He abrogated what He will.''

 

 

Allah's said,

 

 

[äóÃúÊö ÈöÎóíúÑò ãøöäúåóÇ Ãóæú ãöËúáöåóÇ]

 

 

(We bring a better one or similar to it), better, relates to the benefit provided for the one it addresses, as reported from `Ali bin Abi Talhah that Ibn `Abbas said,

 

[äóÃúÊö ÈöÎóíúÑò ãøöäúåóÇ]

 

(We bring a better one) means, "We bring forth a more beneficial ruling, that is also easier for you.'' Also, As-Suddi said that,

 

[äóÃúÊö ÈöÎóíúÑò ãøöäúåóÇ Ãóæú ãöËúáöåóÇ]

 

 

(We bring a better one or similar to it) means, "We bring forth a better Ayah, or similar to that which was repealed.'' Qatadah also said that,

 

 

[äóÃúÊö ÈöÎóíúÑò ãøöäúåóÇ Ãóæú ãöËúáöåóÇ]

 

(We bring a better one or similar to it) means, "We replace it by an Ayah more facilitating, permitting, commanding, or prohibiting.''

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The Prohibition of Unnecessary Questions

 

In this Ayah, Allah forbade the believers from asking the Prophet numerous questions about matters that did not occur yet. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[íÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú áÇó ÊóÓúÃóáõæÇú Úóäú ÃóÔúíóÂÃó Åöä ÊõÈúÃó áóßõãú ÊóÓõÄúßõãú æóÅöä ÊóÓúÃóáõæÇú ÚóäúåóÇ Ãöíäó íõäóÒøóáõ ÇáúÞõÑúÃóÇäõ ÊõÈúÃó áóßõãú]

(O you who believe! Ask not about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble. But if you ask about them while the Qur'an is being revealed, they will be made plain to you) (5:101).

 

This Ayah means, "If you ask about a matter after it is revealed, it shall be duly explained to you. Therefore, do not ask about matters that have not occurred yet, for they might become prohibited, due to your questions.'' This is why the Sahih narrated,

 

 

«Åöäøó ÃóÚúÙóãó ÇáúãõÓúáöãöíäó ÌõÑúãðÇ ãóäú ÓóÃóáó Úóäú ÔóíúÃò áóãú íõÃóÑøóãú¡ ÃóÃõÑøöãó ãöäú ÃóÌúáö ãóÓúÃóáóÊöå»(The greatest criminal among the Muslims is the one who asks if a thing is prohibited, which is not prohibited, and it becomes prohibited because of his asking about it.)

 

This is why when the Messenger of Allah was asked about a husband who finds another man with his wife; if he exposes the adultery, he will be exposing a major incident; if he is quiet about it, he will be quiet about a major matter. The Messenger of Allah did not like such questions. Later on, Allah revealed the ruling of Mula`anah [Refer to Nur 24:6-9 in the Qur'an]. The Two Sahihs recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said that the Messenger of Allah "Forbade saying, `It was said' and `He said,' and wasting money and asking many questions.'' Muslim recorded that the Prophet said,

 

 

«ÃóÑõæäöí ãóÇ ÊóÑóßúÊõßõãú¡ ÃóÅöäøóãóÇ åóáóßó ãóäú ßóÇäó ÞóÈúáóßõãú ÈößóËúÑóÉö ÓõÄóÇáöåöãú æóÇÎúÊöáóÇÃöåöãú Úóáì ÃóäúÈöíóÇÆöåöãú¡ ÃóÅöÃóÇ ÃóãóÑúÊõßõãú ÈöÃóãúÑò ÃóÃúÊõæÇ ãöäúåõ ãóÇ ÇÓúÊóØóÚúÊõãú æóÅöäú äóåóíúÊõßõãú Úóäú ÔóíúÃò ÃóÇÌúÊóäöÈõæå»(Leave me as I leave you; those before you were only destroyed because of their excessive questioning and disputing with their Prophets. Therefore, when I command you with a matter, adhere to it as much as you can, and when I forbid from something, avoid it.)

 

The Prophet only said this after he told the Companions that Allah has ordered them to perform Hajj. A man asked, "Every year, O Messenger of Allah'' The Prophet did not answer him, but he repeated his question three times. Then the Prophet said,

 

«áóÇ¡ æóáóæú ÞõáúÊõ: äóÚóãú¡ áóæóÌóÈóÊú æóáóæú æóÌóÈóÊú áóãóÇ ÇÓúÊóØóÚúÊõã»

(No. Had I said yes, it would have been ordained, and you would not have been able to implement it.)

 

This is why Anas bin Malik said, "We were forbidden from asking the Messenger of Allah about things. So we were delighted when a bedouin man would come and ask him while we listened.''

 

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Muhammad bin Abi Muhammad told him that `Ikrimah or Sa`id said that Ibn `Abbas said that Rafi` bin Huraymilah or Wahb bin Zayd said, "O Muhammad! Bring us a Book sent down from heaven and which we could read, and make some rivers flow for us, then we will follow you and believe in you.'' Allah sent down the answer to this challenge,

 

 

[Ãóãú ÊõÑöíÃõæäó Ãóä ÊóÓúÜóáõæÇú ÑóÓõæáóßõãú ßóãóÇ ÓõÆöáó ãõæÓóì ãöä ÞóÈúáõ æóãóä íóÊóÈóÃøóáö ÇáúßõÃúÑó ÈöÇáÅöíãóÜäö ÃóÞóÃú Öóáøó ÓóæóÂÃó ÇáÓøóÈöíáö ]

(Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad ) as Musa was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord) And he who changes faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way).

 

Allah criticized those who ask the Messenger of Allah about a certain matter just for the purpose of being difficult, just as the Children of israel asked Musa out of stubbornness, rejection and rebellion. Allah said,

 

 

[æóãóä íóÊóÈóÃøóáö ÇáúßõÃúÑó ÈöÇáÅöíãóÜäö]

(And he who changes faith for disbelief) meaning, whoever prefers disbelief to faith,

 

 

[ÃóÞóÃú Öóáøó ÓóæóÂÃó ÇáÓøóÈöíáö]

(verily, he has gone astray from the right way) meaning, he has strayed from the straight path, to the path of ignorance and misguidance. This is the case of those who deviated from accepting the Prophets and obeying them and those who kept asking their Prophets unnecessary questions in defiance and disbelief, just as Allah said,

 

 

[Ãóáóãú ÊóÑó Åöáóì ÇáøóÃöíäó ÈóÃøóáõæÇú äöÚúãóÊó Çááøóåö ßõÃúÑðÇ æóÃóÃóáøõæÇú Þóæúãóåõãú ÃóÇÑó ÇáúÈóæóÇÑö - Ìóåóäøóãó íóÕúáóæúäóåóÇ æóÈöÆúÓó ÇáúÞóÑóÇÑõ ]

(Have you not seen those who have changed the blessings of Allah into disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad and his Message of Islam), and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction Hell, in which they will burn and what an evil place to settle in!) (14:28-29).

 

Abu Al-`Aliyah commented, "They exchanged comfort for hardship.''

 

[æóÃøó ßóËöíÑñ ãøöäú Ãóåúáö ÇáúßöÊóÜÈö áóæú íóÑõÃøõæäóßõã ãöä ÈóÚúÃö ÅöíãóÜäößõãú ßõÃøóÇÑðÇ ÃóÓóÃðÇ ãøöäú ÚöäúÃö ÃóäúÃõÓöåöãú ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö ãóÇ ÊóÈóíøóäó áóåõãõ ÇáúÃóÞøõ ÃóÇÚúÃõæÇú æóÇÕúÃóÃõæÇú ÃóÊøóì íóÃúÊöìó Çááøóåõ ÈöÃóãúÑöåö Åöäøó Çááøóåó Úóáóì ßõáøö ÔóìúÃò ÞóÃöíÑñ - æóÃóÞöíãõæÇú ÇáÕøóáóæÉó æóÃóÇÊõæÇú ÇáÒøóßóæÉó æóãóÇ ÊõÞóÃøöãõæÇú áÃóäúÃõÓößõã ãøöäú ÎóíúÑò ÊóÌöÃõæåõ ÚöäÃó Çááøóåö Åöäøó Çááøóåó ÈöãóÇ ÊóÚúãóáõæäó ÈóÕöíÑñ ]

(109. Many of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their own selves, even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command. Verily, Allah is able to do all things.) (110. And perform the Salah and give the Zakah, and whatever of good you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allah. Certainly, Allah is the Seer of what you do.)

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The Prohibition of following the Ways of the People of the Book

 

Allah warned His believing servants against following the ways of the People of Book, who publicly and secretly harbor emnity and hatred for the believers, and who envy the believers, while they recognize the virtue of the believers and their Prophet . Allah also commanded His believing servants to forgive them and to be patient with them, until Allah delivers His aid and victory to them. Allah commanded the believers to perform the prayer perfectly, to pay the Zakah and He encouraged them to preserve the practice of these righteous deeds.

 

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin Ka`b bin Malik said that Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf, who was a Jew and a poet, used to criticize the Prophet in his poems, so Allah revealed,

 

 

[æóÃøó ßóËöíÑñ ãøöäú Ãóåúáö ÇáúßöÊóÜÈö áóæú íóÑõÃøõæäóßõã]

(Many of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that they could turn you away..) regarding his matter.

 

Also, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "An unlettered Messenger came to the People of the Scriptures confirming what they have in their own Books about the Messengers and the Ayat of Allah. He also believes in all of this, just as they believe in it. Yet, they rejected the Prophet out of disbelief, envy and transgression. This is why Allah said,

 

 

[ßõÃøóÇÑðÇ ÃóÓóÃðÇ ãøöäú ÚöäúÃö ÃóäúÃõÓöåöãú ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö ãóÇ ÊóÈóíøóäó áóåõãõ ÇáúÃóÞøõ]

(out of envy from their own selves, even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them).

 

Allah said that after He illuminated the truth for them, such that they were not ignorant of any of it, yet their envy made them deny the Prophet . Thus Allah criticized, chastised and denounced them.'' Allah legislated the characteristics that His Prophet and the believers should adhere to: belief, faith and accepting what Allah revealed to them and to those before them out of His generosity and tremendous kindness.

 

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that,

 

 

[ãøöäú ÚöäúÃö ÃóäúÃõÓöåöãú]

(from their own selves) means, "of their making.'' Also, Abu Al-`Aliyah said that,

 

 

[ãøöä ÈóÚúÃö ãóÇ ÊóÈóíøóäó áóåõãõ ÇáúÃóÞøõ]

(even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them) means, "After it became clear that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah whom they find written of in the Torah and the Injil. They denied him in disbelief and transgression because he was not one of them.'' Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said similarly. Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÇÚúÃõæÇú æóÇÕúÃóÃõæÇú ÃóÊøóì íóÃúÊöìó Çááøóåõ ÈöÃóãúÑöåö]

(But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command.) this is similar to His saying;

 

 

[æóáóÊóÓúãóÚõäøó ãöäó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃõæÊõæÇú ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó ãöä ÞóÈúáößõãú æóãöäó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÔúÑóßõæÇú ÃóÃðì ßóËöíÑÇð]

(And you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews and Christians) and from those who ascribe partners to Allah) (3: 186).

 

`Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÃóÇÚúÃõæÇú æóÇÕúÃóÃõæÇú ÃóÊøóì íóÃúÊöìó Çááøóåõ ÈöÃóãúÑöåö]

(But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command.) was abrogated by the Ayah,

 

 

[ÃóÇÞúÊõáõæÇú ÇáúãõÔúÑößöíäó ÃóíúËõ æóÌóÃÊøõãõæåõãú]

(Then kill the Mushrikin wherever you find them) (9:5), and,

 

 

[ÞóÜÊöáõæÇú ÇáøóÃöíäó áÇó íõÄúãöäõæäó ÈöÇááøóåö æóáÇó ÈöÇáúíóæúãö ÇáÇøñÎöÑö]

(Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day) (9:29) until,

 

 

[æóåõãú ÕóÜÛöÑõæäó]

(And feel themselves subdued) (9:29).

 

Allah's pardon for the disbelievers was repealed.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah and As-Suddi said similarly: It was abrogated by the Ayah of the sword." (Mentioned above). The Ayah,

 

 

[ÃóÊøóì íóÃúÊöìó Çááøóåõ ÈöÃóãúÑöåö]

(till Allah brings His command.) gives further support for this view.

 

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying that the Messenger of Allah and his Companions used to forgive the disbelievers and the People of the Book, just as Allah commanded in His statement,

 

[ÃóÇÚúÃõæÇú æóÇÕúÃóÃõæÇú ÃóÊøóì íóÃúÊöìó Çááøóåõ ÈöÃóãúÑöåö Åöäøó Çááøóåó Úóáóì ßõáøö ÔóìúÃò ÞóÃöíÑñ]

(But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command. Verily, Allah is able to do all things).

 

The Messenger of Allah used to forgive them and was patient with them as Allah ordered him, until Allah allowed fighting them. Then Allah destroyed those who He decreed to be killed among the strong men of Quraysh, by the Prophet's forces. The chain of narration for this text is Sahih, but I did not see its wordings in the six collections of Hadith, although the basis of it is in the Two Sahihs, narrated from Usamah bin Zayd.

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The Hopes of the People of the Book

 

Allah made the confusion of the Jews and the Christians clear, since they claim that no one will enter Paradise, unless he is a Jew or a Christian. Similarly, Allah mentioned their claims in Surat Al-Ma'idah:

 

 

[äóÃúäõ ÃóÈúäóÇÃõ Çááøóåö æóÃóÃöÈøóÇÄõåõ]

(We are the children of Allah and His loved ones) (5:18).

 

Allah refuted this false claim and informed them that they will be punished because of their sins. Previously we mentioned their claim that the Fire would not touch them for more than a few days, after which they would be put in Paradise. Allah rebuked this claim, and He said about this baseless claim, m

 

 

[Êöáúßó ÃóãóÇäöíøõåõãú]

(These are their own desires). Abu Al-`Aliyah commented, "These are wishes that they wished Allah would answer, without basis.'' Similar was stated by Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Allah then said,

 

[Þõáú]

(Say) meaning, "Say O Muhammad:''

 

 

[åóÇÊõæÇú ÈõÑúåóÜäóßõãú]

("Produce your Burhan...'') meaning, "Your proof'', as Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas stated. Qatadah said that the Ayah means, "Bring the evidence that supports your statement,

 

[Åöä ßõäÊõãú ÕóÜÃöÞöíäó]

(if you are truthful) in your claim. ''

 

Allah then said,

 

 

[Èóáóì ãóäú ÃóÓúáóãó æóÌúåóåõ áöáøóåö æóåõæó ãõÃúÓöäñ]

(Yes! But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah (i.e. follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin) meaning, "Whoever performs deeds in sincerity, for Allah alone without partners.'' In a similar statement, Allah said,

 

[ÃóÅäú ÃóÂÌøõæßó ÃóÞõáú ÃóÓúáóãúÊõ æóÌúåöìó ááøóåö æóãóäö ÇÊøóÈóÚóäö]

(So if they dispute with you (Muhammad ) say: "I have submitted myself to Allah (in Islam), and (so have) those who follow me.'') (3:20)

 

Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said that,

 

 

[Èóáóì ãóäú ÃóÓúáóãó æóÌúåóåõ áöáøóåö]

(Yes! But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah) means, "Whoever is sincere with Allah.''

 

Also, Sa`id bin Jubayr said that,

 

 

[Èóáóì ãóäú ÃóÓúáóãó]

(Yes! But whoever submits) means, he is sincere,

 

 

[æóÌúåóåõ]

(his face (himself)) meaning, in his religion.

 

 

[æóåõæó ãõÃúÓöäñ]

(and he is a Muhsin) following the Messenger . For there are two conditions for deeds to be accepted; the deed must be performed for Allah's sake alone and conform to the Shari`ah. When the deed is sincere, but does not conform to the Shari`ah, then it will not be accepted. The Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ãóäú Úóãöáó ÚóãóáðÇ áóíúÓó Úóáóíúåö ÃóãúÑõäóÇ Ãóåõæó Ñóû(Whoever performs a deed that does not conform with our matter (religion), then it will be rejected.)

 

This Hadith was recorded by Muslim. Therefore, the good deeds of the priests and rabbis will not be accepted, even if they are sincerely for Allah alone, because these deeds do not conform with the method of the Messenger , who was sent for all mankind. Allah said regarding such cases,

 

 

[æóÞóÃöãúäó Åöáóì ãóÇ ÚóãöáõæÇú ãöäú Úóãóáò ÃóÌóÚóáúäóÇåõ åóÈóÂÃð ãøóäËõæÑÇð ]

(And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust.) (25:23)

 

 

[æóÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ÃóÚúãóÜáõåõãú ßóÓóÑóÇÈò ÈöÞöíÚóÉò íóÃúÓóÈõåõ ÇáÙøóãúÂäõ ãóÂÃð ÃóÊøóì ÅöÃóÇ ÌóÂÃóåõ áóãú íóÌöÃúåõ ÔóíúÆÇð]

(As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing.) (24:39) and,

 

 

[æõÌõæåñ íóæúãóÆöÃò ÎóÜÔöÚóÉñ - ÚóÇãöáóÉñ äøóÇÕöÈóÉñ - ÊóÕúáóì äóÇÑÇð ÃóÇãöíóÉð - ÊõÓúÞóì ãöäú Úóíúäò ÃóÇäöíóÉò ]

(Some faces, that Day will be humiliated. Laboring, weary. They will enter in the hot blazing Fire. They will be given to drink from a boiling spring) (88:2-5).

 

When the deed conforms to the Shari`ah outwardly, but the person did not perform it sincerely for Allah alone, the deed will also be rejected, as in the case of the hypocrites and those who do their deeds to show off. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[Åöäøó ÇáúãõäóÜÃöÞöíäó íõÎóÜÃöÚõæäó Çááøóåó æóåõæó ÎóÇÃöÚõåõãú æóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÇãõæÇú Åöáóì ÇáÕøóáóæÉö ÞóÇãõæÇú ßõÓóÇáóì íõÑóÂÃõæäó ÇáäøóÇÓó æóáÇó íóÃúßõÑõæäó Çááøóåó ÅöáÇøó ÞóáöíáÇð ]

(Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for As-Salah (the prayer), they stand with laziness to be seen by people, and they do not remember Allah but little.) (4:142) and,

 

 

[Ãóæóíúáñ áøöáúãõÕóáøöíäó - ÇáøóÃöíäó åõãú Úóä ÕóáóÜÊöåöãú ÓóÇåõæäó - ÇáøóÃöíäó åõãú íõÑóÂÃõæäó - æóíóãúäóÚõæäó ÇáúãóÇÚõæäó ]

(So woe unto those performers of Salah (prayers) (hypocrites). Those who delay their Salah (from their stated fixed times). Those who do good deeds only to be seen (of men). And withhold Al-Ma`un (small kindnesses)) (107:4-7).

 

This is why Allah said,

 

 

[Ãóãóä ßóÇäó íóÑúÌõæ áöÞóÂÃó ÑóÈøöåö ÃóáúíóÚúãóáú ÚóãóáÇð ÕóÜáöÃÇð æóáÇó íõÔúÑößú ÈöÚöÈóÇÃóÉö ÑóÈøöåö ÃóÃóÃóÇ]

(So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord) (18: 110).

 

He also said in this Ayah,

 

 

[Èóáóì ãóäú ÃóÓúáóãó æóÌúåóåõ áöáøóåö æóåõæó ãõÃúÓöäñ]

(Yes, but whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah (follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin).

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[Ãóáóåõãú ÃóÌúÑõåõãú ÚöäÃó ÑóÈøöåöãú æóáÇó ÎóæúÃñ Úóáóíúåöãú æóáÇó åõãú íóÃúÒóäõæäó]

(Shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve) guaranteed them the rewards and safety from what they fear and should avoid.

 

 

[ÃóáÇó ÎóæúÃñ Úóáóíúåöãú]

(There shall be no fear on them) in the future,

 

 

[æóáÇó åõãú íóÃúÒóäõæäó]

(nor shall they grieve) about what they abandoned in the past. Moreover, Sa`id bin Jubayr said,

 

 

[ÃóáÇó ÎóæúÃñ Úóáóíúåöãú]

"(There shall be no fear on them) in the Hereafter, and

 

 

[æóáÇó åõãú íóÃúÒóäõæäó]

(nor shall they grieve) about their imminent death.''

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The Jews and Christians dispute among Themselves out of Disbelief and Stubbornness

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóÞóÇáóÊö ÇáúíóåõæÃõ áóíúÓóÊö ÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì Úóáóì ÔóìúÃò æóÞóÇáóÊö ÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì áóíúÓóÊö ÇáúíóåõæÃõ Úóáóì ÔóìúÃò æóåõãú íóÊúáõæäó ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó]

(The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture.)

 

Allah explained the disputes, hatred and stubbornness that the People of the Book have towards each other. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "When a delegation of Christians from Najran came to the Messenger of Allah , the Jewish rabbis came and began arguing with them before the Messenger of Allah . Rafi` bin Huraymilah said, `You do not follow anything,' and he reiterated his disbelief in Jesus and the Injil. Then a Christian man from Najran's delegation said to the Jews, `Rather, you do not follow anything,' and he reiterated his rejection of Musa's prophethood and his disbelief in the Torah. So Allah revealed the Ayah,

 

 

[æóÞóÇáóÊö ÇáúíóåõæÃõ áóíúÓóÊö ÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì Úóáóì ÔóìúÃò æóÞóÇáóÊö ÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì áóíúÓóÊö ÇáúíóåõæÃõ Úóáóì ÔóìúÃò æóåõãú íóÊúáõæäó ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó]

(The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture. )''

 

Allah made it clear that each party read the affirmation of what they claimed to reject in their Book. Consequently, the Jews disbelieve in Jesus, even though they have the Torah in which Allah took their Covenant by the tongue of Moses to believe in Jesus. Also, the Gospel contains Jesus' assertion that Moses' prophethood and the Torah came from Allah. Yet, each party disbelieved in what the other party had.

 

Allah said,

 

[ßóÃóáößó ÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó ãöËúáó Þóæúáöåöãú]

(Like unto their word, said those who know not) thus exposing the ignorance displayed by the Jews and the Christians concerning their statements that we mentioned. There is a difference of opinion regarding the meaning of Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÇáøóÃöíäó áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó]

(who know not)

 

For instance, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah said that,

 

 

[ßóÃóáößó ÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó]

(Like unto their word, said those said those who know not) means, "The Christians said similar statements to the Jews.'' Ibn Jurayj asked `Ata' "Who are those `who know not''' `Ata' said, "Nations that existed before the Jews and the Christians and before the Torah and the Gospel.'' Also, As-Suddi said that,

 

 

[ÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó]

(said those who know not) is in reference to the Arabs who said that Muhammad was not following anything (i. e. did not follow a true or existing religion). Abu Ja`far bin Jarir chose the view that this Ayah is general and that there is no evidence that specifically supports any of these explanations. So interpreting the Ayah in a general way is better. Allah knows best.

 

Allah said,

 

[ÃóÇááøóåõ íóÃúßõãõ Èóíúäóåõãú íóæúãó ÇáúÞöíóÜãóÉö ÃöíãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú Ãöíåö íóÎúÊóáöÃõæäó]

(Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing.) meaning, that Allah will gather them all on the Day of Return. On that Day, Allah will justly judge between them, for He is never unjust with anyone, even as little as the weight of an atom. This Ayah is similar to Allah's statement in Surat Al-Hajj (22:17),

 

[Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æóÇáøóÃöíäó åóÇÃõæÇú æóÇáÕøóÜÈöÆöíäó æóÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì æóÇáúãóÌõæÓó æóÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÔúÑóßõæÇú Åöäøó Çááøóåó íóÃúÕöáõ Èóíúäóåõãú íóæúãó ÇáúÞöíÜãóÉö Åöäøó Çááøóåó Úóáóì ßõáøö ÔóìúÃò ÔóåöíÃñ ]

(Verily, those who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad ), and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Majus, and those who associate partners with Allah; truly, Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily, Allah is over all things a Witness).

 

Allah said,

 

 

[Þõáú íóÌúãóÚõ ÈóíúäóäóÇ ÑóÈøõäóÇ Ëõãøó íóÃúÊóÃõ ÈóíúäóäóÇ ÈöÇáúÃóÞøö æóåõæó ÇáúÃóÊøóÇÃõ ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ]

(Say: "Our Lord will assemble us all together (on the Day of Resurrection), then He will judge between us with truth. And He is the Just Judge, the Knower of the true state of affairs.'') (34:26).

 

[æóãóäú ÃóÙúáóãõ ãöãøóä ãøóäóÚó ãóÓóÜÌöÃó Çááøóåö Ãóä íõÃúßóÑó ÃöíåóÇ ÇÓúãõåõ æóÓóÚóì Ãöì ÎóÑóÇÈöåó ÃõæúáóÜÆößó ãóÇ ßóÇäó áóåõãú Ãóä íóÃúÎõáõæåó ÅöáÇøó ÎóÂÆöÃöíäó áóåõãú Ãöì ÇáÃøõäúíóÇ ÎöÒúìñ æóáóåõãú Ãöì ÇáÇøñÎöÑóÉö ÚóÃóÇÈñ ÚóÙöíãñ ]

(114. And who are more unjust than those who forbid that Allah's Name be mentioned (i.e. prayers and invocations) in Allah's Masjids and strive for their ruin It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them (Allah's Masjids) except in fear. For them there is disgrace in this world, and they will have a great torment in the Hereafter.)

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Of the Most Unjust are Those Who prevent People from the Masjids and strive for their Ruin

 

The Quraysh idolators are those who hindered the people from the Masjids of Allah and wanted to destroy them. Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn Zayd said that Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóãóäú ÃóÙúáóãõ ãöãøóä ãøóäóÚó ãóÓóÜÌöÃó Çááøóåö Ãóä íõÃúßóÑó ÃöíåóÇ ÇÓúãõåõ æóÓóÚóì Ãöì ÎóÑóÇÈöåóÂ]

(And who are more unjust than those who forbid that Allah's Name be mentioned (i.e. prayers and invocations) in Allah's Masjids and strive for their ruin) is about the Quraysh idolators who prevented the Prophet from entering Makkah from Al-Hudaybiyyah, until he slaughtered the Hadi (animal for sacrifice) at Dhi-Tuwa. He then agreed to a peace treaty with the idolators and said to them, (No one before has ever prevented people from entering the House. One would even see the killer of his father and brother, but would not prevent him (from entering the House of Allah).) They said, "Whoever killed our fathers at Badr, shall never enter it while there is one of us alive.'' Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÓóÚóì Ãöì ÎóÑóÇÈöåóÂ]

(and strive for their ruin) means those who prevent whoever maintain the Masjids with Allah's remembrance and who visit Allah's House to perform Hajj and `Umrah. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Quraysh prevented the Prophet from praying at the Ka`bah in Al-Masjid Al-Haram, so Allah revealed,

 

 

[æóãóäú ÃóÙúáóãõ ãöãøóä ãøóäóÚó ãóÓóÜÌöÃó Çááøóåö Ãóä íõÃúßóÑó ÃöíåóÇ ÇÓúãõåõ]

(And who are more unjust than those who forbid that Allah's Name be mentioned (i.e. prayers and invocations) in Allah's Masjids)''

 

After Allah chastised the Jews and Christians, He also criticized the idolators who expelled the Messenger of Allah and his Companions from Makkah, preventing them from praying in Al-Masjid Al-Haram, which they kept exclusively for their idols and polytheism. Allah said,

 

 

[æóãóÇ áóåõãú ÃóáÇøó íõÚóÃøöÈóåõãõ Çááøóåõ æóåõãú íóÕõÃøõæäó Úóäö ÇáúãóÓúÌöÃö ÇáúÃóÑóÇãö æóãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú ÃóæúáöíóÂÃóåõ Åöäú ÃóæúáöíóÂÄõåõ ÅöáÇøó ÇáúãõÊøóÞõæäó æóáóÜßöäøó ÃóßúËóÑóåõãú áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó ]

(And why should not Allah punish them while they hinder (men) from Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and they are not its guardians None can be its guardians except Al-Muttaqun (the pious), but most of them know not.) (8:34)

 

[ãóÇ ßóÇäó áöáúãõÔúÑößöíäó Ãóä íóÚúãõÑõæÇú ãóÓóÇÌöÃó Çááå ÔóÜåöÃöíäó Úóáóì ÃóäÃõÓöåöã ÈöÇáúßõÃúÑö ÃõæúáóÜÆößó ÃóÈöØóÊú ÃóÚúãóÜáõåõãú æóÃöì ÇáäøóÇÑö åõãú ÎóÜáöÃõæäó - ÅöäøóãóÇ íóÚúãõÑõ ãóÓóÜÌöÃó Çááøóåö ãóäú ÃóÇãóäó ÈöÇááøóåö æóÇáúíóæúãö ÇáÇøñÎöÑö æóÃóÞóÇãó ÇáÕøóáóæÉó æóÃÇÊóì ÇáÒøóßóæÉó æóáóãú íóÎúÔó ÅöáÇøó Çááøóåó ÃóÚóÓóì ÃõæúáóÜÆößó Ãóä íóßõæäõæÇú ãöäó ÇáúãõåúÊóÃöíäó ]

(It is not for the Mushrikin (polytheists), to maintain the Masjids of Allah while they witness against their own selves of disbelief. The works of such are in vain and in Fire shall they abide. The Masjids of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day; perform the Salah, and give the Zakah and fear none but Allah. It is they who are on true guidance.) (9:17-18)

 

and,

 

[åõãõ ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú æóÕóÃøõæßõãú Úóäö ÇáúãóÓúÌöÃö ÇáúÃóÑóÇãö æóÇáúåóÃúìó ãóÚúßõæÃÇð Ãóä íóÈúáõÛó ãóÃöáøóåõ æóáóæúáÇó ÑöÌóÇáñ ãøõÄúãöäõæäó æóäöÓóÂÃñ ãøõÄúãöäóÜÊñ áøóãú ÊóÚúáóãõæåõãú Ãóä ÊóØóÆõæåõãú ÃóÊõÕöíÈóßãú ãøöäúåõãú ãøóÚóÑøóÉñ ÈöÛóíúÑö Úöáúãò áøöíõÃúÎöáó Çááøóåõ Ãöì ÑóÃúãóÊöåö ãóä íóÔóÂÃõ áóæú ÊóÒóíøóáõæÇú áóÚóÃøóÈúäóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ßóÃóÑõæÇú ãöäúåõãú ÚóÃóÇÈÇð ÃóáöíãÇð ]

(They are the ones who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid-Al-Haram (at Makkah) and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills Ü if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily, would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment) (48:25). Therefore, Allah said here,

 

[ÅöäøóãóÇ íóÚúãõÑõ ãóÓóÜÌöÃó Çááøóåö ãóäú ÃóÇãóäó ÈöÇááøóåö æóÇáúíóæúãö ÇáÇøñÎöÑö æóÃóÞóÇãó ÇáÕøóáóæÉó æóÃÇÊóì ÇáÒøóßóæÉó æóáóãú íóÎúÔó ÅöáÇøó Çááøóåó]

(The Masjids of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day; perform the Salah, and give the Zakah and fear none but Allah). Therefore, if those believers who follow the virtues mentioned in the Ayah were prevented from attending the Masjid, then what cause for destruction is worse than this Maintaining the Masjids not only means beautifying them, but it involves remembering Allah, establishing His Shari`ah in the Masjids and purifying them from the filth of Shirk.

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The Good News that Islam shall prevail

 

Allah said next,

 

[ÃõæúáóÜÆößó ãóÇ ßóÇäó áóåõãú Ãóä íóÃúÎõáõæåó ÅöáÇøó ÎóÂÆöÃöíäó]

(It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them (Allah's Masjids) except in fear).

 

This Ayah means, "Do not allow them - the disbelievers - to enter the Masjids, except to satisfy the terms of an armistice or a treaty.'' When the Messenger of Allah conquered Makkah in 9 H, he commanded that someone announce at Mina, "After the current year, no idolators shall perform Hajj, and no naked persons shall perform Tawaf around the House, except for those who have a treaty. In this case, the treaty will be carried to the end of its term.'' This Ayah supports the Ayah,

 

[íÃóíøõåóÇ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú ÅöäøóãóÇ ÇáúãõÔúÑößõæäó äóÌóÓñ ÃóáÇó íóÞúÑóÈõæÇú ÇáúãóÓúÌöÃó ÇáúÃóÑóÇãó ÈóÚúÃó ÚóÇãöåöãú åóÜÃóÇ]

(O you who believe! (in Allah's Oneness and in His Messenger Muhammad )! Verily, the Mushrikun (idolators) are Najasun (impure). So let them not come near Al-Masjid-Al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year) (9:28).

 

It was also said that this Ayah (2:114) carries the good news for the Muslims from Allah that He will allow them to take over Al-Masjid Al-Haram and all the Masjids and disgrace the idolators. Soon after, the Ayah indicated, no idolator shall enter the House, except out of fear of being seized or killed, unless he embraces Islam. Allah fulfilled this promise and later decreed that idolators not be allowed to enter Al-Masjid Al-Haram. The Messenger of Allah stated that no two religions should remain in the Arabian Peninsula, and the Jews and Christians should be expelled from it, all praise is due to Allah. All of these rulings ensure maintaining the honor of Al-Masjid Al-Haram and purifying the area where Allah sent His Messenger to warn and bring good news to all of mankind, may Allah's peace and blessings be on him.

 

This Ayah also described the disgrace that the disbelievers earn in this life, and that the punishment comes in a form comparable to the deed. Just as they prevented the believers from entering Al-Masjid Al-Haram, they were prevented from entering it in turn. Just as they expelled the believers from Makkah, they were in turn expelled from Makkah,

 

[æóáóåõãú Ãöì ÇáÇøñÎöÑóÉö ÚóÃóÇÈñ ÚóÙöíãñ]

(and they will have a great torment in the Hereafter) because they breached the sanctity of the House and brought filth to it by erecting idols all around it, invoking other than Allah and performing Tawaf around it while naked, etc.

 

Here it is worth mentioning the Hadith about seeking refuge from disgrace in this life and the torment of the Hereafter. Imam Ahmad recorded that Busr bin Artah said that the Messenger of Allah used to supplicate,

 

 

«Çááøóåõãøó ÃóÃúÓöäú ÚóÇÞöÈóÊóäóÇ Ãöí ÇáúÃõãõæÑö ßõáøöåóÇ æóÃóÌöÑúäóÇ ãöäú ÎöÒúíö ÇáÃøõäúíóÇ æóÚóÃóÇÈö ÇáúÂÎöÑóÉ»(O Allah! Make our end better in all affairs, and save us from disgrace in this life and the torment of the Hereafter.)

 

This Hadith is Hasan.

 

[æóáöáøóåö ÇáúãóÔúÑöÞõ æóÇáúãóÛúÑöÈõ ÃóÃóíúäóãóÇ ÊõæóáøõæÇú ÃóËóãøó æóÌúåõ Çááøóåö Åöäøó Çááøóåó æóÓöÚñ Úóáöíãñ ]

(115. And to Allah belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creatures' needs), Knowing.)

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Facing the Qiblah (Direction of the Prayer)

 

 

This ruling brought comfort to the Messenger of Allah and his Companions, who were driven out of Makkah and had to depart from the area of Al-Masjid Al-Haram. In Makkah, the Messenger of Allah used to pray in the direction of Bayt Al-Maqdis, while the Ka`bah was between him and the Qiblah. When the Messenger migrated to Al-Madinah, he faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for sixteen or seventeen months, and then Allah directed him to face Al-Ka`bah in prayer. This is why Allah said,

 

 

[æóáöáøóåö ÇáúãóÔúÑöÞõ æóÇáúãóÛúÑöÈõ ÃóÃóíúäóãóÇ ÊõæóáøõæÇú ÃóËóãøó æóÌúåõ Çááøóåö]

(And to Allah belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)).

 

`Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, "The first part of the Qur'an that was abrogated was about the Qiblah. When the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, which was inhabited by the Jews, he was at first commanded to face Bayt Al-Maqdis. The Jews were happy, and the Messenger of Allah faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for some ten months. However, the Messenger of Allah liked to face the Qiblah of Ibrahim (Al-Ka`bah at Makkah), and he used to look to the sky and supplicate. So Allah revealed,

 

 

[ÞóÃú äóÑóì ÊóÞóáøõÈó æóÌúåößó Ãöí ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö]

(Verily, We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad's) face towards the heaven) until,

 

 

[ÃóæóáøõæÇú æõÌõæåóßõãú ÔóØúÑóåõ]

(turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction) (2:144).

 

The Jews were disturbed by this development and said, `What made them change the direction of the Qiblah that they used to face' Allah revealed,

 

 

[Þõá áøáøóåö ÇáúãóÔúÑöÞõ æóÇáúãóÛúÑöÈõ]

(Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong both, east and the west'') and,

 

 

[ÃóÃóíúäóãóÇ ÊõæóáøõæÇú ÃóËóãøó æóÌúåõ Çááøóåö]

(So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)).''

 

`Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said,

 

[ÃóÃóíúäóãóÇ ÊõæóáøõæÇú ÃóËóãøó æóÌúåõ Çááøóåö]

(So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)) means, "Allah's direction is wherever you face, east or west.'' Mujahid said that,

 

[ÃóÃóíúäóãóÇ ÊõæóáøõæÇú ÃóËóãøó æóÌúåõ Çááøóåö]

(So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne))

 

means, "Wherever you may be, you have a Qiblah to face, that is, Al-Ka`bah.''

 

However, it was said that Allah sent down this Ayah before the order to face the Ka`bah. Ibn Jarir said, "Others said that this Ayah was revealed to the Messenger of Allah permitting the one praying voluntary prayers to face wherever they wish in the east or west, while traveling, when in fear and when facing the enemy.'' For instance, Ibn `Umar used to face whatever direction his animal was headed and proclaim that the Messenger of Allah did the same, explaining the Ayah,

 

 

[ÃóÃóíúäóãóÇ ÊõæóáøõæÇú ÃóËóãøó æóÌúåõ Çááøóåö]

(So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah).''

 

That Hadith was also collected by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Marduwyah, and its origin is in the Two Sahihs from Ibn `Umar and `Amr bin Rabi`ah without mentioning the Ayah. In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi` said that whenever Ibn `Umar was asked about the prayer during times of fear, he used to describe it and would then say, "When the sense of fear is worse than that, pray while standing, or while riding, whether facing the Qiblah or not.'' Nafi` then said, "I think Ibn `Umar mentioned that from the Prophet .'' It was also said that the Ayah was revealed about those who are unable to find the correct direction of the Qiblah in the dark or due to cloudy skies and, thus, prayed in a direction other than the Qiblah by mistake.

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The Qiblah for the People of Al-Madinah is what is between the East and the West

 

In his Tafsir of this Ayah (2:115), Al-Hafiz Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«ãóÇ Èóíúäó ÇáúãóÔúÑöÞö æóÇáúãóÛúÑöÈö ÞöÈúáóÉñ áöÃóåúáö ÇáúãóÃöíäóÉö æóÃóåúáö ÇáÔøóÇãö æóÃóåúáö ÇáúÚöÑóÇÞ»(What is between the east and the west is the Qiblah for the people of Al-Madinah, Ash-Sham and `Iraq.)

 

At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded this Hadith with the wording,

 

 

«ãóÇ Èóíúäó ÇáúãóÔúÑöÞö æóÇáúãóÛúÑöÈö ÞöÈúáóÉ»(What is between the east and the west is a Qiblah.)

 

Ibn Jarir said, "The meaning of Allah's statement;

 

 

[Åöäøó Çááøóåó æóÓöÚñ Úóáöíãñ]

(Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creatures' needs), Knowing) is that Allah encompasses all His Creation by providing them with sufficient needs and by His generosity and favor. His statement,

 

 

[Úóáöíãñ]

(Knowing) means He is knowledgeable of their deeds and nothing escapes His watch, nor is He unaware of anything. Rather, His knowledge encompasses everything.''

 

[æóÞóÇáõæÇú ÇÊøóÎóÃó Çááøóåõ æóáóÃðÇ ÓõÈúÃóÜäóåõ Èóá áøóåõ ãóÇ Ãöí ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö ßõáøñ áøóåõ ÞóÜäöÊõæäó - ÈóÃöíÚõ ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö æóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÖóì ÃóãúÑðÇ ÃóÅöäøóãóÇ íóÞõæáõ áóåõ ßõäú Ãóíóßõæäõ ]

(116. And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allah has begotten a son (children or offspring). Glory is to Him (Exalted is He above all that they associate with Him). Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all are Qanitun to Him.) (117. The Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it: "Be! Ü and it is.)

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Refuting the Claim that Allah has begotten a Son

 

This and the following Ayat refute the Christians, may Allah curse them, and their like among the Jews and the Arab idolators, who claimed that the angels are Allah's daughters. Allah refuted all of them in their claim that He had begotten a son. Allah said,

 

[ÓõÈúÃóÜäóåõ]

(Glory is to Him.)

 

meaning, He is holier and more perfect than such claim;

 

 

[Èóá áøóåõ ãóÇ Ãöí ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö]

(Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth,) meaning, the truth is not as the disbelievers claimed, rather, Allah's is the kingdom of the heavens and earth and whatever and whoever is in, on and between them. Allah is the Supreme Authority in the heavens and earth, and He is the Creator, Provider and Sustainer Who decides all the affairs of the creation as He wills. All creatures are Allah's servants and are owned by Him. Therefore, how could one of them be His son The son of any being is born out of two comparable beings. Allah has no equal or rival sharing His grace and greatness, so how can He have a son when He has no wife Allah said,

 

 

[ÈóÃöíÚõ ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö Ãóäøóì íóßõæäõ áóåõ æóáóÃñ æóáóãú Êóßõäú áøóåõ ÕóÜÃöÈóÉñ æóÎóáóÞó ßõáøó ÔóìúÃò æåõæó Èößõáøö ÔóìúÃò Úóáöíãñ ]

(He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children when He has no wife He created all things and He is the Knower of everything) (6:101).

 

[æóÞóÇáõæÇú ÇÊøóÎóÃó ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäõ æóáóÃÇð - áóÞóÃú ÌöÆúÊõãú ÔóíúÆÇð ÅöÃøÇð - ÊóßóÇÃõ ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊõ íóÊóÃóØøóÑúäó ãöäúåõ æóÊóäÔóÞøõ ÇáÇøñÑúÖõ æóÊóÎöÑøõ ÇáúÌöÈóÇáõ åóÃøÇð - Ãóä ÃóÚóæúÇ áöáÑøóÃúãóÜäö æóáóÃÇð - æóãóÇ íóäÈóÛöì áöáÑøóÃúãóÜäö Ãóä íóÊøóÎöÃó æóáóÃÇð - Åöä ßõáøõ ãóä Ãöì ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö ÅöáÇøó ÂÊöì ÇáÑøóÃúãóÜäö ÚóÈúÃÇð - áøóÞóÃú ÃóÃúÕóÜåõãú æóÚóÃøóåõãú ÚóÃøÇð - æóßõáøõåõãú ÃóÇÊöíåö íóæúãó ÇáúÞöíóÜãóÉö ÃóÑúÃÇð ]

(And they say: "The Most Gracious (Allah) has begotten a son (offspring or children).'' Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins. That they ascribe a son (or offspring or children) to the Most Gracious (Allah). But it is not suitable for (the majesty of) the Most Gracious (Allah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children). There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious (Allah) as a servant. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, or protector or defender)) (19:88-95), and,

 

 

[Þõáú åõæó Çááøóåõ ÃóÃóÃñ - Çááøóåõ ÇáÕøóãóÃõ - áóãú íóáöÃú æóáóãú íõæáóÃú - æóáóãú íóßõäú áøóåõ ßõÃõæÇð ÃóÃóÃñ ]

(Say: "He is Allah (the) One, Allah the Samad (the Self- Sufficent, upon whom all depend), He begets not, nor was He begotten, and there is none comparable to Him.'') (112).

 

In these Ayat, Allah stated that He is the Supreme Master Whom there is no equal or rival, everything and everyone was created by Him, so how can He have a son from among them This is why, in the Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Prophet said,

 

«ÞóÇáó Çááåõ ÊóÚóÇáóì: ßóÃøÈóäöí ÇÈúäõ ÂÃóãó æóáóãú íóßõäú áóåõ Ãáößó¡ æóÔóÊóãóäöí æóáóãú íóßõäú áóåõ Ãáößó¡ ÃóÃóãøóÇ ÊóßúÃöíÈõåõ ÅöíøóÇíó ÃóíóÒúÚõãõ Ãóäøöí áóÇ ÃóÞúÃöÑõ Ãóäú ÃõÚöíÃóåõ ßóãóÇ ßóÇäó¡ æóÃóãøóÇ ÔóÊúãõåõ ÅöíøóÇíó ÃóÞóæúáõåõ áöí æóáóÃðÇ ÃóÓõÈúÃóÇäöí Ãóäú ÃóÊøóÎöÃó ÕóÇÃöÈóÉð Ãóæú æóáóÃðÇ»(Allah said, `The son of Adam has denied Me, and that is not his right. He has insulted Me, and that is not his right. As for the denial of Me, he claimed that I am unable to bring him back as he used to be (resurrect him). As for his insulting Me, he claimed that I have a son. All praise is due to Me, it is unbefitting that I should have a wife or a son.')

 

This Hadith was recorded by Al-Bukhari.

 

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«áóÇ ÃóÃóÃó ÃóÕúÈóÑõ Úóáóì ÃóÃðì ÓóãöÚóåõ ãöäó Çááåö: Åöäøóåõãú íóÌúÚóáõæäó áóåõ æóáóÃðÇ æóåõæó íóÑúÒõÞõåõãú æóíõÚóÇÃöíåöã»e(No one is more patient when hearing an insult than Allah. They attribute a son to Him, yet He still gives them sustanence and health.)

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Everything is within Allah's Grasp

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ßõáøñ áøóåõ ÞóÜäöÊõæäó]

(all are Qanitun to Him).

 

Ibn Abi Hatim said that Abu Sa`id Al-Ashaj informed them that Asbat informed them from Mutarrif, from `Atiyah, from Ibn `Abbas who said that,

 

 

[ÞóÜäöÊöíäó]

(Qantin) (2:238) means, they pray to Him. `Ikrimah and Abu Malik also said that,

 

 

[ßõáøñ áøóåõ ÞóÜäöÊõæäó]

(and all are Qanitun to Him.) means, bound to Him in servitude to Him. Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Qanitun is sincerity. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that,

 

 

[ßõáøñ áøóåõ ÞóÜäöÊõæäó]

(all are Qanitun to Him.) means, "Standing up - before Him - on the Day of Resurrection.'' Also, As-Suddi said that,

 

[ßõáøñ áøóåõ ÞóÜäöÊõæäó]

(and all are Qanitun to Him.) means, "Obedient on the Day of Resurrection.'' Khasif said that Mujahid said that,

 

[ßõáøñ áøóåõ ÞóÜäöÊõæäó]

(and all are Qanitun to Him. ) means, "Obedient. He says, `Be a human' and he becomes a human.'' He also said, "(Allah says,) `Be a donkey' and it becomes a donkey.'' Also, Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that,

 

 

[ßõáøñ áøóåõ ÞóÜäöÊõæäó]

(and all are Qanitun to Him.) means, obedient. Mujahid also said, "The obedience of the disbeliever occurs when his shadow prostrates, while he hates that.'' Mujahid's statement, which Ibn Jarir preferred, combines all the meanings, and that is that Qunut means obedience and submission to Allah. There are two categories of Qunut: legislated and destined, for Allah said,

 

 

[æóááøóåö íóÓúÌõÃõ ãóä Ãöì ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö ØóæúÚðÇ æóßóÑúåðÇ æóÙöáóÜáõåõã ÈöÇáúÛõÃõæøö æóÇáÇøñÕóÇáö ]

(And unto Allah (alone) falls in prostration whoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and in the (late) afternoons) (13:15).

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Allah said,

 

[ÈóÃöíÚõ ÇáÓøóãóÜæóÊö æóÇáÇøñÑúÖö]

(The Badi` (Originator) of the heavens and the earth.) which means, He created them when nothing resembling them existed. Mujahid and As-Suddi said that this is the linguistic meaning, for all new matters are called Bid`ah. Muslim recorded the Messenger of Allah saying,

 

 

«ÃóÅöäøó ßõáøó ãõÃúÃóËóÉò ÈöÃúÚóÉ»(...every innovation (in religion) is a Bid`ah.)

 

There are two types of Bid`ah, religious, as mentioned in the Hadith:

 

 

«ÃóÅöäøó ßõáøó ãõÃúÃóËóÉò ÈöÃúÚóÉñ æóßõáøó ÈöÃúÚóÉò ÖóáóÇáóÉ»(...every innovation is a Bid`ah and every Bid`ah is heresy.)

 

And there is a linguistic Bid`ah, such as the statement of the Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab when he gathered the Muslims to pray the Tarawih prayer in congregation (which was also an earlier practice of the Prophet ) and said, "What a good Bid`ah this is.''

 

Ibn Jarir said, "Thus the meaning of the Ayat (2:116-117) becomes, `Allah is far more glorious than to have had a son, for He is the Owner of everything that is in the heavens and earth. All testify to His Oneness and to their submissiveness to Him. He is their Creator and Maker. Without created precedence, He shaped the creatures in their current shapes. Allah also bears witness to His servants that Jesus, who some claimed to be Allah's son, is among those who testify to His Oneness. Allah stated that He created the heavens and earth out of nothing and without precedent. Likewise, He created Jesus, the Messiah, with His power and without a father.'' This explanation from Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy upon him, is very good and correct.

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ ÞóÖóì ÃóãúÑðÇ ÃóÅöäøóãóÇ íóÞõæáõ áóåõ ßõäú Ãóíóßõæäõ]

(When He decrees a matter, He only says to it : "Be! Ü and it is.) thus, demonstrating His perfectly complete ability and tremendous authority; if He decides a matter, He merely orders it to, `Be' and it comes into existence. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[ÅöäøóãóÂ ÃóãúÑõåõ ÅöÃóÂ ÃóÑóÇÃó ÔóíúÆÇð Ãóä íóÞõæáó áóåõ ßõä Ãóíóßõæäõ ]

(Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be! Ü and it is.) (36:82),

 

[ÅöäøóãóÇ ÞóæúáõäóÇ áöÔóìúÃò ÅöÃóÂ ÃóÑóÃúäóÇåõ Ãóä äøóÞõæáó áóåõ ßõäú Ãóíóßõæäõ ]

(Verily, Our Word unto a thing when We intend it, is only that We say unto it: "Be! Ü and it is.) (16:40) and,

 

 

[æóãó ÃóãúÑõäó ÅöáÇøó æóÃöÃóÉñ ßóáóãúÃò ÈöÇáúÈóÕóÑö ]

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye) (54:50)

 

So Allah informed us that He created Jesus by merely saying, "Be!'' and he was, as Allah willed:

 

[Åöäøó ãóËóáó ÚöíÓóì ÚöäÃó Çááøóåö ßóãóËóáö ÃóÇÃóãó ÎóáóÞóåõ ãöä ÊõÑóÇÈò Ëõãøó ÞóÇáó áóåõ ßõä Ãóíóßõæäõ ]

(Verily, the likeness of `Isa (Jesus) before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: "Be! Ü and he was) (3:59).

 

[æóÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó áóæúáÇó íõßóáøöãõäóÇ Çááøóåõ Ãóæú ÊóÃúÊöíäó ÃóÇíóÉñ ßóÃóáößó ÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó ãöä ÞóÈúáöåöã ãøöËúáó Þóæúáöåöãú ÊóÔóÜÈóåóÊú ÞõáõæÈõåõãú ÞóÃú ÈóíøóäøóÇ ÇáÂíóÜÊö áöÞóæúãò íõæÞöäõæäó ]

(118. And those who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allah speak to us (face to face) or why does not a sign come to us'' So said the people before them words of similar import. Their hearts are alike, We have indeed made plain the signs for people who believe with certainty.)

 

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said that Rafi` bin Huraymilah said to the Messenger of Allah , "O Muhammad! If you were truly a Messenger from Allah, as you claim, then ask Allah to speak to us directly, so that we hear His Speech.'' So Allah revealed,

 

 

[æóÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó áÇó íóÚúáóãõæäó áóæúáÇó íõßóáøöãõäóÇ Çááøóåõ Ãóæú ÊóÃúÊöíäó ÃóÇíóÉñ]

(And those who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allah speak to us (face to face) or why does not a sign come to us'')

 

Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah and As-Suddi said that it was actually the statement of the Arab disbelievers:

 

[ßóÃóáößó ÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó ãöä ÞóÈúáöåöã ãøöËúáó Þóæúáöåöãú]

(So said the people before them words of similar import. ) He said, "These are the Jews and the Christians.''

 

What further proves that the Arab idolators said the statement mentioned in the Ayah is that Allah said,

 

[æóÅöÃóÇ ÌóÂÃóÊúåõãú ÃóÇíóÉñ ÞóÇáõæÇú áóä äøõÄúãöäó ÃóÊøóì äõÄúÊóì ãöËúáó ãó ÃõæÊöìó ÑõÓõáõ Çááøóåö Çááøóåõ ÃóÚúáóãõ ÃóíúËõ íóÌúÚóáõ ÑöÓóÇáóÊóåõ ÓóíõÕöíÈõ ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÌúÑóãõæÇú ÕóÛóÇÑñ ÚöäÃó Çááøóåö æóÚóÃóÇÈñ ÔóÃöíÃñ ÈöãóÇ ßóÇäõæÇú íóãúßõÑõæäó ]

(And when there comes to them a sign (from Allah) they say: "We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah had received.'' Allah knows best with whom to place His Message. Humiliation and disgrace from Allah and a severe torment will overtake the criminals (polytheists and sinners) for that which they used to plot.) (6:124) and

 

 

[æóÞóÇáõæÇú áóä äøõÄúãöäó áóßó ÃóÊøóì ÊóÃúÌõÑó áóäóÇ ãöäó ÇáÇøñÑúÖö íóäúÈõæÚðÇ ]

(And they say: "We shall not believe in you (O Muhammad ), until you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us) until,

 

 

[Þõáú ÓõÈúÃóÜäó ÑóÈøöì åóáú ßõäÊõ ÅóáÇøó ÈóÔóÑðÇ ÑøóÓõæáÇð]

(Say (O Muhammad ): "Glorified (and Exalted) be my Lord [(Allah) above all that evil they (polytheists) associate with Him]! Am I anything but a man, sent as a Messenger'') (17:90-93) and,

 

[æóÞóÇáó ÇáøóÃöíäó áÇó íóÑúÌõæäó áöÞóÂÃóäóÇ áóæúáÇó ÃõäÒöáó ÚóáóíúäóÇ ÇáúãóáóÜÆößóÉõ Ãóæú äóÑóì ÑóÈøóäóÇ]

(And those who expect not a meeting with Us (i. e. those who deny the Day of Resurrection and the life of the Hereafter) said: "Why are not the angels sent down to us, or why do we not see our Lord'') (25:21) and,

 

 

[Èóáú íõÑöíÃõ ßõáøõ ÇãúÑöìÃò ãøöäúåõãú Ãóä íõÄúÊóì ÕõÃõÃÇð ãøõäóÔøóÑóÉð ]

(Nay, everyone of them desires that he should be given pages spread out) (74:52).

 

There are many other Ayat that testify to the disbelief of the Arab idolators, their transgression, stubbornness, and that they asked unnecessary questions out of disbelief and arrogance. The statements of the Arab idolators followed the statements of the nations of the People of the Two Scriptures and other religions before them. Allah said,

 

 

[íóÓúÃóáõßó Ãóåúáõ ÇáúßöÊóÜÈö Ãóä ÊõäóÒøöáó Úóáóíúåöãú ßöÊóÜÈÇð ãøöäó ÇáÓøóãóÂÃö ÃóÞóÃú ÓóÃóáõæÇú ãõæÓóì ÃóßúÈóÑó ãöä Ãáößó ÃóÞóÇáõæÇú ÃóÑöäóÇ Çááøóåö ÌóåúÑóÉð]

(The People of the Scripture (Jews) ask you to cause a book to descend upon them from heaven. Indeed, they asked Musa (Moses) for even greater than that, when they said: "Show us Allah in public,'') (4:153) and,

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞõáúÊõãú íóÜãõæÓóì áóä äøõÄúãöäó áóßó ÃóÊøóì äóÑóì Çááøóåó ÌóåúÑóÉð]

(And (remember) when you said: "O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.'') (2:55).

 

Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÊóÔóÜÈóåóÊú ÞõáõæÈõåõãú]

(Their hearts are alike. ) means, the hearts of the Arab idolators are just like the hearts of those before them, containing disbelief, stubbornness and injustice. Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[ßóÃóáößó ãó ÃóÊóì ÇáøóÃöíäó ãöä ÞóÈúáöåöãú ãøöä ÑøóÓõæáò ÅöáÇøó ÞóÇáõæÇú ÓóÜÃöÑñ Ãóæú ãóÌúäõæäñ ÃóÊóæóÇÕóæúÇú Èöåö]

(Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: "A sorcerer or a madman!'' Have they (the people of the past) transmitted this saying to these (Quraysh pagans)) (51:52-53).

 

Allah said next,

 

[ÞóÃú ÈóíøóäøóÇ ÇáÂíóÜÊö áöÞóæúãò íõæÞöäõæäó]

(We have indeed made plain the signs for people who believe with certainty.) meaning, We made the arguments clear, prooving the truth of the Messengers, with no need of more questions or proofs for those who believe, follow the Messengers and comprehend what Allah sent them with. As for those whose hearts and hearing Allah has stamped and whose eyes have been sealed, Allah described them:

 

 

[Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÞøóÊú Úóáóíúåöãú ßóáöãóÉõ ÑóÈøößó áÇó íõÄúãöäõæäó - æóáóæú ÌóÂÃóÊúåõãú ßõáøõ ÃÇíóÉò ÃóÊøóì íóÑóæõÇú ÇáúÚóÃóÇÈó ÇáÇøñáöíãó ]

(Truly, those, against whom the Word (wrath) of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them, until they see the painful torment) (10:96-97).

 

 

[ÅöäøóÇ ÃóÑúÓóáúäóÜßó ÈöÇáúÃóÞøö ÈóÔöíÑðÇ æóäóÃöíÑðÇ æóáÇó ÊõÓúÜóáõ Úóäú ÃóÕúÃóÜÈö ÇáúÌóÃöíãö ]

(119. Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad ) with the truth (Islam), a bringer of glad tidings (for those who believe in what you brought, that they will enter Paradise) and a warner (for those who disbelieve in what you brought, that they will enter the Hellfire). And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the blazing Fire.)

 

Allah's statement;

 

 

[æóáÇó ÊõÓúÜóáõ Úóäú ÃóÕúÃóÜÈö ÇáúÌóÃöíãö]

(And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the blazing Fire.) means, "We shall not ask you about the disbelief of those who rejected you.'' Similarly, Allah said,

 

 

[ÃóÅöäøóãóÇ Úóáóíúßó ÇáúÈóáóÜÛõ æóÚóáóíúäóÇ ÇáúÃöÓóÇÈõ]

(Your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning.) (13:40)

 

[ÃóÃóßøöÑú Åöäøóãó ÃóäÊó ãõÃóßøöÑñ - áøóÓúÊó Úóáóíúåöã ÈöãõÓóíúØöÑò ]

(So remind them (O Muhammad ) Ü you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.)(88:21-22) and,

 

[äøóÃúäõ ÃóÚúáóãõ ÈöãóÇ íóÞõæáõæäó æóãó ÃóäÊó Úóáóíúåöãú ÈöÌóÈøóÇÑò ÃóÃóßøöÑú ÈöÇáúÞõÑúÃóÇäö ãóä íóÎóÇÃõ æóÚöíÃö ]

(We know best what they say. And you (O Muhammad ) are not the one to force them (to belief). But warn by the Qur'an; him who fears My threat) (50:45).

 

There are many other similar Ayat.

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The Description of the Prophet in the Tawrah

 

Imam Ahmad recorded `Ata' bin Yasar saying that he met `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As and said to him, "Tell me about the description of the Messenger of Allah in the Torah.'' He said, "Yes, by Allah, he is described by the Torah with the same characteristics that he is described with in the Qur'an with: `O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good news, a warner, and as safe refuge for the unlettered people. You are My servant and Messenger. I have called you the Mutawakkil (who depends and relies on Allah for each and everything). You are not harsh, nor hard, nor obnoxious in the bazaars. He does not reward the evil deed with an evil deed. Rather, he forgives and pardons. Allah will not bring his life to an end, until he straightens the wicked's religion by his hands so that the people proclaim: There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. By his hands, Allah will open blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts.''' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari only.

 

 

[æóáóä ÊóÑúÖóì Úóäßó ÇáúíóåõæÃõ æóáÇó ÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì ÃóÊøóì ÊóÊøóÈöÚó ãöáøóÊóåõãú Þõáú Åöäøó åõÃóì Çááøóåö åõæó ÇáúåõÃóì æóáóÆöäö ÇÊøóÈóÚúÊó ÃóåúæóÂÃóåõã ÈóÚúÃó ÇáøóÃöí ÌóÂÃóßó ãöäó ÇáúÚöáúãö ãóÇ áóßó ãöäó Çááøóåö ãöä æóáöíøò æóáÇó äóÕöíÑò - ÇáøóÃöíäó ÂÊóíúäóÜåõãõ ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó íóÊúáõæäóåõ ÃóÞøó ÊöáÇóæóÊöåö ÃõæúáóÜÆößó íõÄúãöäõæäó Èöåö æóãä íóßúÃõÑú Èöåö ÃóÃõæúáóÜÆößó åõãõ ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑõæäó ]

(120. Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad ) till you follow their religion. Say: "Verily, the guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) that is the (only) guidance. And if you (O Muhammad ) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur'an), then you would have against Allah neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.) (121. Those to whom we gave the Book recite it as it should be recited (Yatlunahu Haqqa Tilawatihi) they are the ones who believe therein. And whoso disbelieve in it, those are they who are the losers.) Ibn Jarir said, "Allah said,

 

 

[æóáóä ÊóÑúÖóì Úóäßó ÇáúíóåõæÃõ æóáÇó ÇáäøóÕóÜÑóì ÃóÊøóì ÊóÊøóÈöÚó ãöáøóÊóåõãú]

(Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad ) till you follow their religion.) meaning, `The Jews and the Christians will never be happy with you, O Muhammad! Therefore, do not seek what pleases or appeases them, and stick to what pleases Allah by calling them to the truth that Allah sent you with.' Allah's statement,

 

[Þõáú Åöäøó åõÃóì Çááøóåö åõæó ÇáúåõÃóì]

(Say: "Verily, the guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) that is the (only) guidance'') emeans, `Say, O Muhammad , the guidance of Allah that He sent me with is the true guidance, meaning the straight, perfect and comprehensive religion.''' Qatadah said that Allah's statement,

 

[Þõáú Åöäøó åõÃóì Çááøóåö åõæó ÇáúåõÃóì]

(Say: "Verily, the guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) that is the (only) guidance) is, "A true argument that Allah taught Muhammad and his Companions and which they used against the people of misguidance.'' Qatadah said, "We were told that the Messenger of Allah used to say,

 

«áóÇ ÊóÒóÇáõ ØóÇÆöÃóÉñ ãöäú ÃõãøóÊöí íõÞóÇÊöáõæäó Úóáóì ÇáúÃóÞøö ÙóÇåöÑöíäó¡ áóÇ íóÖõÑøõåõãú ãóäú ÎóÇáóÃóåõãú ÃóÊøóì íóÃúÊöíó ÃóãúÑõ Çááå»(There will always be a group of my Ummah fighting upon the truth, having the upper hand, not harmed by their opponents, until the decree of Allah (the Last Hour) comes.)

 

This Hadith was collected in the Sahih and narrated from `Abdullah bin `Amr.

 

[æóáóÆöäö ÇÊøóÈóÚúÊó ÃóåúæóÂÃóåõã ÈóÚúÃó ÇáøóÃöí ÌóÂÃóßó ãöäó ÇáúÚöáúãö ãóÇ áóßó ãöäó Çááøóåö ãöä æóáöíøò æóáÇó äóÕöíÑò]

(And if you (O Muhammad ) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur'an), then you would have against Allah neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.)

 

This Ayah carries a stern warning for the Muslim Ummah against imitating the ways and methods of the Jews and Christians, after they have acquired knowledge of the Qur'an and Sunnah, may Allah grant us refuge from this behavior. Although the speech in this Ayah was directed at the Messenger , the ruling of which applies to his entire Ummah.

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The Meaning of Correct Tilawah

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ÇáøóÃöíäó ÂÊóíúäóÜåõãõ ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó íóÊúáõæäóåõ ÃóÞøó ÊöáÇóæóÊöåö]

(Those to whom We gave the Book. Yatlunahu Haqqan Tilawatih.)

 

`Abdur-Razzaq said from Ma`mar, from Qatadah, "They are the Jews and Christians.'' This is the opinion of `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, and it was also chosen by Ibn Jarir. Sa`id reported from Qatadah, "They are the Companions of the Messenger of Allah .'' Abu Al-`Aliyah said that Ibn Mas`ud said, "By He in Whose Hand is my soul! The right Tilawah is allowing what it makes lawful, prohibiting what it makes unlawful, reciting it as it was revealed by Allah, not changing the words from their places, and not interpreting it with other than its actual interpretation.'' As-Suddi reported from Abu Malik from Ibn `Abbas who said about this Ayah (2:121): "They make lawful what it allows and they prohibit what it makes unlawful, and they do not alter its wordings.'' `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "They are those who when they recite an Ayah that mentions mercy, they ask Allah for it, and when they recite an Ayah that mentions torment, they seek refuge with Allah from it.'' This meaning was attributed to the Prophet , for when he used to recite an Ayah of mercy, he invoked Allah for mercy, and when he recited an Ayah of torment, he sought refuge from it with Allah.

 

Allah's statement,

 

[ÃõæúáóÜÆößó íõÄúãöäõæäó Èöåö]

(they are the ones who believe therein)

 

explains the Ayah,

 

 

[ÇáøóÃöíäó ÂÊóíúäóÜåõãõ ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó íóÊúáõæäóåõ ÃóÞøó ÊöáÇóæóÊöåö]

(Those to whom We gave the Book. Yatlunahu Haqqa Tilawatihi).

 

These Ayat mean, "Those among the People of the Book who perfectly adhered to the Books that were revealed to the previous Prophets, will believe in what I have sent you with, O Muhammad!'' Allah said in another Ayah,

 

[æóáóæú Ãóäøóåõãú ÃóÞóÇãõæÇú ÇáÊøóæúÑóÇÉó æóÇáÅöäÌöíáó æóãó ÃõäÒöáó Åöáóíåöãú ãøöä ÑøóÈøöåöãú áÇøßóáõæÇú ãöä ÃóæúÞöåöãú æóãöä ÊóÃúÊö ÃóÑúÌõáöåöã]

(And if only they had acted according to the Tawrah, the Injil, and what has (now) been sent down to them from their Lord (the Qur'an), they would surely, have gotten provision from above them and from underneath their feet.) (5:66). The Ayah,

 

[Þõáú íóÜÃóåúáó ÇáúßöÊóÜÈö áóÓúÊõãú Úóáóì ÔóìúÃò ÃóÊøóì ÊõÞöíãõæÇú ÇáÊøóæúÑóÇÉó æóÇáÅöäÌöíáó æóãó ÃõäÒöáó Åöáóíúßõãú ãøöä ÑøóÈøößõãú]

(Say (O Muhammad ) "O People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! You have nothing (as regards guidance) till you act according to the Tawrah, the Injil, and what has (now) been sent down to you from your Lord (the Qur'an).'') means, "If you adhere to the Torah and the Gospel in the correct manner, believe in them as you should, and believe in the news they carry about Muhammad's prophethood, his description and the command to follow, aid and support him, then this will direct you to adhere to truth and righteousness in this life and the Hereafter.'' In another Ayah, Allah said,

 

 

[ÇáøóÃöíäó íóÊøóÈöÚõæäó ÇáÑøóÓõæáó ÇáäøóÈöìøó ÇáÃõãøöìøó ÇáøóÃöì íóÌöÃõæäóåõ ãóßúÊõæÈðÇ ÚöäÃóåõãú Ãöì ÇáÊøóæúÑóÇÉö æóÇáÅöäÌöíáö]

(Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad ) whom they find written with them in the Tawrah and the Injil.) (7:157) and,

 

 

[Þõáú ÃóÇãöäõæÇú Èöåö Ãóæú áÇó ÊõÄúãöäõæÇú Åöäøó ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃõæÊõæÇú ÇáúÚöáúãó ãöä ÞóÈúáöåö ÅöÃóÇ íõÊúáóì Úóáóíúåöãú íóÎöÑøõæäó áöáÇøñÃúÞóÇäö ÓõÌøóÃðÇ - æóíóÞõæáõæäó ÓõÈúÃóÇäó ÑóÈøöäó Åöä ßóÇäó æóÚúÃõ ÑóÈøöäóÇ áóãóÃúÚõæáÇð ]

(Say (O Muhammad to them): "Believe in it (the Qur'an) or do not believe (in it). Verily, those who were given knowledge before it, when it is recited to them, fall down on their faces in humble prostration. And they say: "Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.'') (17:107-108).

 

These Ayat indicate that what Allah promised for Muhammad will certainly occur. Allah also said,

 

 

[ÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇÊóíúäóÜåõãõ ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó ãöä ÞóÈúáöåö åõã Èöåö íõÄúãöäõæäó - æóÅöÃóÇ íõÊúáóì Úóáóíúåöãú ÞóÇáõæÇú ÃóÇãóäøóÇ Èöåö Åöäøóåõ ÇáúÃóÞøõ ãöä ÑøóÈøöäó ÅäøóÇ ßõäøóÇ ãöä ÞóÈúáöåö ãõÓúáöãöíäó - ÃõæúáóÜÆößó íõÄúÊõæäó ÃóÌúÑóåõã ãøóÑøóÊóíúäö ÈöãóÇ ÕóÈóÑõæÇú æóíóÃúÑóÄõäó ÈöÇáúÃóÓóäóÉö ÇáÓøóíøöÆóÉó æóãöãøóÇ ÑóÒóÞúäóÜåõãú íõäÃöÞõæäó ]

(Those to whom We gave the Scripture (i. e. the Tawrah and the Injil) before it, they believe in it (the Qur'an). And when it is recited to them, they say: "We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit themselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims. These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient, and repel evil with good, and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided them.) (28:52-54) and,

 

 

[æóÞõáú áøöáøóÃöíäó ÃõæÊõæÇú ÇáúßöÊóÜÈó æóÇáÇøòãøöíøöíäó ÃóÃóÓúáóãúÊõãú ÃóÅöäú ÃóÓúáóãõæÇú ÃóÞóÃö ÇåúÊóÃóæÇú æøóÅöä ÊóæóáøóæúÇú ÃóÅöäøóãóÇ Úóáóíúßó ÇáúÈóáóÜÛõ æóÇááøóåõ ÈóÕöíÑñ ÈöÇáúÚöÈóÇÃö]

(And say to those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and to those who are illiterates (Arab pagans): "Do you (also) submit yourselves (to Allah in Islam)'' If they do, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the Message; and Allah is the Seer of (His) servants) (3:20).

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóãä íóßúÃõÑú Èöåö ÃóÃõæúáóÜÆößó åõãõ ÇáúÎóÜÓöÑõæäó]

(And whoever disbelieves in it (the Qur'an), those are they who are the losers), just as He said in another Ayah,

 

 

[æóãóä íóßúÃõÑú Èöåö ãöäó ÇáÇøñÃúÒóÇÈö ÃóÇáäøóÇÑõ ãóæúÚöÃõåõ]

(But those of the sects (Jews, Christians and all the other non-Muslim nations) that reject it (the Qur'an), the Fire will be their promised meeting place) (11:17).

 

As recorded in the Sahih, the Prophet said,

 

«æóÇáøóÃöí äóÃúÓöí ÈöíóÃöåö áóÇ íóÓúãóÚõ Èöí ÃóÃóÃñ ãöäú Ã¥Ãöåö ÇáúÃõãøóÉö íóåõæÃöíøñ æóáóÇ äóÕúÑóÇäöíøñ Ëõãøó áóÇ íõÄúãöäõ Èöí ÅöáøóÇ ÃóÎóáó ÇáäøóÇÑ»

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! There is no member of this Ummah (mankind and Jinns), Jew or a Christian, who hears of me, yet does not believe in me, but will enter the Fire.)

 

[íóÜÈóäöì ÅöÓúÑóÃöíáó ÇÃúßõÑõæÇú äöÚúãóÊöì ÇáøóÊöì ÃóäúÚóãúÊõ Úóáóíúßõãú æóÃóäøöì ÃóÖøóáúÊõßõãú Úóáóì ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó æóÇÊøóÞõæÇú íóæúãðÇ áÇøó ÊóÌúÒöì äóÃúÓñ Úóä äøóÃúÓò ÔóíúÆðÇ æóáÇó íõÞúÈóáõ ãöäúåóÇ ÚóÃúáñ æóáÇó ÊóäÃóÚõåóÇ ÔóÃóÜÚóÉñ æóáÇó åõãú íõäÕóÑõæäó ]

(122. O Children of israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the nations).) (123. And fear the Day (of Judgement) when no person shall avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from him, nor shall intercession be of use to him, nor shall they be helped.)

 

We mentioned a similar Ayah at the beginning of this Surah, and it is mentioned here to emphisize the importance of following the Ummi Prophet and Messenger, who is described for the People of the Scriptures in their Books by his characteristics, name, the good news about him and the description of his Ummah. Allah warned them against concealing this information, which is among the favors that Allah granted them. Allah also commanded them to remember their daily life and their religious affairs and how He blessed them. They should not envy their cousins, the Arabs, for what Allah has given them, the Final Messenger of Allah being an Arab. Envy should not incite them to oppose or deny the Prophet or refrain from following him, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him until the Day of Judgment.

 

[æóÅöÃö ÇÈúÊóáóì ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ÑóÈøõåõ ÈößóáöãóÜÊò ÃóÃóÊóãøóåõäøó ÞóÇáó Åöäøöì ÌóÜÚöáõßó áöáäøóÇÓö ÅöãóÇãðÇ ÞóÇáó æóãöä ÃõÑøöíøóÊöì ÞóÇáó áÇó íóäóÇáõ ÚóåúÃöí ÇáÙøóÜáöãöíäó ]

(124. And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled. He (Allah) said (to him), "Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you).'' (Ibrahim) said, "And of my offspring (to make leaders).'' (Allah) said, "My covenant (prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers).'')

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