By happy spirit
Voluntary charity is recommended at all times, especially when needed, and we have been encouraged to give charity in the book of Allah and the traditions of His Messenger ﷺ. For example:
- Allah’s statement: “Who is he that will lend to Allah a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times?” (al- Baqarah: 245)
- On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Whoever spends in charity the equivalent of a date from pure earnings- and Allah accepts only that which is pure- Allah will accept it with his right hand and nurture it for its owner as any of you nurtures his foal –and a foal is the offspring of a horse – until it becomes like a mountain.” [ Agreed Upon]
- The Prophet ﷺ counted the person who gives alms in secret to be among the seven that Allah will cover with His shade on the day when there will be no shade except His shade: “...and a man that gives alms and makes this secret to the extent that his left hand knows not what his right has spent.”
- On the authority of Ka’b ibn ‘Ujrah (may Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet ﷺ said: “...and alms extinguishes bad deeds just as water extinguishes fire.” [ Source: At-Tirmidhi]
By happy spirit
1- Zakah can never be given to any other than the eight categories of people mentioned, even if it is for a good and philanthropic cause e.g. the building of Mosques, schools, hospitals, and other charitable causes which are eligible for alms.
2- It is not a condition to cover all of the eight categories mentioned; rather, it suffices if any of them is given the Zakah.
By happy spirit
Measure of Zakat Al-Fitr
A Sa’[ One sa: 2.40kg barley] is to be paid for every individual, and it has to be from man’s food e.g. rice, dates, wheat, in accordance with the hadith of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: “We used to pay on the day of Fitr during the time of the Messenger of Allah a Sa’ of food” and he (Abu Sa’eed) said: “And our foods were barley, raisins, (cottage) cheese[ Aqit: dried, curled milk (cottage cheese) used in cooking] and dates.” [ Source: Al Bukhari]
Sa’ is estimated by Hanafis as = 3.25 kgs, and for the majority of scholars as = 2.040 kgs
It is also estimated as four handfuls of an average sized man.
By happy spirit
The person who withholds Zakah is the one who withholds Zakah either by denying its obligation[ Denying: i.e. by refuting its obligation] or by being stingy:
1- A person withholding Zakah through denial
Anybody who denies the obligation of Zakah has disbelieved in the totality of Islam according to the consensus of the Ummah, if he has been informed about its obligation: this is because he/she has belied Allah and His Messenger.
2- A person withholding Zakah through stinginess
Who withholds his Zakah due to stinginess, but not due to a denial of its obligation, Zakah should be taken from him by force, and he is not considered as having become an unbeliever, although he has committed one of the great sins and a tremendous (very grave) act. This is in accordance with the Prophet’s statement ﷺ concerning the person withholding Zakah: “Every owner of either gold or silver who does not pay his due will be called to account on the Day of Ressurection and plates of fire will be prepared for him. These plates are then heated over the raging flames of Hell Fire (Jahannam)...., whenever they become cold, the process is repeated all over again. This happens on a day that measures fifty thousand (50,000) years, until all the servants have been judged. Afterward, he will be shown his fate – either Heaven or Hell.” [ Source: Muslim]
Furthermore while still alive, if one refuses point blank to pay Zakah, he has to be fought until he succumbs to the order of Allah Almighty and pays Zakah. Allah Almighty says: “However if they repent and perform as-Salat and give Zakah, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (At-Taubah: 5)
The Prophet ﷺ said: “ I have been ordered to wage war against men until they bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and observe as-Salat, and pay Zakah; when they have done these, then their blood and property are safe from me (i.e. not to be touched), except if the right of Islam is at stake, and their judgment lies only with Allah.”[ Agreed Upon]
Abu Bakr indeed waged war against those who withheld Zakah, saying: “By Allah, I would definitely fight against him who makes a difference between prayer and Zakat, for it is the obligation upon the rich; and by Allah, if they were to withhold a camel-cord which they used to pay (as Zakah) to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, I will fight them for withholding it.” [ Source: Muslim]
By happy spirit
Conditions Necessitating Zakah on Grains and Fruits
1- It should be stored goods
If it is not something which is stored, but used for daily consumption, no Zakah is payable on such. This is because the money value of unstored produce cannot be realized due to the inability of benefitting from such financially.
2- It should be measurable in Wasqs
It should be among the products that are usually weighed in Wasqs. Wasqs are units of measure. This is drawn from the Prophet’s statement ﷺ: “There is no Zakah on grains or dates until such items weigh five Wasqs[ One Wasq: Sixty Sa’].” [ Source: Muslim]
If it is not part of that which is usually weighed (in Wasqs) e.g. vegetables and herbs, then Zakah is not due on it.
3- It should be grown for the purpose of cultivation and production on agriculture farms:
However, Zakat is not due on subsistence farms.
4- It should reach the amount of the Nisab,
which is five Wasqs, as evidenced from the Prophet’s statement ﷺ: “There is no Zakah on grains or dates until such items weigh five Wasqs.” [ Source: Muslim] The Nisab in this case is three hundred Prophetic Sa’, which is equivalent to 612kg of good quality wheat. One has to mix variants of the same fruit for the same year in order to see if they add up to the Nisab. For example, sugary dates are mixed with barhi types because they are variants of the same fruit. A different grain/fruit, however, is not mixed with another when calculating the Nisab. Wheat, for instance, is not mixed with barley, nor is barley with dates (and so on).