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[Reference] Prophet (S)'s Last Sermon

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The Prophet's Final Sermon






After praising and lauding Allah as was appropriate, the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam) said, the meaning of which is:


"To proceed:


"[O people, listen attentively to me for I do not know if I will ever meet you again after this year, in this place.]"(1) [A man, tall like the people of Shanu'ah, stood and asked, 'So what should we do?' He replied, "Worship your Lord, pray your five daily prayers, fast the month (of Ramadan), perform Hajj to the House, give your zakat without any reluctance, [obey those placed in charge over you],(2) and you shall enter the Paradise of your Lord."](3)


"O people, all blood debts of the jahiliyyah are made null and void; the first blood debt so rendered is that of ibn Rabi`ah ibn al-Harith - who was suckled among the Banu Layth and killed by Hudhayl.


"All usury of the jahiliyyah is abolished and the first such usury that I shall abolish is that of al-`Abbas ibn `Abdu'l-Muttalib. [Your capital is your own; "do not do wrong and you will not be wronged."(4)](5)


"O people, time has revolved as is its fashion since the day Allah created the heavens and the earth. The number of the months with Allah is twelve, of which four are sacred, these are Rajab of (Banu) Mudar that is between Jumada and Sha'ban, [and three which are consecutive:](6) Dhu'l-Qa`dah, Dhu'l-Hijjah and al-Muharram. "That is the true and upright religion; do not wrong yourselves in them."(7) "Intercalation therein is an increase in disbelief; by it those who disbelieve are led astray. One year they make it profane and another year they make it sacred in order to tally (ostensibly) with the number that Allah made sacred."(8) One year they would make Safar profane and another they would make Muharram sacred. One year they would make Safar sacred and another they would make Muharram profane. This is intercalation (nasi`) [and it is from Shaytan].(9)


"O people, those having deposits should award them to those who entrusted them with them.


"[Woe to you! Be careful!](10) [You will meet your Lord and He will ask you about your deeds so](11) [do not revert to becoming unbelievers after me, striking the necks of one another. Shaytan has despaired that those who pray will worship Him, but not so in sowing dissension amongst you].(12)


"O people, Shaytan has despaired of being worshipped in your land till the end of time. Yet he may be pleased with you by your doing acts that you think insignificant. Beware of (harming) your religion through such acts [for he shall be obeyed in these and shall be pleased].(13) [Therefore beware of him (lest he harm) your religion].(14)


"O people, [fear Allah with regards women and](15) [treat them well for they](16) are as captives with you.(17) You took them as a trust from Allah and you are permitted access to their sexual organs by Allah's word. You have rights over them and they have rights over you. One of the rights you have over them is that they not allow others besides yourselves to set foot on your furnishings [and that they do not give permission to anyone you dislike entering your homes].(18) And they should not disobey you in that which is good. If they so obey, then you have no right to (chastise them). They are due their food and their clothing in kindness. [if you fear those of them who are fractious, then admonish them and refuse to sleep with them in bed,(19) and](20) if you strike (them), then do so without viciousness.


"[Listen well to me and live! Do not do wrong! Do not do wrong! Do not do wrong!](21) [The (requital) of a transgression should not be meted to any save the transgressor. The father should not transgress against his son and the son should not transgress against his father.](22) [Know that every Muslim is a brother to another Muslim and that the Muslims are brothers, therefore](23) no man should have access to his brother's wealth, unless with his goodwill.


"O people, I have left among you that with which, if you adopt it, you will not go astray, the Book of Allah [and the Sunnah of his Prophet];(24) live by it.


"[O people, of a surety, your Lord is one and your father is one. Of a surety, the Arab is not superior to a non-Arab, neither a non-Arab to an Arab, neither a red-skinned person to a black-skinned person and neither a black-skinned person to a red-skinned person, except through taqwa].(25)


"O people, what day is this?" They replied, 'A sacrosanct day.' He asked, "What land is this?" They replied, 'A sacrosanct land.' He asked, "What month is this?" They replied, 'A sacrosanct month.' He said, "Allah has made your blood, your possessions and your honour sacrosanct, just as this day in this land and this month are sacrosanct [until you meet your Lord]."(26) [And he repeated this over and over].(27)


"Let those of you who are present inform those who are absent, [for perhaps the absent would retain more than some of those present].(28) There will be no prophet after me and no nation after you." [Then he raised his head and said],(29) ["Have I not conveyed (the message)? Have I not conveyed (the message)? Have I not conveyed (the message)?](30)" [They said, 'Yes!'](31) He then raised his hands and said [three times],(32) "O Allah! Bear witness [that I have conveyed (the message)!](33)"(34)


(1) Ibn Hisham, Sirah #1999

(2) Ibn Hibban #4563

(3) Ahmad #22260. cf. Ahmad 22161-22258

(4) al-Baqarah 2:279

(5) Ahmad #20695, `Abd ibn Humayd #856

(6) Bukhari #4406-5550-7447, Muslim #1679

(7) al-Tawbah 9:36

(8) al-Tawbah 9:37

(9) `Abd ibn Humayd #856

(10) Bukhari #4403

(11) Ahmad #20386, Bukhari #4406-5550-7447, Muslim #1679

(12) Ahmad #20695. cf. Ahmad #14366 and Muslim #2812

(13) Tirmidhi #2159

(14) Ibn Hisham, Sirah #1999

(15) Ahmad #20695

(16) Tirmidhi #1163-3087

(17) i.e. bound by the contract and rules of marriage, and the duties of being a wife.

(18) Ahmad #20695, Tirmidhi #1163-3087

(19) cf. al-Nisa' 4:34

(20) Ahmad #20695

(21) Ahmad #20695

(22) Tirmidhi #2159-3087

(23) Ibn Hisham, Sirah #1999. cf. Tirmidhi #3087

(24) Ibn Hisham, Sirah #1999

(25) Ahmad #23489. cf. Ahmad #8736-17313-21407

(26) Muslim #1679

(27) Bukhari #1739

(28) Bukhari #4406-5550-7447, Muslim #1679. cf. Bukhari #7078

(29) Bukhari #1739

(30) Ahmad #20695

(31) Ahmad #20407, Bukhari #4403-7087, Muslim #1679

(32) Bukhari #4403, `Abd ibn Humayd #856

(33) `Abd ibn Humayd #856

(34) The source narration is that of Bazzar #1141 (Kashfu'l-Astar) as quoted in ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa'l-Nihayah, vol. 7, pp. 652-653. It is also found in `Abd ibn Humayd #856.

The translation of the source hadith was taken from Trevor Le Gassick's translation to ibn Kathir, Life of the Prophet Muhammad, vol. 4, pp. 291-292 and modified where necessary.

Although the chains of narration are weak, the hadith is authentic due to supporting witnesses.

Sections of the hadith are found scattered amongst various books of hadith such as:

-Bukhari #67-105-1741-3197-4407-4662-5550-7078-7447, 1742-4403-6043-6166-6785-6868-7077, 1739-7079

-Muslim #1679

-Tirmidhi #1163-2159-3087

-Abu Dawud #1947-1948

-Ahmad #11762-20386-20387-20407-20419-20449-20453-20461-20498-20695

-Bazzar #3615-3617

and many more.




Edited by Saracen21stC

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    • By sanajamal
      From the very beginning, historians and writers of Seerah have differed on the date of birth of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم. There are disagreements even for the ‘year’ of birth of Prophet Muhammadصلى الله عليه وسلم so, naturally we have different views regarding his ‘month’ of birth and ‘date’ of birth. Considering the fact that a wide majority of the historians have mentioned the ‘month’ to be Rabi ul awwal, one can safely assume that the month was Rabi ul awwal. Furthermore, it is proven from Authentic Narrations that his ‘day’ of birth was ‘Monday’.
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      8th Rabi ul Awwal: Ibn al Qayyim, ibn e Hazm, Az Zuhri , Ibn e Dihya
      9th Rabi ul Awwal : Muhammad Suleman Mansurpuri, Mubarakpuri , Shibli Nomani, Mahmud Pasha Falaki, Akbar Shah Najeeb Abadi, Moeen ud din Ahmed Nadvi, Abul Kalam Azad
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      22nd Rabi ul Awwal: Also attributed to ibn e Hazm
      10th Muharram: Abdul Qadir Jilani
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