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Mutations, Mechanism Of Evolution /darwinism ?!

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DNA:
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule encoding the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses. Along with RNA and proteins, DNA is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Genetic information is encoded as a sequence of nucleotides (guanine, adenine, thymine, and cytosine) recorded using the letters G, A, T, and C. Most DNA molecules are double-stranded helices, consisting of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, molecules with backbones made of alternating sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups (related to phosphoric acid), with the nucleobases (G, A, T, C) attached to the sugars. During protein synthesis, DNA is transcribed into RNA and then translated to produce proteins.
Chromosome.gif

But an error in a single letter in that sequence may damage the
entire structure. The leukemia observed in children appears because one
of the letters in the DNA is incorrect.

The reason for diseases such as cancer appearing or subsequent
generations being deformed as a result of the radiation leakage in
Chernobyl of the atom bomb dropped over Hiroshima is harmful effects of
this kind caused by mutations in people’s bodies.

--------------------------------------

What are mutations ?

A gene mutation is defined as an alteration in the sequence ofnucleotides in DNA. This change can affect a single nucleotide pair orlarger gene segments of a chromosome. DNA consists of a polymer of

nucleotides joined together. Altering nucleotide sequences most often results in nonfunctioning proteins. Mutations cause changes in the genetic code that lead to genetic variation and the potential to develop disease.
 
Types of mutations:below

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Mechanism of evolution ?
 
The reasons why mutations cannot support evolutionist claims may be summarized under these main headings:      
    

1. Mutations are mostly harmful.

Since they occur at random, they always damage living things. Logically, any unconscious intervention in a perfect and complex structure will damage it, rather than causing it to develop.

Dr. Grassé says that in the case of evolution, the problem is that "some contemporary biologists, as soon as they observe a mutation, talk about evolution." In his view, this opinion does not agree with the facts because "no matter how numerous they may be, mutations do not produce any kind of evolution."

 

Imagine a computer programmer engaged in writing a software when on computer and a book falls on his keyboard, striking a few keys and inserting random letters and numbers into the text. A mutation is something like this. Just as such an accident would contribute nothing to the computer program—in fact, it would ruin it—so mutations vandalize the genetic code.

To believe that they produced the extraordinarily complex genetic codes of the millions of different species is like believing that books falling randomly onto a computer keyboard have written millions of encyclopedias!

 

In Natural Limits to Biological Change, Lester and Bohlin write that "mutations are mistakes, errors in the precise machinery of DNA replication" which means "mutations, genetic variation, and recombination by themselves will not generate major evolutionary change."


    "Mutations will be capable only of modifying what already exists, usually in a meaningless or deleterious way. That is not to say that beneficial mutation is prohibited; unexpected maybe, but not impossible. A beneficial mutation is simply one that makes it possible for its possessors to contribute more offspring to future generations than do those creatures that lack the mutation. . . But these mutations have nothing to do with changing one kind of organism into another. . .


    In this regard, Darwin called attention to the wingless beetles of Madeira. For a beetle living on a windy island, wings can be a definite disadvantage. Mutations causing the loss of flight are definitely
beneficial. Similar would be the case of sightless cavefish. Eyes are quite vulnerable to injury, and a creature that lives in total darkness would benefit from mutations reducing their vulnerability.
While these mutations produce a drastic and beneficial change, it is important to notice that they always involve loss, never gain. One never observes wings or eyes being produced in species that did not previously possess them.
"

 

Darwinists maintain that species emerge from one another through structures and organs appearing as a result of countless fictitious and beneficial mutations.

The American geneticist B.G. Ranganathan explains:

'Most mutations are harmful since they are random, rather than orderly changes in the structure of genes; any random change in a highly ordered system will be for the worse, not for the better. For example, if an earthquake were to shake a highly ordered structure such as a building, there would be a random change in the framework of the building, which, in all probability, would not be an improvement.'


The evolutionist scientist Warren Weaver said the following about a report prepared by the Committee on Genetic Effects of Atomic Radiation, set up to examine the mutations arising as a result of nuclear weapons in the wake of the Second World War:


'Many will be puzzled about the statement that practically all known mutant genes are harmful. For mutations are a necessary part of the process of evolution. How can a good effect - evolution to higher forms of life - result from mutations, practically all of which are harmful?'


evrimacmazi2_118a.jpg
These photographs show some of the damaging effects of mutation on the human body.

A process that cripples individuals or leaves them ill cannot, of course, give rise to any progress.


In a scientific paper, David Demick, an American pathologist, wrote this to say about mutations:

'Literally thousands of human diseases associated with genetic mutations have been
catalogued in recent years, with more being described continually. A recent reference book of medical genetics listed some 4,500 different genetic diseases. Some of the inherited syndromes characterized clinically in the days before molecular genetic analysis (such as Marfan's syndrome) are now being shown to be heterogeneous; that is, associated with many different mutations.


With this array of human diseases that are caused by mutations, what of positive effects? With thousands of examples of harmful mutations readily available, surely it should be possible to describe some positive mutations if macroevolution is true. These would be needed not only for evolution to greater complexity, but also to offset the downward pull of the many harmful mutations. But, when it comes to identifying positive mutations, evolutionary scientists are strangely silent.'(David Demick, "The Blind Gunman," Impact, No. 308, February 1999)


DNA Repair


Research has revealed that there are protective elements in the cell that prevent genetic errors arising.


God has designed a number of DNA repair systems and proofreaders (enzymes), each to take on different repair problems. For example, there are enzymes involved with mismatch excision repair (MMR) that recognize wrongly paired bases, and nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is a universal "cut and patch" repair mechanism. NER operates to remove the mistake — called a lesion — and fill in the gap with new DNA. One may liken this to a dentist drilling out decay and replacing the hole with a filling (the "filling" in DNA repair is a functional nucleotide). There are also tiny molecular motors (see "Origins Issues," Acts & Facts, April 2004) called helicases (e.g., DnaB helicase and other multimeric motors) that literally unwind DNA from the normal double-stranded state into two single strands. Helicases accomplish this by rapidly breaking
hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides (the "ladder rungs" portion of the molecule) in a manner somewhat like the way inchworms move. Other specially designed enzymes must immediately keep the two single strands apart once they are separated. From there, efficient repair of the DNA continues. Occasionally this amazing repair mechanism fails — as all of our systems eventually do — and a permanent alteration or change in that portion of the DNA results. This is called a mutation. Of course, mutations in critical areas can be deadly to an organism.(Sherwin, F. 2004. Mending Mistakes—The Amazing Ability of Repair. Acts & Facts. 33 (6).)



Pierre Paul Grassé, who spent 30 years as professor of evolution at the Sorbonne, wrote this on the subject:

'The probability of dust carried by the wind reproducing Dürer’s “Melancholia” is less infinitesimal than the probability of copy errors in the DNA molecules leading to the formation of the eye.'


2. No new genetic information can be added to DNA as a result of mutation.

The components of the genetic information are removed and dismantled, damaged or carried to other locations in the DNA. Yet mutations can never cause a living thing to acquire a new organ or attribute.


It is therefore impossible for a brand new organ or characteristic that did not exist before to appear by chance as the result of mutations. Mutations have no power to bestow new information on a life form that does not belong to it, or to turn it into a different organism.


3. For a mutation to be transmitted to a subsequent generation, it must take place in the reproductive germ cells or their precursors.


No change arising in any other cell of the body can be passed along to later generations. For example, an embryo's eye may depart from its original form by being subjected to radiation and other similar effects, but this mutation will not manifest itself in subsequent generations.

 


4. The Infinite Amount of Time Needed for Hypothetical Beneficial Mutations


Even if we assume that mutations were effective and beneficial in complex organs and structures requiring more than one mutation to occur at the same time, mathematicians still say the problem of time is an acute dilemma for Darwinists.


The evolutionist George G. Simpson has performed another calculation regarding the mutation claim in question.


He admitted that in a community of 100 million individuals we assume to produce a new generation every day, a positive outcome from mutations would only take place once every 274 billion years. That number is many times greater the age of the Earth, estimated at 4.5 billion years. (Nicholas Comninellis, Creative Defense Evidence Against Evolution, Master Books, 2001, p. 81)

http://evolutiondeceit.com/en/books/4159/Once-Upon-A-Time-There-Was-Darwinism/chapter/4736/Once-the-origin-of-species-was-thought-to-lie-in-speciation
http://evolutiondece...inary_Mechanism

http://evolutiondece..._is_a_falsehood

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Types of mutations:

Point Mutations(Single base substitutions)

The most common type of gene mutation. this type of mutation changes a single nucleotide base pair. Point mutations , if occured in protein regions, can be categorized into three types:

  • Silent Mutation: Although a change in the DNA sequence occurs, this type of mutation does not change the protein that is to be produced. This is because multiple genetic codons can encode for the same amino acid. Amino acids are coded for by three nucleotide sets called codons. For example, the amino acid arginine is coded for by several DNA codons including CGT, CGC, CGA, and CGG (A = adenine, T = thymine, G = guanine and C = cytosine). If the DNA sequence CGC is changed to CGA, the amino acid arginine will still be produced.
    dis_singlemutations.gif

  • Missense Mutation: This type of mutation alters the nucleotide sequence so that a different amino acid is produced. This change alters the resulting protein. The change may not have much effect on the protein, may be beneficial to protein function, or may be dangerous. Using our previous example, if the codon for arginine CGC is changed to GGC, the amino acid glycine will be produced instead of arginine. This is what happens in sickle cell anaemia.

 

dis_missensemutations2.gif

  • Nonsense Mutation: This type of mutation alters the nucleotide sequence so that a stop codon is coded for in place of an amino acid. A stop codon signals the end of the translation process and stops protein production. If this process is ended too soon, the amino acid sequence is cut short and the resulting protein is most always nonfunctional. Nonsense mutations occur in between 15% to 30% of all inherited diseases including cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, retinitis pigmentosa and duchenne muscular dystrophy.

dis_nonsensemutations.gif

 

Insertions and deletions



dis_frameshiftmutations.gif
Frameshift mutation, in the second codon the deletion of 'c' leads to a
shift in reading frame and multiple amino acid substitutions in the
subsequent protein.

Extra base pairs may be added or deleted from the DNA of a gene. The number of bases can range from a few to thousands. Insertions and deletions of one or two bases or multiples of one or two cause frameshifts (shift the reading frame). These can have devastating effects because the mRNA is translated in new groups of three nucleotides and the protein being produced may be useless.

Insertions and deletions of 3 or multiples of three bases may be less serious because they preserve the open reading frame. However, a number of trinucleotide repeat diseases exist including Huntingtons disease and fragile X syndrome.


Chromosomal mutations

Types_of_mutation.jpg
A chromosome mutation is any change in the structure or arrangement of the chromosomes. Mutations to chromosomes happen most frequently during the crossing over stage of meiosis.
There are many different types of mutation that can change the chromosome structure resulting in detrimental changes to the genotype and phenotype of the organism. Chromosomal mutations effecting essential parts of the DNA can result in the abortion of the foetus before birth.
 

  • Translocations
    - Translocations are the transfer of a piece of one chromosome to a non-homologous chromosome. They are often reciprocal, with the two chromosomes swapping segments with each other.
    In most cases of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), the leukaemic cells share a chromosomal abnormality known as Philadelphia chromosome.
    This abnormality is the result of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. An abnormal hybrid gene is created leading to the production of a novel protein that is not normally found in the cell. This protein prevents normal growth and development, leading to leukaemia.

  • Inversion
    - A region of DNA on the chromosome can flip its orientation with respect to the rest of the chromosome.

  • Deletions
    - A large section of a chromosome can be deleted resulting in the loss of a number of genes.

  • Duplications
    - In this mutation, some genes are duplicated and displayed twice on the same chromosome.

  • Chromosome non-disjunction
    - During cell division, the chromosomes fail to successfully separate to opposite poles, resulting in one of the daughter cells having an extra chromosome and the other daughter cell lacking one.
    If this non-disjunction occurs in chromosome 21 of a human egg cell, a condition called Downs syndrome (DS) occurs. A person suffering with DS has 47 chromosomes in every cell instead of the normal 46. They suffer from heart defects, mental retardation and stunted growth. However, it must be pointed out that the distributions of IQs of people with DS overlaps considerably with the IQ distribution of 'normal' (non-DS) population, mainly due to changes in education policy in the last 30 years.

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/2can/disease/genes5.html

http://biology.about.com/od/basicgenetics/ss/gene-mutation.htm

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    • By Absolute truth
      This topic is for miscellaneous darwinism-related information in sha Allah..
       
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      "... the evidence supporting descent with modification ... is both overwhelming and compelling."
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      Define evolution !

      Evolutionists usually define their theory as 'change over time', 'descent with modification', or 'the change of allele frequencies of a population over time'. But these definitions are oversimplified.
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      'the idea that all life has descended from a single common ancestor over millions of years via a net gain in new genetic information'.

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      - Black rat (Rattus rattus) , but not all of them have 46


      - Merriam’s ground squirrel (Spermophilus canus)


      - Southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis)

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      - Mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa)

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