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Basics Of Computers And Terminology

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I was thinking we could help newbies of computers by putting up unfamiliar words and Terminogy and stuff related to the computer genre.

 

Jazakaalaah

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bits and bytes: different but related terms..

 

8bits = 1byte

 

these are terms used to relate the size of some piece of information in the computer/digital world..

 

some examples -->

 

dialup internet 56kbps == 56 kilo bits per second

 

802.11b wi-fi 11Mbps == 11 Mega bits per second

 

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More useful information..

 

MHz and GHz dont mean everything. When buying a computer system looking at the raw speed numbers is not everything, if this is the only criteria to buy the fastest machine, the purchase and the customer are not wise. There are more than just MHz numbers we should be looking at to determine a fast computer.

 

Starting off with the motherboard and chipset of the pc. If you are buying a pc from a big chainstore, chances are they use cheap motherboards with very horrible performance wise chipset and this will impede the performance of the pc big time but most people dont know this. The motherboard and chipset should be good ones, read reviews and do online searches on this before buying. The motherboard is what connects everything in the pc to everything else therefore we should start with this.

 

The hard drive rotation speed is important criteria. 7200rpm standard now and higher rotation speeds are good and anything slower speeds like 5400rpm should not be purchased.. however if heat dissipation is a concern such as laptops then we dont really have a choice.

 

Good graphics card is important too for the smooth display of graphics on your monitor screen. And memory of the card is important too.. 32MB, 64MB etc should be looked at. Also there are stripped down versions of cards flying in the market: these should be avoided at all costs hahaha!! 1 example comes to mind is the ATi Radeon 9200 which boasts impressive numbers but in practise it is very poor performer. A Radeon 9500, 9600, 9700, 9800 are much much better choices. Also look for the pro and lite versions of cards: manufacturers use a lot of terms to describe their products and we have to know which is which and what is good not good. The Intel Extreme graphics is anything but! Be warned!!!

 

more info to come..

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Alhamdulillah you are a most contributor doomhammer, Allah be pleased with you always! :D

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more info contd..

 

Going back to hard drives, the new standard now is something called SATA or Serial ATA and it promises speed in excess of 150Mbps but i'm critical on this as how much it will do in real life. What i've noticed since way back in the day is that manufacturers say one thing but the product they deliver rarely lives up to the hype. Anyways when looking for new hard drives look for the SATA type not the older UDMDA133 or ATA133: these are fine also but old and new technology here :D

 

Lets have a look at optical drives now: The newest ones in the market are the DVD rewriter drives and there are different manufacturers. Read the reviews on websites before buying a DVD rewriter drive as there are lots of specifications out there and it gets really confusing.

 

Buy a good quality power supply with your tower unit. Dont cheap out here because this power supply is what provides DC electricity to all your components and if the DC is not within specs, your parts will be damaged. The good power supplies have 2 exhaust fans etc and they last longer too. Antec, Enermax come to mind although there are other good manufacturers out there too.

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:D

bits and bytes: different but related terms..

8bits = 1byte

these are terms used to relate the size of some piece of information in the computer/digital world..

Basics Of Computers And Terminology, For those Beginners!

>>>8 bits = 00000000

bit number:________1 and so on all the way to the left:

bit number:_8

value:

00000000 = 0

00000001 = 1

00000010 = 2

00000011 = 3

 

who knows: 11111111 = ?

 

16 bits = 0000000000000000

>>>>>> 6543210987654321

>>>>>> 1111111

 

where:

>>>>>> 6

>>>>>> 1

means 16 ( :D did i make it exactly 16 zeroes ? )

 

what if 32 bits ?

 

Allahu a'lam wa bishshowab.040915anj.gif[/url]

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more info contd..

 

Lets jump back to CPUs for a bit. As we all know the 2 main manufacturers here are AMD and Intel. Now i'm sure all of you must have heard some next story about AMD cpus crashing and burning the whole pc along with the house and costing billions of $ worth of damage and hence to stay away from these pcs.. right! the truth couldn't be farther!! haha... sad!

 

Brief history lesson: back in the day like early 90s a small relatively unknown company by the name of AMD started selling cpus which were at best average in performance and couldn't be stacked up against the imperial forces of Intel.. as you may recall at this time the computer revolution was in full swing and many first time buyers were in the market for new pcs and since naturally AMDs at that point were cheaper, majority of people opted to go this way and then realized these were not good cpus! and rightly justified too.. the cpus were horrible, had heating problems and couldn't beat comparable Intel cpus at same MHz!

 

All that changed with the K6 and then the Athlon killed the competetion from Intel! Holy!! this was a HUGE victory for AMD. Their Athlon cpus were not only killing Intel but murdering sales and all that.. This was BIG NEWS.. AMD 1.0GHz were beating Intel P3 1.0GHz by a FAIR margin in terms of calulations and such.. these were VERY popular in the gaming community!!

 

Anywayz fast forward to now and AMD is a GREAT company now and you will not be short changing yourself if you go this way! I myself own an 1800+ and 2400+ and couldn't be happier..

 

Bottome line guys its not all about MHz rating! I cannot stress this point nuff.. look for example at an older AMD Athlon XP 1800+ which true speed is 1.5GHz but it is comparable to a 1.8GHz processor and rightly so.. i mean not in each and every single aspect but in majority of applications this slower speed cpu will be equal or greater to a 1.8GHz cpu. An AMD 2400+ cpu whos true speed is 1.8GHz ~ 2.0GHz varies is comparable to a 2.4GHz cpu.. and this cpu also delivers with flying colours!

 

Here is one link you can have a look at "you can't post links until you reach 50 posts_www.infopackets(contact admin if its a beneficial link)/freenewsarticles/amd+vs+intel__a+comparison+beteen+celeron+pentium+and+athlonprocessors.htm"]you can't post links until you reach 50 posts_www.infopackets(contact admin if its a beneficial link)/freenewsarticle...+processors.

tm[/url]

 

Here is another "you can't post links until you reach 50 posts_www.hardcoreware(contact admin if its a beneficial link)/reviews/review-81-1.htm"]you can't post links until you reach 50 posts_www.hardcoreware(contact admin if its a beneficial link)/reviews/review-81-1.htm[/url]

 

The numbers speak for themselves :D so make right choice and go AMD :D

 

more to come..

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contd..

 

Home Networking

 

So you got more than 1 pc now want to share your pcs and the internet connection among all of them.. nice idea! you have a few options at your disposal. We shall look at 2 of them here namely the wired and the wireless.. both have their disadvantages and advantages: the choice is yours!

 

Wired Network

 

Traditionally we had the old 10Mbit network using ethernet cables the old ISA network cards (NICs).. then came the faster 100Mbit network and things were all fine until a few years ago when 1000Mbit network was introduced! Nobody hardly uses the old 10Mbit network anymore these days its mostly 100Mbit and just now the 1000Mbit network has started creeping into our houses.

 

All you need are network cables that support the speeds, Network cards on your machines, perhaps a cable/dsl router or hub/switch and you are set. I will not get into details on how to set it up as there are numerous tutorials available on the web, however i will point out the relative speeds of transfer and such.

 

10Mbit = 1.25 MB/s *remember 8bits = 1byte**

100Mbit = 12.5 MB/s

1000Mbit = 125 MB/s

 

But those are theoretical best numbers while in practise, it is found that up to 80% of the advertized speeds can be achieved.. therefore now the relative speeds will be as follows:

 

10Mbit = practically speaking 80% = 1 MB/s

100Mbit = practically speaking 80% = 10 MB/s

1000Mbit = practically speaking 80% = 100 MB/s

 

However in my experience i've found the real numbers to be even lower than the practical ones.

 

What does this mean for the average user?? == means they can transfer files between their home pcs at lightning fast speeds!!! look at the numbers they are pretty decent for a home network.

 

Advatage: Thus we can see, the real advantage of a wired network is speed of operation.

 

Disadvantage: Linked directly to speed, we can see the obvious disadvantage is mobility.. we are stuck to one place or a limited number of places to move with the computers.. since we are dealing with cables and wires we are not free to roam around with our computers as we please.

 

Wireless Network

 

Here we see the need for wireless networking. Basically where the old previous 10/100/1000 networks failed were for mobility this is where wireless comes in to supplement such needs.

 

In order to setup a wireless network you need a wireless cable/dsl router along with wireless pci / pcmcia / usb wireless cards for your computers. Setting this up is a bit more challenging than a regular wired network.

 

Speed of operation of a wireless network are modest compared to the old wired network. We have the IEEE 802.11b or Wi-Fi as its called which was introduced many years ago with a maximum speed of 11Mbps, then later we were introduced to the IEEE 802.11g which boosts the transfer speed to 54Mbps and now i'm seeing the extreme editions of these to 108Mbps which i will take with grain of salt: explain later.

 

Hence comparing the speeds we can see now how fast a wireless network really is:

 

11 Mbps = 1.37 MB/s

54 Mbps = 6.75 MB/s

108 Mbps = 13.5 MB/s

 

Remember 8bits = 1byte and the 80% practical rule we see this:

 

11 Mbps = 1.37 MB/s = ~1 MB/s

54 Mbps = 6.75 MB/s = 5.4 MB/s

108 Mbps = 13.5 MB/s = ~11 MB/s

 

In reality I have experiened much worse performance numbers than those stated here. Here we can see the real disadvantage of a wireless network and that is the speed bites hahaha so to speak!! This is also where we see the advantage of this and that is mobility!! I will confess it is really cool that you can be on your couch with laptop on your tummy chatting away but hahaha.. truth be told i think we are still a few years away from when wireless networks become practical. I experienced frequent connection drops and page not found errors and was not happy.

 

more to come..

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:D

 

wow more than 1 month since last reply!

 

others plz feel free to contribute your ideas :D

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Assalam-u-alaikum

 

I have given up, it seems you are the only useful contributor here...

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asalamu alaikum

 

Brother, why not make life easy for yourself. Go see my friend "you can't post links until you reach 50 posts_www.google(contact admin if its a beneficial link)"]Google[/url]. He'll help you with all you need.

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:D

 

 

OS = Operating system, all computers have a massive program called an operating system which manages programs, memory and the like. An example of this is Windows xp.

 

BIOS = Stands for basic input output system, when you first start your computer up the BIOS runs up and checks the memory, and the hardware in some computers, then all it does is load the OS, to put it simply, the BIOS is that black screen before your OS loads up.

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:D

 

RAM = random access memory, this information is vital to the computer and is stored even when your computer is turned off, so when you turn your computer on, your computer "remembers" what to do by checking the RAM and running BIOS

This type of memory is non volatile (correct if i am wrong)

 

ROM = dunno what it stands for but this is memory that is lost if you turn your pc off, so that would be like games or stuff.

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ROM = dunno what it stands for but this is memory that is lost if you turn your pc off, so that would be like games or stuff.

 

ROM = Read Only Memory

 

It is not lost when pc is turned off!

 

Example of ROM ==>> your BIOS..

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