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Dr. Jawad

002 Tafsir Of Sura Al-baqarah(the Cow)

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Ibrahim Al-Khalil was an Imam for the People

 

Allah is informing us of the honor of Ibrahim Al-Khalil, who He made an Imam for the people, and a model to be imitated, because of the way he conducted himself and adhered to Tawhid. This honor was given to Prophet Ibrahim when he adhered to Allah's decisions and prohibitions. This is why Allah said,

 

 

[æóÅöÃö ÇÈúÊóáóì ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ÑóÈøõåõ ÈößóáöãóÜÊò]

(And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (i.e., Allah) tried him with (certain) commands).

 

This Ayah means, O Muhammad! Remind the idolators and the People of the Scriptures, who pretend to be followers of the religion of Ibrahim, while in reality they do not follow it, while you, O Muhammad, and your followers are the true followers of his religion; remind them of the commands and prohibitions that Allah tested Ibrahim with.

 

 

[ÃóÃóÊóãøóåõäøó]

(which he fulfilled.) indicating that Ibrahim implemented all of Allah's orders. Allah said in another Ayah,

 

 

[æóÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ÇáøóÃöì æóÃøóì ]

(And of Ibrahim (Abraham) who fulfilled (or conveyed) all that (Allah ordered him to do or convey)) (53:37)

 

meaning, he was truthful and he was obedient to Allah's legislation. Also, Allah said,

 

 

[Åöäøó ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ßóÇäó ÃõãøóÉð ÞóÜäöÊðÇ áöáøóåö ÃóäöíÃðÇ æóáóãú íóßõ ãöäó ÇáúãõÔúÑößöíäó - ÔóÇßöÑÇð áÇäúÚõãöåö ÇÌúÊóÈóÜåõ æóåóÃóÇåõ Åöáóì ÕöÑóØò ãøõÓúÊóÞöíãò - æóÃÇÊóíúäóÜåõ Ãöì ÇáúÃøõäúíóÇ ÃóÓóäóÉð æóÅöäøóåõ Ãöì ÇáÇøñÎöÑóÉö áóãöäó ÇáÕøóÜáöÃöíäó - Ëõãøó ÃóæúÃóíúäó Åöáóíúßó Ãóäö ÇÊøóÈöÚú ãöáøóÉó ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ÃóäöíÃðÇ æóãóÇ ßóÇäó ãöäó ÇáúãõÔúÑößöíäó ]

(Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hanif (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikin (polytheists), (He was) thankful for His (Allah's) favors. He (Allah) chose him and guided him to a straight path. And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous. Then, We have sent the revelation to you (O Muhammad saying): "Follow the religion of Ibrahim Hanif (Islamic Monotheism Ü to worship none but Allah) and he was not of the Mushrikin.) (16:120-123)

 

[Þõáú Åöäøóäöì åóÃóÇäöì ÑóÈøöì Åöáóì ÕöÑóØò ãøõÓúÊóÞöíãò ÃöíäðÇ ÞöíóãðÇ ãøöáøóÉó ÅöÈúÑóÇåöíãó ÃóäöíÃðÇ æóãóÇ ßóÇäó ãöäó ÇáúãõÔúÑößöíäó ]

(Say (O Muhammad ): "Truly, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, a right religion, the religion of Ibrahim, Hanifan, and Ibrahim (to worship none but Allah, alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin.'') (6:161) and,

 

 

[ãóÇ ßóÇäó ÅöÈúÑóåöíãõ íóåõæÃöíøðÇ æóáÇó äóÕúÑóÇäöíøðÇ æóáóßöä ßóÇäó ÃóäöíÃðÇ ãøõÓúáöãðÇ æóãóÇ ßóÇäó ãöäó ÇáúãõÔúÑößöíäó - Åöäøó Ãóæúáóì ÇáäøóÇÓö ÈöÅöÈúÑóåöíãó áóáøóÃöíäó ÇÊøóÈóÚõæåõ æóåóÜÃóÇ ÇáäøóÈöìøõ æóÇáøóÃöíäó ÃóÇãóäõæÇú æóÇááøóåõ æóáöìøõ ÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó ]

(Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism Ü to worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad ) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers) (3:67-68).

 

Allah said,

 

 

[ÈößóáöãóÜÊö]

(with Kalimat (words)) which means, "Laws, commandments and prohibitions.'' `Words' as mentioned here, sometimes refers to what Allah has willed, such as Allah's statement about Maryam,

 

[æóÕóÃøóÞóÊú ÈößóáöãóÜÊö ÑóÈøóåóÇ æóßõÊõÈöåö æóßóÇäóÊú ãöäó ÇáúÞóÜäöÊöíäó]

(And she testified to the truth of the Words of her Lord, and (also believed in) His Scriptures, and she was of the Qanitin (i.e. obedient to Allah)) (66:12).

 

"Words'' also refers to Allah's Law, such as Allah's statement,

 

[æóÊóãøóÊú ßóáöãóÉõ ÑóÈøößó ÕöÃúÞÇð æóÚóÃúáÇð]

(And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice) (6:115) meaning, His legislation. "Words'' also means truthful news, or a just commandment or prohibition. For instance, Allah said,

 

[æóÅöÃö ÇÈúÊóáóì ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ÑóÈøõåõ ÈößóáöãóÜÊò ÃóÃóÊóãøóåõäøó]

(And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim tried him with (certain) Words (commands), which he fulfilled) meaning, he adhered to them, Allah said,

 

 

[Åöäøöì ÌóÜÚöáõßó áöáäøóÇÓö ÅöãóÇãðÇ]

("Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you).'') as a reward for Ibrahim's good deeds, adhering to the commandments and avoiding the prohibitions. This is why Allah made Ibrahim a role model for the people, and an Imam whose conduct and path are imitated and followed.

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What were the Words that Ibrahim was tested with

 

There is a difference of opinion over the words that Allah tested Ibrahim with. There are several opinions attributed to Ibn `Abbas. For instance, `Abdur-Razzaq said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Allah tested him with the rituals (of Hajj).'' Abu Ishaq reported the same. `Abdur-Razzaq also narrated that Ibn `Abbas said that,

 

 

[æóÅöÃö ÇÈúÊóáóì ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ÑóÈøõåõ ÈößóáöãóÜÊò]

(And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) (i.e., Allah) tried him with (certain) commands) means, "Allah tested him with Taharah (purity, ablution): five on the head and five on the body. As for the head, they are cutting the mustache, rinsing the mouth, inhaling and discarding water, using Siwak and parting the hair. As for the body, they are trimming the nails, shaving the pubic hair, circumcision and plucking under the arm and washing with water after answering the call of nature.'' Ibn Abi Hatim said, "A similar statement was also reported from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, An-Nakha`i, Abu Salih, Abu Al-Jald, and so forth.''

 

There is a similar statement that Imam Muslim narrated from `A'ishah who said that Allah's Messenger said,

 

«ÚóÔúÑñ ãöäó ÇáúÃöØúÑóÉö: ÞóÕøõ ÇáÔøóÇÑöÈö æóÅöÚúÃóÇÃõ ÇááøöÃúíóÉö æóÇáÓøöæóÇßõ æóÇÓúÊöäúÔóÇÞõ ÇáúãóÇÃö æóÞóÕøõ ÇáúÃóÙúÃóÇÑö æóÛóÓúáõ ÇáúÈóÑóÇÌöãö æóäóÊúÃõ ÇáúÅöÈúØö æóÃóáúÞõ ÇáúÚóÇäóÉö æóÇäúÊöÞóÇÕõ ÇáúãóÇÃö æóäóÓöíÊõ ÇáúÚóÇÔöÑóÉó ÅöáøóÇ Ãóäú Êóßõæäó ÇáúãóÖúãóÖóÉ»(Ten are among the Fitrah (instinct, natural constitution): trimming the mustache, growing the beard, using Siwak, inhaling and then exhaling water (in ablution), cutting the nails, washing between the fingers (in ablution), plucking the underarm hair, shaving the pubic hair, washing with water after answering the call of nature, (and I forgot the tenth, I think it was) rinsing the mouth (in ablution).)

 

The Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,

 

«ÇáúÃöØúÑóÉõ ÎóãúÓñ: ÇáúÎöÊóÇäõ æóÇáúÇÓúÊöÃúÃóÇÃõ æóÞóÕøõ ÇáÔøóÇÑöÈö æóÊóÞúáöíãõ ÇáúÃóÙúÃóÇÑö æóäóÊúÃõ ÇáúÅöÈúØ»(Five are among the acts of Fitrah: circumcision, shaving the pubic hair, trimming the mustache, cutting the nails and plucking the underarm hair.) This is the wording with Muslim.

 

Muhammad bin Ishaq reportd that Ibn `Abbas said, "The words that Allah tested Ibrahim with, and that he implemented were: abandoning his (disbelieving) people when Allah commanded him to do so, disputing with Nimrod (king of Babylon) about Allah, being patient when he was thrown in the fire (although this was extremely traumatic) migrating from his homeland when Allah commanded him to do so, patience with the monetary and material demands of hosting guests by Allah's command, and Allah's order for him to slaughter his son. When Allah tested Ibrahim with these words, and he was ready for the major test, Allah said to him,

 

 

[ÃóÓúáöãú ÞóÇáó ÃóÓúáóãúÊõ áöÑóÈøö ÇáúÚóÜáóãöíäó]

("Submit (be a Muslim)!'' He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of all that exists. '') (2:131) although this meant defying and being apart from the people.''

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The Unjust do not qualify for Allah's Promise

 

Allah said that Ibrahim said,

 

 

[æóãöä ÃõÑøöíóÊöì]

(And of my offspring (to make leaders)) and Allah replied,

 

 

[áÇó íóäóÇáõ ÚóåúÃöí ÇáÙøóÜáöãöíäó]

(My covenant (prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers)).

 

When Allah made Ibrahim an Imam (Leader for the faithful), he asked Allah that Imams thereafter be chosen from his offspring. Allah accepted his supplication, but told him that there will be unjust people among his offspring and they will not benefit from Allah's promise. Thus, they will neither become Imams nor be imitated (for they will not be righteous). The proof that Ibrahim's supplication to Allah was accepted is that Allah said in Surat Al-`Ankabut (29:27),

 

 

[æóÌóÚóáúäóÇ Ãöì ÃõÑøöíøóÊöåö ÇáäøõÈõæøóÉó æóÇáúßöÊóÜÈó]

(And We ordained among his offspring prophethood and the Book).

 

Hence, every Prophet whom Allah sent after Ibrahim were from among his offspring, and every Book that Allah revealed was to them. As for Allah's statement,

 

 

[ÞóÇáó áÇó íóäóÇáõ ÚóåúÃöí ÇáÙøóÜáöãöíäó]

((Allah) said, "My covenant (prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers). '')

 

Allah mentioned that there are unjust people among the offspring of Ibrahim, and they will not benefit from Allah's promise, nor would they be entrusted with anything, even though they are among the children of Allah's Khalil (intimate friend, Prophet Abraham). There will also be those who do good among the children of Ibrahim, and these it is who will benefit from Ibrahim's supplication. Ibn Jarir said that this Ayah indicated that the unjust shall not be Imams for the people. Moreover, the Ayah informed Ibrahim that there will be unjust people among his offspring. Also, Ibn Khuwayz Mindad Al-Maliki said, "The unjust person does not qualify to be a Khalifah, a ruler, one who gives religious verdicts, a witness, or even a narrator (of Hadiths).''

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÌóÚóáúäóÇ ÇáúÈóíúÊó ãóËóÇÈóÉð áøöáäøóÇÓö æóÃóãúäÇð æóÇÊøóÎöÃõæÇú ãöä ãøóÞóÇãö ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ãõÕóáøðì]

(125. And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (or the stone on which Ibrahim as a place)

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The Virtue of Allah's House

 

Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÌóÚóáúäóÇ ÇáúÈóíúÊó ãóËóÇÈóÉð áøöáäøóÇÓö]

(And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind) "They do not remain in the House, they only visit it and return to their homes, and then visit it again.'' Also, Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi narrated from Ar-Rabi` bin Anas from Abu Al-`Aliyah who said that,

 

[æóÅöÃú ÌóÚóáúäóÇ ÇáúÈóíúÊó ãóËóÇÈóÉð áøöáäøóÇÓö æóÃóãúäÇð]

(And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety) means, "Safe from enemies and armed conflict. During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people were often victims of raids and kidnapping, while the people in the area surrounding it (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) were safe and not subject to kidnapping.'' Also, Mujahid, `Ata', As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas were reported to have said that the Ayah (2:125) means, "Whoever enters it shall be safe.''

 

This Ayah indicates that Allah honored the Sacred House, which Allah made as a safe refuge and safe haven. Therefore, the souls are eager, but never bored, to conduct short visits to the House, even every year. This is because Allah accepted the supplication of His Khalil, Ibrahim, when he asked Allah to make the hearts of people eager to visit the House. Ibrahim said (14:40),

 

 

[ÑóÈøóäóÇ æóÊóÞóÈøóáú ÃõÚóÂÃö]

(Our Lord! And accept my invocation).

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Allah described the House as a safe resort and refuge, for those who visit it are safe, even if they had committed acts of evil. This honor comes from the honor of the person who built it first, Khalil Ar-Rahman, just as Allah said,

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÈóæøóÃúäóÇ áÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ãóßóÇäó ÇáúÈóíúÊö Ãóä áÇøó ÊõÔúÑößú Èöì ÔóíúÆÇð]

(And (remember) when We showed Ibrahim the site of the (Sacred) House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) (saying): "Associate not anything (in worship) with Me...'') (22:26) and,

 

[Åöäøó Ãóæøóáó ÈóíúÊò æõÖöÚó áöáäøóÇÓö áóáøóÃöì ÈöÈóßøóÉó ãõÈóÇÑóßÇð æóåõÃðì áøöáúÚóÜáóãöíäó Ãöíåö ÃóÇíóÜÊñ ÈóíøöÜäóÜÊñ ãøóÞóÇãõ ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó æóãóä ÃóÎóáóåõ ßóÇäó ÃóÇãöäÇð]

(Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-`Alamin (mankind and Jinn). In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim; whosoever enters it, he attains security) (3:96-97).

 

The last honorable Ayah emphasized the honor of Ibrahim's Maqam, and the instruction to pray next to it,

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÎöÃõæÇú ãöä ãøóÞóÇãö ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ãõÕóáøðì]

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer). The Maqam of Ibrahim

 

Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr commented on the Ayah,

 

[æóÇÊøóÎöÃõæÇú ãöä ãøóÞóÇãö ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ãõÕóáøðì]

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer) "The stone (Maqam) is the standing place of Ibrahim, Allah's Prophet, and a mercy from Allah. Ibrahim stood on the stone, while Isma`il was handing him the stones (constructing the Ka`bah).''As-Suddi said, "The Maqam of Ibrahim is a stone which Isma`il's wife put under Ibrahim's feet when washing his head." Al-Qurtubi mentioned this, but he considered it unauthentic, although others gave it prefrence, Ar-Razi reported it in his Tafsir from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas.

 

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Jabir, describing the Hajj (pilgrimage) of the Prophet said, "When the Prophet performed Tawaf, `Umar asked him, `Is this the Maqam of our father' He said, `Yes.' `Umar said, `Should we take it a place of prayer' So Allah revealed,

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÎöÃõæÇú ãöä ãøóÞóÇãö ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ãõÕóáøðì]

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer.'')

 

Al-Bukhari said, "Chapter: Allah's statement,

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÎöÃõæÇú ãöä ãøóÞóÇãö ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ãõÕóáøðì]

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer) meaning, they return to it repeatedly.'' He then narrated that Anas bin Malik said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "I agreed with my Lord, or my Lord agreed with me, regarding three matters. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I wish you take the Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer.' The Ayah,

 

 

[æóÇÊøóÎöÃõæÇú ãöä ãøóÞóÇãö ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ãõÕóáøðì]

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham)) was revealed. I also said, `O Messenger of Allah! The righteous and the wicked enter your house. I wish you would command the Mothers of the believers (the Prophet's wives) to wear Hijab. Allah sent down the Ayah that required the Hijab. And when I knew that the Prophet was angry with some of his wives, I came to them and said, `Either you stop what you are doing, or Allah will endow His Messenger with better women than you are.' I advised one of his wives and she said to me, `O `Umar! Does the Messenger of Allah not know how to advise his wives, so that you have to do the job instead of him' Allah then revealed,

 

 

[ÚóÓóì ÑóÈøõåõ Åöä ØóáøóÞóßõäøó Ãóä íõÈúÃöáóåõ ÃóÒúæóÌÇð ÎóíúÑÇð ãøöäßõäøó ãõÓúáöãóÜÊò]

(It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you, Ü Muslims (who submit to Allah)).'' (66:5)

 

Also, Ibn Jarir narrated that Jabir said, "After the Messenger of Allah kissed the Black Stone, he went around the house three times in a fast pace and four times in a slow pace. He then went to Maqam of Ibrahim, with it between him and the House, and prayed two Rak`ahs.'' This is part of the long Hadith that Muslim recorded in Sahih. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Amr bin Dinar said that he heard Ibn `Umar say, "The Messenger of Allah performed Tawaf around the House seven times and then prayed two Rak`ahs behind the Maqam.''

 

All these texts indicate that the Maqam is the stone that Ibrahim was standing on while building the House. As the House's walls became higher, Isma`il brought his father a stone, so that he could stand on it, while Isma`il handed him the stones. Ibrahim would place the stones on the wall, and whenever he finished one side, he would move to the next side, to complete the building all around. Ibrahim kept repeating this until he finished building the House, as we will describe when we explain the story of Ibrahim and Isma`il and how they built the House, as narrated from Ibn `Abbas and collected by Al-Bukhari. Ibrahim's footprints were still visible in the stone, and the Arabs knew this fact during the time of Jahiliyyah. This is why Abu Talib said in his poem known as `Al-Lamiyyah', "And Ibrahim's footprint with his bare feet on the stone is still visible.''

 

The Muslims also saw Ibrahim's footprints on the stone, as Anas bin Malik said, "I saw the Maqam with the print of Ibrahim's toes and feet still visible in it, but the footprints dissipated because of the people rubbing the stone with their hands.''

 

Earlier, the Maqam was placed close to the Ka`bah's wall. In the present time, the Maqam is placed next to Al-Hijr on the right side of those entering through the door.

 

When Ibrahim finished building the House, he placed the stone next to the wall of Al-Ka`bah. Or, when the House was finished being built, Ibrahim just left the stone where it was last standing, and he was commanded to pray next to the stone when he finished the Tawaf (circumambulating). It is understandable that the Maqam of Ibrahim would stand where the building of the House ended. The Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, one of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs whom we were commanded to emulate, moved the stone away from the Ka`bah's wall during his reign. `Umar is one of the two men, whom the Messenger of Allah described when he said,

 

 

«ÇÞúÊóÃõæÇ ÈöÇááøóÃóíúäö ãöäú ÈóÚúÃöí ÃóÈöí ÈóßúÑò æóÚõãóÑ»(Imitate the two men who will come after me: Abu Bakr and `Umar.)

 

`Umar was also the person whom the Qur'an agreed with regarding praying next to Maqam of Ibrahim. This is why none among the Companions rejected it when he moved it.

 

`Abdur-Razzaq reported from Ibn Jurayj from `Ata', "`Umar bin Al-Khattab moved the Maqam back.'' Also, `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Mujahid said that `Umar was the first person who moved the Maqam back to where it is now standing.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr, Ahmad bin `Ali bin Al-Husayn Al-Bayhaqi recorded `A'ishah saying, "During the time of the Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr, the Maqam was right next to the House. `Umar moved the Maqam during his reign.'' This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration. i

 

[æóÅöÃú ÌóÚóáúäóÇ ÇáúÈóíúÊó ãóËóÇÈóÉð áøöáäøóÇÓö æóÃóãúäÇð æóÇÊøóÎöÃõæÇú ãöä ãøóÞóÇãö ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó ãõÕóáøðì æóÚóåöÃúäó Åöáóì ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó æóÅöÓúãóÜÚöíáó Ãóä ØóåøöÑóÇ ÈóíúÊöìó áöáØøóÂÆöÃöíäó æóÇáúÚóÜßöÃöíäó æóÇáÑøõßøóÚö ÇáÓøõÌõæÃö - æóÅöÃú ÞóÇáó ÅöÈúÑóåöíãõ ÑóÈøö ÇÌúÚóáú åóÜÃóÇ ÈóáóÃðÇ ÂãöäðÇ æóÇÑúÒõÞú Ãóåúáóåõ ãöäó ÇáËøóãóÑóÊö ãóäú ÃóÇãóäó ãöäúåõã ÈöÇááøóåö æóÇáúíóæúãö ÇáÇøñÎöÑö ÞóÇáó æóãóä ßóÃóÑó ÃóÃõãóÊøöÚõåõ ÞóáöíáÇð Ëõãøó ÃóÖúØóÑøõåõ Åöáóì ÚóÃóÇÈö ÇáäøóÇÑö æóÈöÆúÓó ÇáúãóÕöíÑõ - æóÅöÃú íóÑúÃóÚõ ÅöÈúÑóåöíãõ ÇáúÞóæóÇÚöÃó ãöäó ÇáúÈóíúÊö æóÅöÓúãóÜÚöíáõ ÑóÈøóäóÇ ÊóÞóÈøóáú ãöäøó Åöäøóßó ÃóäÊó ÇáÓøóãöíÚõ ÇáúÚóáöíãõ - ÑóÈøóäóÇ æóÇÌúÚóáúäóÇ ãõÓúáöãóíúäö áóßó æóãöä ÃõÑøöíøóÊöäó ÃõãøóÉð ãøõÓúáöãóÉð áøóßó æóÃóÑöäóÇ ãóäóÇÓößóäóÇ æóÊõÈú Úóáóíúäó Åöäøóßó ÃóäÊó ÇáÊøóæøóÇÈõ ÇáÑøóÃöíãõ ]

(125. And We commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma`il (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I`tikaf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer).) (126. And (remember) when Ibrahim said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.'' He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!'') (127. And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma`il were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower.'') (128. "Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik, and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.)

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The Command to purify the House

 

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that,

 

 

[æóÚóåöÃúäóÂ Åöáóì ÅöÈúÑóåöíãó æóÅöÓúãóÜÚöíáó]

(And We gave Our 'Ahd (command) to Ibrahim and Isma`il) means, "Allah ordered them to purify it from all filth and impurities, of which none should ever touch it.'' Also, Ibn Jurayj said, "I said to `Ata', `What is Allah's `Ahd' He said, `His command.''' Also, Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

 

 

[Ãóä ØóåøöÑóÇ ÈóíúÊöìó áöáØøóÂÆöÃöíäó æóÇáúÚóÜßöÃöíäó]

(that they should purify My House (the Ka`bah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I`tikaf)) "Purify it from the idols.'' Further, Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that,

 

 

[ØóåøöÑóÇ ÈóíúÊöìó áöáØøóÂÆöÃöíäó]

(purify My House for those who are circumambulating it) means, "From the idols, sexual activity, false witness and sins of all kinds.''

 

Allah said,

 

 

[áöáØøóÂÆöÃöíäó]

(for those who are performing Tawaf (circumambulating) it).

 

The Tawaf around the House is a well-established ritual, Sa`id bin Jubayr said that,

 

 

[áöáØøóÂÆöÃöíäó]

(for those who are circumambulating it) means, strangers (he means who do not live in Makkah), while;

 

 

[æóÇáúÚóÜßöÃöíäó]

(or staying (I`tikaf)) is about those who live in the area of the Sacred House. Also, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that I`tikaf is in reference to those who live in the area of the House, just as Sa`id bin Jubayr stated. Allah said,

 

 

[æóÇáÑøõßøóÚö ÇáÓøõÌõæÃö]

(or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer))

 

Ibn `Abbas said, when it is a place of prayer it includes those who are described as bowing and prostrating themselves. Also, `Ata' and Qatadah offered the same Tafsir.

 

Purifying all Masjids is required according to this Ayah and according to Allah's statement,

 

 

[Ãöì ÈõíõæÊò ÃóÃöäó Çááøóåõ Ãóä ÊõÑúÃóÚó æóíõÃúßóÑó ÃöíåóÇ ÇÓúãõåõ íõÓóÈøöÃõ áóåõ ÃöíåóÇ ÈöÇáúÛõÃõæøö æóÇáÇøñÕóÇáö ]

(In houses (Masjids) which Allah has ordered to be raised (to be cleaned, and to be honored), in them His Name is remembered (i.e. Adhan, Iqamah, Salah, invocations, recitation of the Qur'an). Therein glorify Him (Allah) in the mornings and in the (late) afternoons) (24:36).

 

There are many Hadiths that give a general order for purifying the Masjids and keeping filth and impurities away from them. This is why the Prophet said,

 

«ÅöäøóãóÇ ÈõäöíóÊö ÇáúãóÓóÇÌöÃõ áöãóÇ ÈõäöíóÊú áóå»

(The Masjids are established for the purpose that they were built for (i. e. worshipping Allah alone).)

 

I have collected a book on this subject, and all praise is due to Allah.

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Makkah is a Sacred Area

 

Allah said,

 

 

[æóÅöÃú ÞóÇáó ÅöÈúÑóåöíãõ ÑóÈøö ÇÌúÚóáú åóÜÃóÇ ÈóáóÃðÇ ÂãöäðÇ æóÇÑúÒõÞú Ãóåúáóåõ ãöäó ÇáËøóãóÑóÊö ãóäú ÃóÇãóäó ãöäúåõã ÈöÇááøóåö æóÇáúíóæúãö ÇáÇøñÎöÑö]

(And (remember) when Ibrahim said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.'')

 

Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari narrated that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

«Åöäøó ÅöÈúÑóÇåöíãó ÃóÑøóãó ÈóíúÊó Çááåö æóÃóãøóäóåõ æóÅöäøöí ÃóÑøóãúÊõ ÇáúãóÃöíäóÉó ãóÇ Èóíúäó áóÇÈóÊóíúåóÇ¡ ÃóáóÇ íõÕóÇÃõ ÕóíúÃõåóÇ æóáóÇ íõÞúØóÚõ ÚöÖóÇåõåóÇ»(Ibrahim made Allah's House a Sacred Area and a safe refuge. I have made what is between the two sides of Al-Madinah a Sacred Area. Therefore, its game should not be hunted, and its trees should not be cut.) An-Nasa'i and Muslim also recorded this Hadith.

 

There are several other Hadiths that indicate that Allah made Makkah a sacred area before He created the heavens and earth. The Two Sahihs recorded `Abdullah bin `Abbas saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

 

 

«Åöäøó åóÃóÇ ÇáúÈóáóÃó ÃóÑøóãóåõ Çááåõ íóæúãó ÎóáóÞó ÇáÓøóãóæóÇÊö æóÇáúÃóÑúÖó¡ Ãóåõæó ÃóÑóÇãñ ÈöÃõÑúãóÉö Çááåö Åöáì íóæãö ÇáúÞöíóÇãóÉö æóÅöäøóåõ áóãú íóÃöáøó ÇáúÞöÊóÇáõ Ãöíåö áöÃóÃóÃò ÞóÈúáöí æóáóãú íóÃöáøó áöí ÅöáøóÇ ÓóÇÚóÉð ãöäú äóåóÇÑò¡ Ãóåõæó ÃóÑóÇãñ ÈöÃõÑúãóÉö Çááåö Åöáì íóæúãö ÇáúÞöíóÇãóÉö áóÇ íõÚúÖóÃõ Ôóæúßõåõ æóáóÇ íõäóÃøóÑõ ÕóíúÃõåõ¡æóáóÇ íóáúÊóÞöØõ áõÞóØóÊóåõ ÅöáøóÇ ãóäú ÚóÑøóÃóåóÇ æóáóÇ íõÎúÊóáì ÎóáóÇåóÇ»

ÃóÞóÇáó ÇáúÚóÈøóÇÓõ:

 

 

«íóÇ ÑóÓõæáó Çááåö: ÅöáøÇ ÇáúÅÃúÎöÑó ÃóÅöäøóåõ áöÞóíúäöåöãú æóáöÈõíõæÊöåöãú ÃóÞóÇáó:

«ÅöáøóÇ ÇáúÅöÃúÎöÑ»(Allah has made this city a sanctuary (sacred place) the Day He created the heavens and earth. Therefore, it is a sanctuary until the Day of Resurrection because Allah made it a sanctuary. It was not legal for anyone to fight in it before me, and it was legal for me for a few hours of one day. Therefore, it is a sanctuary until the Day of Resurrection, because Allah made it a sanctuary. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs, or to chase its game, or to pick up something that has fallen, except by a person who announces it publicly, nor should any of its trees be cut.) Al-`Abbas said, `O Messenger of Allah! Except the lemon-grass, for our goldsmiths and for our graves.' The Prophet added, (Except lemon-grass.)

 

This is the wording of Muslim. The Two Sahihs also recorded Abu Hurayrah narrating a similar Hadith, while Al-Bukhari recorded a similar Hadith from Safiyyah bint Shaybah who narrated it from the Prophet .

 

Abu Shurayh Al-`Adawi said that he said to `Amr bin Sa`id while he was sending armies to Makkah, "O Commander! Let me narrate a Hadith that the Messenger of Allah said the day that followed the victory of Makkah. My ears heard the Hadith, my heart comprehended it, and my eyes saw the Prophet when he said it. He thanked Allah and praised him and then said,

 

«Åöäøó ãóßøóÉó ÃóÑøóãóåóÇ Çááåõ æóáóãú íõÃóÑøöãúåóÇ ÇáäøóÇÓõ ÃóáóÇ íóÃöáøõ áöÇãúÑöìÃò íõÄúãöäõ ÈöÇááåö æóÇáúíóæãö ÇáúÂÎöÑö Ãóäú íóÓúÃößó ÈöåóÇ ÃóãðÇ æóáóÇ íóÚúÖöÃó ÈöåóÇ ÔóÌóÑóÉð¡ÃóÅöäú ÃóÃóÃñ ÊóÑóÎøóÕó ÈöÞöÊóÇáö ÑóÓõæáö ÇááåöÕáì Çááå Úáíå æÓáøã ÃóÞõæáõæÇ: Åöäøó Çááåó ÃóÃöäó áöÑóÓõæáöåö æóáóãú íóÃúÃóäú áóßõãú¡ æóÅöäøóãóÇ ÃóÃöäó áöí ÃöíåóÇ ÓóÇÚóÉð ãöäú äóåóÇÑò æóÞóÃú ÚóÇÃóÊú ÃõÑúãóÊõåóÇ Çáúíóæãó ßóÃõÑúãóÊöåóÇ ÈöÇáúÃóãúÓö ÃóáúíõÈóáøöÛö ÇáÔøóÇåöÃõ ÇáúÛóÇÆöÈ»(Allah, not the people, made Makkah a sanctuary, so any person who has belief in Allah and the Last Day, should neither shed blood in it nor should he cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting in it is permissible on the basis that Allah's Messenger fought in Makkah, say to him, `Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.' Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the Conquest), and today its sanctity is valid as it was before. So, those who are present should inform those who are absent (concerning this fact).)

 

Abu Shurayh was asked, `What did `Amr reply' He said, (`Amr said) `O Abu Shurayh! I know better than you about this, the Sacred House does not give protection to a sinner, a murderer or a thief.' This Hadith was collected by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

 

After this, there is no contradiction between the Hadiths that stated that Allah made Makkah a sanctuary when He created the heavens and earth and the Hadiths that Ibrahim made it a sanctuary, since Ibrahim conveyed Allah's decree that Makkah is a sanctuary, before he built the House. Similarly, the Messenger of Allah was written as the Final Prophet when Adam was still clay. Yet, Ibrahim said,

 

[ÑóÈøóäóÇ æóÇÈúÚóËú Ãöíåöãú ÑóÓõæáÇð ãøöäúåõãú]

(Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own) (2: 129).

 

Allah accepted Ibrahim's supplication, although He had full knowledge beforehand that it will occur by His decree. To further elaborate on this subject, we should mention the Hadith about what the Messenger of Allah said when he was asked, "O Messenger of Allah! Tell us about how your prophethood started.'' He said,

 

 

«ÃóÚúæóÉõ ÃóÈöí ÅöÈúÑóÇåöíãó¡ Úóáóíúåö ÇáÓøóáóÇãõ¡ æóÈõÔúÑóì ÚöíÓóì ÇÈúäö ãóÑúíóãó¡ æóÑóÃóÊú Ãõãøöí ßóÃóäøóåõ ÎóÑóÌó ãöäúåóÇ äõæÑñ ÃóÖóÇÃóÊú áóåõ ÞõÕõæÑõ ÇáÔøóÇã»(I am the supplication of my father Ibrahim, the good news of Jesus, the son of Mary, and my mother saw a light that radiated from her which illuminated the castles of Ash-Sham (Syria).)

 

In this Hadith, the Companions asked the Messenger about the beginning of his prophethood. We will explain this matter later, if Allah wills.

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